Topic plan of practical classes on topographical anatomy and operative surgery icon

Topic plan of practical classes on topographical anatomy and operative surgery




НазваTopic plan of practical classes on topographical anatomy and operative surgery
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TOPIC PLAN

of practical classes on topographical anatomy and operative surgery

for students of second course of international faculty

in fourth (spring) semester of 2013 studying year.



The topics

of practical classes

The studying questions

The list

of practical skills



The subject of topographical anatomy and operative surgery. Connection and disconnection of the tissues. Surgical instruments.

The subject and tasks of topographical anatomy and operative surgery. Acquaintance with the departments of the chair. Arrangement and equipment of operating department. Classification of surgical operations. Groups of surgical instruments. Technique of disconnection and connection of soft tissues.

1. Ownership by technique of disconnection and connection of the tissues.

2. Correct using of surgical instruments.

3. Tying of surgical knots.



Topographical anatomy of fronto-parieto-occipital region of head.


Topographical anatomy of fronto-parieto-occipital region of head. Blood supply of brain, venous outflow. Non penetrating and penetrating skull injury. Primary surgical processing wounds of brain department of the head.

1. Preparation layer-by-layer of studying regions.





Surgical anatomy of brain department of head. The topographical anatomy of the internal basis of the skull. The cranial nerves and places of their output from skull.

Operations on the head.

Base of the skull. Meninges of brain. Topographical anatomy of anterior, middle and posterior cranial fosses. Localization of cranial nerves, vessels of base of brain. Blood supply of brain Intermeningeal spaces. Sinuses of dura mater of brain. The sinuses of the hard brain covering and their connections with veins of the face and vault of the skull. Special surgical instruments.

1. Finding places of way out of cranial nerves on skull.




Topographical anatomy of temporal of head. Kronlein-Brysov’s scheme.

Operations on the head.

Topographical anatomy of temporal of head. Kronlein-Brysov’s scheme. Decompressive and osteoplastic trepanation of the skull. Trepanation of the skull. Anthrotomy (mastoidotomy). Special surgical instruments. Decompression trepanation: indications, technology of the execution, special toolbox.

Special surgical instruments.

1. Executing of some stages trepanation of the skull.




Topographical anatomy of lateral region of face Surgical anatomy of facial department of head. Incisions for drainage of facial phlegmon.

Topographical anatomy of lateral region of face. The face department of the head: borders, division by area, blood supply, venous and lymphatic outflow, innervation.

Facial nerve, its branches. Parotid salivary gland. The topographical anatomy of parotidea-chewing area: borders, layers, vessels, nerves. Parotid Masseteric Region (Regio Parotidomassetericae) Cheek region (Regio Buccales)

Connections of fat tissue spaces of head.

1. On one’s own preparation of regions.

2. Incisions at phlegmon of lateral region of face.



Topographical anatomy of the deep area of the face.


The topographical anatomy of the deep area of the face: fat tissue space, vessels, nerves, venous net and their connections with sinuses of the hard brain covering and veins of the face. Temporal Pterygoid space(Spatium temporopterygoidea). The maxillary artery. The pterygoid venous plexus. The mandibular nerve. Pterygopalatine Fossa.

Accessory cavities of nose. Fronto- and maxillary sinusotomy. Special surgical instruments.

1. Executing of some stages of fronto- and maxillary sinusotomy



Surgical anatomy of the neck.

Topographical anatomy of triangles, fasciae, fat tissue spaces of the neck. Submandibular (digastric) triangle. Carotid triangle.

1. On one’s own preparation of regions.



Surgical anatomy of brain department of neck. Sternocleidomastoid region.

Topography of base vascular-nerve bundle of the neck. Cervical and Brachial Plexus Blocks. Vago-sympathetic novocaine blockade by Vishnevskiy. Incisions at phlegmon of the neck.

1. Vagosympathetic novocaine blockade by Vishnevskiy.



Surgical anatomy of the neck organs. Operations on organs of the neck.


