Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology icon

Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology




НазваMinistry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology
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Practical work #2 : "Study of indexes of pulmonary ventilation by spirometry."


^ Materials and equipments: spirometer, cotton, alcohol; object for research is man.


Procedure:

  1. Before work with a spirometer it is necessary to wash hands with a soap and disinfect tube with alcohol.

  2. To put a sterile tube on a spirometer.

  3. A mark to set against a zero mark on the clock-face of scale.

  4. To define tidal volume (TV).

For this purpose a patient does 5 - 6 quiet inspirations through the nose and so much quiet expirations through a mouth in a spirometer. On a scale, define the size of volumes of breathed out air and divide it into the phases of expirations. The average number is TV.

  1. ^ To define expiratory reserve volume (ERV).

For this purpose, a patient after quiet inspiration does a more deep expiration through the mouth in to a spirometer. On a scale, define the size of volumes of breathed out air. Subtract from the registered index, the value of tidal volume. Found difference is expiratory reserve volume. To receive of more reliable values conduct tests 5 – 6 times, and then find average number.

  1. ^ To define the vital capacity of lungs. (VC).

For this purpose patient, upright does maximal inspiration, closes the nose, maximal expiration in to a spirometer. On a scale, define the size of volume of breathed out air. Found size is VC. To receive a more reliable values conduct tests 5 – 6 times and then find average number.

  1. To define inspiratory reserve volume (IRV).

For this purpose from the found size of VC substract tidal volume and expiration reserve volume. Found difference is inspiratory reserve volume.

  1. Using the Kharris-Benedikt tables, find the proper values to TV, IRV, ERV, and VC.

  2. Compare the found indexes to the proper indexes.



Results:

  1. Indexes, found by a spirometer should be recorded in the table:




Indexes


1 attempt

2 attempt

3 attempt

4 attempt

5 attempt

Average number

TV



















ERV



















VC



















IRV




















2. Define the proper indexes by tables of Kharris-Benedikt:

Weight = ______ kg, high =_____ cm, age = _____ year old,

Number А = _______ kcal, number В = _______kcal, BE= А+В = ________ kcal.

TV = _____ ml, IRV= _____ ml, ERV= _____ ml, VC = _____ ml,


3. Calculate the percentage deviation of predicted or got indexes from proper by a formula:





% deviation of TV =

% deviation of IRV =

% deviation of ERV =

% deviation of VC =


4. Gotten index is recorded in the table:


Indexes

Given patient

(by spirometer)

Proper indexes

(by tables)

% rejection

Conclusion

TV













IRV













ERV













VC














Conclusions: give an estimation of certain indexes.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Signature of teacher ___________________


^ Work for the independent exercise


1. Determine the indexes:

Tidal volume (TV) –_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) – _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) –_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Residual volume (RV) – _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Vital capacity of lungs (VC) – ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Inspiratory capacity (IC) –_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Functional residual capacity (FRC) –_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Total lung capacity (TLC) –_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Breath frequency – _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Minute volume of breathing or pulmonary ventilation (MVB; PV) - _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Minute alveolar ventilation (MAV) -_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Maximum ventilation of lung (МVL) –_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Breathing reserve -_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Coefficient of pulmonary ventilation (CPV) -_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Ratio of alveolar ventilation (RАV) -_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2. Two students of the same age after raceing at the distance of 5000 m recorded a number of indicators of external respiration. The first student breathing frequency was 40 per minute, respiratory volume - 500 ml. Pulmonary ventilation rate = 1 / 7. In the second - the frequency of breath - 27 per minute, respiratory volume - 1200 ml, and the pulmonary ventilation rate = 15. Rate the intensity and efficiency of breathing in each student. What are your deductions?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3. Define coefficient of pulmonary ventilation (CPV) alone in human of middle age, if breathing volume is 460 ml, functional lung volume - 2200 ml. Assess the value received.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


4. Calculate how much alveolar air will be updated in a breath, if the volume of the alveolar air is 2700 ml, respiratory volume - 600 ml, the volume of dead space - 150 ml. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical class #31 Data: _______________


Theme: "Physical principles of gas exchange; diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane. Research of the breath regulation.”


Questions:


  1. Composition and partial pressure of alveolar gas mixture. Factors that determine it.

  2. Mechanisms of gaseous exchange between alveoles and blood of lung capillaries.

  3. Types of blood oxygen transport. Transport of physically dissolved oxygen in the blood plasma. Its functional significance.

  4. Transport of chemically associated oxygen. Functional characterization of hemoglobin. The concept of Huphner’s number and oxygen capacity of blood.

  5. Dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin. Functional significance of this form of curve.

  6. The concept of dissociation curve shift to right and left. Factors that cause such shifts. Bohr Effect, its functional significance.

  7. Forms of transport of carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs. Binding curves of carbon dioxide. Holdeyn Effect and its value.

  8. The concept of the respiratory center. Methods of its localization. The notion of inspiratory and expiratory neurons.

  9. Localization and functional characteristics of groups of neurons that are part of the respiratory center.

  10. Mechanisms of rhythmic autonomous activity of respiratory center in quiet conditions and in increased respiration.

  11. Influence of mechanical factors on the activity of respiratory center. Types of mechanoreceptor in the lungs. Hering-Breuer reflex.

  12. Influence of chemical factors on the activity of the respiratory center. Central and peripheral mechanisms of these influences.



Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – p. 491-501, 514-519.


Practical work #1: "Research of Christi’s test."


The test of Christi is used for the estimation of the state of elasticity of pulmonary tissue.


Materials and equipment: spirometer, object for research is man.


Procedure:

  1. Determine the Vital capacity of lungs (VC) at one-time using dry spirometer.

  2. Determine the Tidal volume (TV), Inspiration reserve volume (IRV), Exspiration reserve volume (ERV) using dry spirometer.

  3. Find VC as the sum of separately measured TV, IRV, and ERV.

  4. Compare the VC value measured at one-time and size, which is the sum of TV, IRV,
    ERV. Normal is considered as deviation within ± 7-15%.



Results:


1. Indexes found by a spirometer are recorded in the table:


One-time

index

1 attempt

2 attempt

3 attempt

4 attempt


5 attempt


Average
arithmetic

VC






















Indexes


1 attempt

2 attempt

3 attempt

4 attempt

5 attempt

Average
arithmetic

VC

(sum)

TV






















ERV



















IRV




















2. Calculate % deviation between indexes
 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Conclusions : estimate the got result ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #2 : " Research of Votchal test."


The Votchal test is used for the estimation of width of shallow bronchial tubes and tone of bronchial musculature.


^ Materials and equipment: spirometer, object for research is man.


Procedure:

Determine VC in the normal respiratory rate using dry spirometer.

Determine VC in quickly forced expiration using dry spirometer.

Compare VC value measured in the normal respiratory rate and magnitude of that obtained in quickly forced expiration. Considered normal deviation is within ± 300 ml.

Results:

1. Indexes found by a spirometer are recorded in the table:



In the normal respiration

1 attempt

2 attempt

3 attempt

4 attempt


5 attempt


Average
arithmetic


VC






















In quickly

forced expiration

1 attempt

2 attempt

3 attempt

4 attempt


5 attempt

Average
arithmetic


VC




















2. Calculate% deviation between the indices

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Conclusions: estimate the got result _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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