Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology icon

Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology




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^ THEME: “GENERAL CONFORMITIES TO THE LAW OF THE NERVOUS ADJUSTING OF FUNCTIONS. RESEARCH OF REFLEX ARC”


Questions for discussion:

1. Structure and functions a neuron. Classification of Neurons. Functions of neuroglia.

2. Reflexes Classification. Reflex arc. Structural and functional component of the reflex arc.

3. Classification of receptors. General mechanisms actions of receptors.

4. Physiologic Anatomy of the Synapse.

5.Types of Synapses—Chemical and Electrical

  1. .Excitatory or Inhibitory Receptors in the Postsynaptic Membrane.

  2. Chemical Substances That Function as Synaptic Transmitters Basic lines of the nervous adjusting of functions.


Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch. 45,46.


Practical work #1 Research of reflex time (by Turk)


General time of reflex (latent period) is determined from the beginning of action of irritant to beginning of reflex reaction. It consists of: a) to time, necessary for an origin excitation in receptors; b) to time of conducting of excitation from receptors to the nerve-centre; c) to time of conducting of excitation through a nerve-centre (reflex time); d) to time, necessary for a transmission excitation from efferent of nervous fiber on the organ of effectors and for the display of his function.


Materials and equipments: set of preparing tools (anatomic pincers, small scissors, large scissors, scalpel, probe), physiological solution, preparing small planks, serviettes, cotton wool, tray, stand, solution 0,5%, 1% H2SO4, glass with water, stop watch, object for investigation is a frog.

Procedure:

  1. Prepare a spinal frog.

  2. Fix a spinal toad for the bottom jar on a hook of a support.

  3. To moisten one piece of a filtration paper with 0,1% solution, to place on un internal surface of a hip and on stop watch.

  4. Deduct the time from the moment of immersion of limbs in the acid to the bending reflex.

  5. After measuring the drug wash water.

  6. Repeat 2-3 times in research, with a minimum of 2-3 minutes and calculate the average reflex time for the force stimulus.

  7. Repeat experiments with 0.3% and 0.5% solution of H2SO4. Calculate the average time reflexes.


Results:

  1. Calculate the average time for each Turk’s reflex force stimuli.

  2. Graphically depict the time dependence of strength reflex stimulus (low of fourse of time).

  3. Drawn circuit experiment.

  4. Drawn diagram reflex arc of Turk reflex.

1)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2)

Power


Time


3) Scheme of experiment:


4) Reflex arc of Turk reflex.


Conclusion:

  1. What time of reflex, what periods consist of?

  2. What does the number of stimuli to time reflexes?

  3. What is the value of reflex time?


1)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


^ Practical work #2: “Research of the phenomenon of summation.”


Materials and equipments: set of preparing tools (anatomic pincers, small scissors, large scissors, scalpel, probe), physiological solution, preparing small planks, serviettes, cotton wool, tray, stand, solution 0,5%, 1% H2SO4, glass with water, stop watch, object for investigation is a frog.


Procedure:

  1. Investigation of successive summation.




  1. Prepare a spinal frog.

  2. Fix a spinal toad for the bottom jar on a hook of a support.

  3. Electrical electrodes attached to the back foot quotes frogs (one clear of insulation postings attached to your finger wrapped second legs).

  4. Causing irritation rare to find threshold stimulus strength (frequency of 1 Hz, duration 1 msec).

  5. Slush single irritation subthreshold force. Watch as the drug.

  6. Slush series irritation subthreshold force. Watch as the drug.




  1. Investigation of simultaneous summation.
    1. Prepare spinal frog.
    2. Lock the spinal frog in the lower jaw to the tripod hook.
    3. A small piece of filter paper wet in 0.1% solution of H2SO4, put the forceps on the skin of his belly toads. Watch the reaction. Wash off paper
    4. Put 3, 5, 7 papers, wetted with acid. Watch the reaction.
    5. If the reaction does not occur, repeat the experiments with 0.3% solution of H2SO4.


Results:

1. What observed in A and B in experiments?
2. Drawn diagram of the spatial and simultaneous summation explain their mechanism.


1)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2
^ Temporal summation

Spatial summation
)


______________________________________ _____________________________________

______________________________________ _____________________________________

______________________________________ _____________________________________

______________________________________ _____________________________________

Conclusion: What does summation activity in the CNS?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


^ Practical work #3: “Analysis of the reflex arc.”