Topographical anatomy of larynx, trachea, pharynx, esophagus. Thyroid gland. Conicotomy. Tracheostomy. Surgical accesses to esophagus. Resection of thyroid gland by Nikolaev.

1. Executing of tracheostomy.

On one’s own executing of typical operations on head and neck.



The topographical anatomy subclavian region of thoracic wall and operations on it.

The topographical anatomy of thoracic wall and operations on it.

The topographical anatomy subclavian region. Subclavian vein puncture.The mammary glands: structure, topography, blood supply, venous and lymphatic outflow, innervations. The motivation of dissection by mastitis. Operations on the mastitis’s, nonmalignant tumors and cancer of the breast.

The topographical anatomy of the thorax: borders, orientation lines. The thoracic wall: layers, intercostal space. The intercostals space and its contains. The cavity of the thorax. Pleural and pericardial cavities, interpleural areas (triangles). The topographer-anatomical motivation of pleural puncture. The diaphragm: parts, weak places, blood supply, venous and lymphatic outflow, innervations.

Pleural puncture. Resection of the rib: indications, contraindications and technique. The preventive surgical processing of penetrating and not penetrating thoracic wounds complicated with the fractures of the ribs, pneumo- and hemothorax.

1. Preparation of regions;

2. Subclavian vein puncture.

3. Operations on the mastitis’s.

4.Pleural puncture;

5. Resection of the rib.



The surgical anatomy of anterior mediastinum.

The topographical anatomy and operative surgery lungs.

Mediastinum: classifications, divisions, the contents. Surgical anatomy of the organs of anterior mediastinum: the great vessels, thymus, diaphragmatic nerves. Trachea. The ascending aorta and aortic arch. The lungs: holotopy, skeletopy, syntopy. The topography of lung’s roots, lobes, segments; vascularization, venous and lymphatic outflow, innervations.

Operations on the lungs and mediastinum: the accesses, its topographic anatomy’s basing and clinical estimation. Pulmonectomy, lobectomy, segmental resection.

1. Preparation of anterior mediastinum;

2. Operations on the lungs and mediastinum.




Surgical anatomy of the heart, pericardium, the great vessels.


The puncture of the pericardial cavity. Operations on the heart and great vessels. The common principles of operations on the congenital and acquired vices of the heart. The mitral comissurotomy. The operative accesses to the heart. The technique of the stitches of the heart wound. The heart-lung-apparatus: the main modules, the principles of work, the functional estimation and demands to it. The aorto-coronal by-pass.


1. Preparation of posterior mediastinum;

2. Puncture of the pericardial cavity.




The surgical anatomy of posterior mediastinum.

The topographical anatomy and operative surgery esophagus.

The organs of posterior mediastinum: esophagus, descending thoracic aorta, azygos and hemyazygos veins, ductus thoracicus, vagus and splanchnicus nerves, sympathetic trunks. Esophagotomy, the resection and plastics of the esophagus. The surgical treatment of the atresia of the gullet.

1.Operations on the esophagus and mediastinum.




The topographical anatomy and operative surgery of antero-lateral abdominal wall. The surgical treatment of the umbilical and hernias of white line.


Antero-lateral abdominal wall. Orientation lines. The division into areas. The projection of organs of abdominal cavity; vascularization, innervations, layers, weak places. The topography of umbilical region and white line.

The operative accesses to the peritoneal cavity’s organs: the demands, classification, different types of the laparotomy. The laparocentesis, laparoscopy, laparostomy. The surgical treatment of the umbilical hernias and hernias of white line. The features of herniotomy in child. The strangulated and sliding hernias.

1. Preparation of antero-lateral abdominal wall regions;

2. Performance of laparotomy;

3. The surgical treatment of the herniotomy.



The surgical treatment of the inguinal hernias. The features of herniotomy in child.

