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Prokopenko O. Consumer motivation in achieving sustainable development // Social and Economic Potential of Sustainable Development / Edited by L. Hens and L. Melnyk. – Sumy: “University Book”, Russian version of the textbook is recommended as a textbook by the Ministry of Science of Ukraine, the letter № 14/18–Г–418 від 22.02.07, ISBN 978–966–680–380–4, 2008. – P. 264–268.
Consumer motivation is a motivational force that activates and influences the consumer behavior. It consists of internal and external (sometimes multidirectional) factors driving a consumer to choose one or another commodity.
The consumer behavior is determined by internal consumer motivation (disposition) and external (situation) one. External motivation has considerable, but limited, influence on the internal one by the virtue of consumer counteraction standing on the way of its influence (Figure 1).
In psychology a person (consumer) consists of a number of sub-persons with different motivations. Every element of motivation adds an incentive to the total behavior. Aspiration to consumption of different commodities represents different reasons (Figure 2). Due to financial limitations, a bundle most proper to motivations is consumed.
Products correspond to internal consumer motivation to a different degree. Not all purchases can be inwardly explained. Some of them that are made inwardly can be attributed as unmotivated (Figure 3).
In psychology of consumption every commodity appears as the aggregate of different attributes – descriptions representing the possibility of a commodity to possess one or another function in order to satisfy a certain consumer need.
To satisfy the demand on achieving the aims of steady development it is necessary to take into account the role of attributes of steady development in the common consumer perception of commodity (Figure 4). Depending on their numbers we can classify the attributive of steady development of consumer choice as absent, single, double and multiple.
Considering consumer choice in achieving steady development, it is necessary to understand the reasons for the attributes of steady development to be acknowledged by a consumer as meaningful.
The attributes of steady development can satisfy the necessities of a consumer. If the attributes of steady development are taken into account while choosing a commodity, the consumption is often directed on satisfaction of the secondary necessity, (for example, the choice of commodity for satisfaction of necessity motivationally leads to the choice of ecological commodities, see Figure 2).
Our analysis of motivational consumption types for commodities with the attributes of steady development depending on the consumption costs of commodity and types of advantages (Table 1) shows that consumption of one type of commodity is induced only by moral motivation. To stimulate their consumption using the moral group of motivations (also in the case of considerable importance for society of the external negative material reason) the terms of rationalization of consumption are created for the purposes of our investigation.
For stimulation of consumer aspiration to realize a choice according to the aims of steady development psychological influence on a consumer can be produced, which results in the highly emotional choice. Figure 5 presents the classification of the types of consumer choices.
Figure 1: Formation of internal consumer motivation under the influence of external factors
Figure 2: Dependence of consumer choice on the motivational orientation of necessity
Figure 3: Basic types of consumer choice in accordance with the internal consumer motivation
Figure 4: Selection chart for the commodity attributes characterizing the goals of steady development
Table 1: Basic types of motivation depending on the costs of consumption and advantages of commodities (in order of declining meaningfulness)
Figure 5: Consumer choice type’s classification depending on the motivational orientation
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