Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology icon

Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology




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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE



Sumy State University
MEDICAL INSTITUTE
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology



PRACTICALBOOK


FOR PROTOCOLS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PRACTICAL WORKS


For students specializing 7.110101 «Medicine»
daily learning


STUDENT’S FULL NAME

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

GROUP №_____________________


Sumy - 2012


І semester

PRACTICAL CLASS #1 Date: ______________

THEME: “INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY. OBJECT AND TASKS THE COURSE OF PHYSIOLOGY. METHODS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCHES”


Questions for discussion:

  1. Physiology as a science. Connect with other disciplines of physiology.

  2. Basic concepts of physiology: the function, functional unit, the physiological system, the functional state of the organism.

  3. Structural and functional organization of the human body. The concept of functions at different levels of living objects.

  4. Elementary functions of cells.

  5. Basic functional properties of the body as a whole. The structure features of cellular membrane, functions of it, basic components.

  6. Intercommunication of organism with an environment. A concept is about irritants, irritations, biological reaction, excitation, excitability, excitative structures.

  7. Methods of physiological investigations.


Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Сh.2,4.


INDIVIDUAL WORK “Basic stages of development of physiology”

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________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PRACTICAL CLASS #2 Date:________________


^ THEME: “RESTING POTENTIAL AND ACTION POTENTIAL OF NERVOUS AND MUSCULAR FIBRES”


Questions for discussion:

  1. Differences of chemical composition of extracellular liquid and intracellular environment.

  2. The passive transport of components, its types and mechanisms (diffusion, osmosis).

  3. The active transport of components, its types and mechanisms. Co- transport, counte- transport.

  4. A concept of the membrane potential and resting potential. Methods of registration of resting potential, and its physical characteristics.

  5. The ionic mechanisms of origin of the normal resting membrane potential (diffusion potential, Nernst potential).

  6. Resting membrane potential of nerves and skeletal muscles fibers. Main and complimentary factors which influence on a value of the resting membrane potential.

  7. Action potential: the structure, physical and physiological characteristics.

  8. Structure and basic properties of ionic protein channels, which take part in development of active potential. Voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels.

  9. Ionic mechanisms of development of basic phases of action potential.

  10. Initiation of the action potential: a positive-feedback mechanism, threshold for initiation of the AP.

  11. Excitability, its changes during development of active potential, refractory period.


Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch.4, 5.


Practical work #1: “The preparations for close frog’s organs”


Materials and equipments: small and large scissors, anatomic pincers, scalpel, probe, stand, cotton wool, physiological solution, preparing small planks, serviettes, tray, electrostimulator with electrodes, a research object is a frog.


To study the physiology of frog muscle and nerve, the frog must be killed but its tissues kept alive. This can be accomplished by destroying or pithing the frog’s central nervous system. The frog is clinically dead (clinical death is defined as the irreversible loss of higher brain function), but its muscles and peripheral nerves will continue to function as long as their cells remain alive. Under the proper conditions, this state can be prolonged for several hours.

The technique involves grasping the frog securely with one hand and flexing its head forward so that the base of the skull can be felt with the fingers of the other hand. Then perform these steps:


Procedure:

  1. Force one blade of a pair of sharp scissors into the frog’s mouth as shown in figure 1.

  2. Quickly decapitate the frog by cutting behind its eyes. It should be understood that the frog is dead as soon as its brain has been severed from its spinal cord (fig 2.).

  3. Insert a probe down into the exposed spinal cord as described above to destroy the frog’s spinal reflexes (fig. 3).




Fig 1. Fig 2. Fig 3.


Results: 1) What was observed after causing a mechanical irritation of the decapitated frog?

2) What was observed after causing a repeated mechanical irritation of the frog, after

destruction of spinal cord?

3) Draw the scheme of experiment.

  1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  3. The scheme of experiment:



Conclusions: 1. Where are motive centers for a frog?

2. What does disappearance of reaction testify to after destruction of spinal cord?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #2 “Preparation of the rheoscopic foot”

Procedure:

  1. Prepare the spinal frog (fig.1).

  2. Cut the spinal column in the middle of the body (fig.2).

  3. Remove the insides of the upper part of the frog (fig.3).

  4. Remove the skin from the preparation (fig.4).

  5. Cut the sacral bone – urostile.

  6. Slit the preparation along the middle line of the spinal column at the front (fig.5). Get two separate extremities (fig 6).

  7. Put them so that the back sides of the extremities would face up; find the sciatic nerve (nervus ischiadicus).

  8. Free the nerve from the other tissues (remove muscles) from pelvis to knee-joint. So we get the rheoscopic foot (fig.7).

  9. Check the functional state of the rheoscopic foot by irritating the sciatic nerve by the electrostimulator (fig.8).




Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4



Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8


Results: 1) What was observed after causing an electric irritation on a sciatic nerve?

2) Draw the structure of rheoscopic paw, label its component parts.


1)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2) Structure of the rheoscopic paw:


Practical work #3: “Preparation of Gastrocnemius muscle”.

Procedure:


  1. Cut the Achilles’ tendon from the rheoscopic foot in the lower 1/3 of it (fig 9).

  2. With the help of pincers, to separate the muscles from other tissues, leave the gastrocnemius muscle, knee-joint and sciatic nerve with the adjacent spinal column(fig.10-11).

  3. A preparation of Gastrocnemius muscle consists of an Achilles’ tendon, knee-joint with the fragment of thigh-bone, a sciatic nerve and a gastrocnemius muscle (fig.12).

  4. Check the functional state of the preparation by:

  1. irritating the sciatic nerve (indirect irritation) (fig. 13);

  2. irritating the gastrocnemius muscle (direct irritation) (fig. 14).





Fig.9 Fig.10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig.13 Fig.14

Results: 1 What was observed after causing an electric irritation on a sciatic nerve?

2 What was observed after causing an electric irritation on a gastrocnemius muscle?

3 Draw the structure of Preparation of Gastrocnemius muscle, label its components parts.


1______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3 The structure of Preparation of Gastrocnemius muscle:


Conclusion: 1) Nervous and muscular fabrics belong to which physiological structures?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2) What are the properties of nervous and muscular fabrics?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________


^ Work for the independent exercise:

  1. Draw the model of cellular membrane by Singer-Nicholson, mark its main components.




  1. Fill a table:

Basic

extracellular

cations

Basic

extracellular

anions

Basic

intracellular

cations

Basic

intracellular

anions



























3. Draw graphically resting potential, depolarization and hyperpolarization.










4. Calculate the value of equilibrium potential for potassium ions (up to hundredths).

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


5. Draw graphically action potential, mark the phases.








  1. Calculate the value of membrane potential of nerve fibers with increasing concentration of potassium ions in extracellular fluid of 10 mEq / liter. Identify potential deviation from the normal value of resting potential nerve fibers. What's name this deviation?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. How to affect the action potential of blocking potential of Na-dependent channels with specific blockers - tetrodotoxin? Explain why?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How to change the excitability of cells in prolonged increase in extracellular potassium ion concentration to 20 mEq / L? Explain why?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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