The inguinal region, triangle, space. The inguinal canal: walls, contains, rings. The spermatic cord. The abdominal hernias. Classification of hernias. Meaning of congenital, retrograde, sliding and strangulated hernias. The hernias elements.

The surgical treatment of the inguinal hernias.

1.The surgical treatment of the herniotomy.




The topographic anatomy of peritoneum and its derivations.


The abdominal cavity, the peritoneal cavity. The peritoneum, variants of covering of the organs by the peritoneum. The levels of the abdominal cavity, theirs borders. The hepatic, pregastric and omental bursa, their connections. The ways of enlargement of the pus. The small omentum, its contents. Topography of large omentum. The ligaments, recessuses, channels, sinuses and other derivations of peritoneum. The connections of lower floor of the peritoneal cavity with the upper floor and with cavity of pelvis.


1. Preparation of peritoneum and its derivations;

2. A finding on the corpse of mesenterial sinus, channels.

3. Preparations of hepatoduodenal ligament;




The topographic anatomy of parenchymatous organs of superior level of abdominal cavity. Operative surgery of parenchymatous organs of superior level of abdominal cavity.

The topographic anatomy of liver, pancreas, spleen. Structure, ligaments, holotopy, skeletopy, syntopy, blood supply, innervations, lymphatic outflow. The topographic anatomy of the gall bladder and the bile ducts.

The temporary and definitive hemostatic methods of liver bleedings. The stitches of Kuznetzov-Pensky. The splenectomy. The common principles of performance of the operations on the pancreas. The operations on the gall bladder and the bile ducts: the cholecystectomy, the cholecystostomy, the external and internal drainage of the common bile duct (the choledochostomy).

1.Performance of haemostatic sutures of liver.

2.Performance on the corps of the cholecistostomy, cholecistectomy, the splenectomy;




The topographic anatomy and operative surgery of

small intestine. The intestinal stitches.

The topographic anatomy and operative surgery great intestine. The intestinal stitches.


The topographic anatomy of small intestine. Differential signs between ileum and jejunum. Structure, holotopy, skeletopy, syntopy, blood supply, innervations, lymphatic outflow. Blood supply, innervations of great intestine, lymphatic outflow.

The intestinal stitches: the demands to them, the classification and the operative technique. The different types of intestinal anastomosis. The palliative and radical operations on the small intestine.

The topographic anatomy of great intestine. Structure, holotopy, skeletopy, syntopy, blood supply, innervations, lymphatic outflow. The top. anatomy of ileocecal angle, appendix, great intestine. Differential signs between small and great intestine. Variability of ileocecal angle and appendix. Blood supply, innervations of great intestine, lymphatic outflow.

Operations on the great intestine. The appendectomy: the kinds, the technique of performing. The palliative and radical operations on the great intestine: the colotomy, the colostomy (the ceco-, transverse- and sigmostomy). The operation of performing the preternatural anus (uni- or bi-shaft one).

1. Performance of the small bowel resection and the different kinds of the entero-entero anastomy (end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-side);

2.Performance of the colotomy, cecotomy.



The topographic anatomy and operative surgery of stomach and duodenum.


The topographic anatomy of stomach and duodenum: holotopy, skeletopy, syntopy, ligaments, blood supply, innervations, lymphatic outflow.

The palliative and radical operations on the stomach: the gastrotomy and the gastrostomy. The resection of the stomach: the classification and the technique of performing. The organretentive operations on the stomach (the vagotomy: the truncular, the selective and the proximal selective ones). The drainage and reconstructive operations on the stomach.

1. Performance of gastrostomy;

2. Performance of the resection of the stomach;

3. Performance on the corps of the gastroenteroanastomy.



Appendix.

The top. anatomy of ileocecal angle, appendix, great intestine.

Appendectomy.

The top. anatomy of ileocecal angle, appendix, great intestine.

1. Performance of the appendectomy.



21.

Exam lesson "The topographic anatomy and operative surgery"







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