Materials and equipments: set of preparing tools (anatomic pincers, small scissors, large scissors, scalpel, probe), physiological solution, preparing small planks, serviettes, cotton wool, tray, stand, solution 0,5%, 1% H2SO4, glass with water, stop watch, object for investigation is a frog.


Procedure:

  1. Prepare spinal frog.

  2. Lock the spinal frog in the lower jaw to the tripod hook.

  3. Play Turk reflex for the right limbs.

  4. Drug washout.

  5. At the bottom ending in a hip area to make a circular incision of the skin and remove it from the leg.

  6. Repeat Turk reflex. Watch as the drug.

  7. Play Turk reflex for the left limb.

  8. At the bottom left thigh ending cut the skin, find sciatic nerve and cut it.

  9. Repeat Turk reflex. Watch as the drug.

  10. Prepare second spinal frog.

  11. Lock the spinal frog in the lower jaw to the tripod hook.

  12. Play Turk reflex.

  13. Destroyed spinal cord.

  14. Repeat Turk reflex. Watch as the drug.


Results:

  1. Describe reflex reaction after
    - destruction of receptor field;

- crossing sciatic nerve;

- destruction of the spinal cord.

2. Reflex arc diagram drawn, noting that the functional components were destroyed.

3. What are the laws of the excitation of reflex arc?

1)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2)


3)

1.____________________________________________________________________________2.____________________________________________________________________________3.____________________________________________________________________________4.____________________________________________________________________________5.____________________________________________________________________________6.__________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion:

  1. What are the material substrate reflexes?

  2. What are the functional components of reflex arc?

  3. What are the conditions necessary for the occurrence of reflex response?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________


^ Work for the independent exercise:

  1. Provide examples of positive and negative feedback of the CNS?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Draw neuron, mark its parts.


3. Characterized of knee-jerk reflex by known to you classifications reflexes.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Characterized of salivary secretary reflex by known to you classifications reflexes.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Characterized of papillary reflex by known to you classifications reflexes.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Draw reflex arc of somatic reflex, mark its functional components.



PRACTICAL CLASS#7 Data:_______________

THEME:"^ INVESTIGATION OF EXCITATION AND INHIBITION IN THE CNS

Questions for discussion:

  1. Neurochemical mechanisms of the integrative function of the CNS.

  2. Classification of mediators, their general characteristics.

  3. Electrical Events During Neuronal Excitation.

  4. Electrical Events During Neuronal Inhibition.

  5. Central inhibition and its views and values. Characteristics and mechanisms of pre-and postsynaptic inhibitions.

  6. The role of brake neuron chains is in the origin of central inhibition.

  7. CNS synapses, their structure, mechanisms of information transfer. Features of transfer excitation in the central synapses

  8. Spatial Summation” in Neurons—Threshold for Firing. “Temporal Summation”

  9. Divergence of Signals Passing Through Neuronal Pools

  10. Convergence of Signals. Prolongation of a Signal by a Neuronal Pool—“Afterdischarge”

  11. Reverberatory (Oscillatory) Circuit



Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch.45-48.


Practical work #1 : "Central inhibition of spinal reflexes (Sechenov experiment)

Inhibition like a process in the CNS was discovered by Sechenov in 1862. The scientist has proved that the irritation can cause brain intermediate braking reflexes that are spinal cord. This reaction is a manifestation of top-down influence in stopping the nervous system. Later it was found that highest departments CNS may hinder or facilitate spinal reflex activity.


^ Materials and equipments: set of preparing tools (anatomic pincers, small scissors, large scissors, scalpel, probe), physiological solution, preparing small planks, serviettes, cotton wool, filter paper tray, a glass of water, crystals of NaCl, stopwatch; object for investigation is a frog.


Procedure:


1. Prepare thalamic frog for this:
• get a frog in left hand.
• Scissors to make a T-shaped incision of the skin on the head, cut a piece of bare skin and cranium.
• Acute bransh of small scissors to enter into the cavity of the skull: to make cross roses braincase trying not to damage the cord, remove the braincase.
• scalpel make an incision over the visual brain bumps and above the cut to remove brain tissue. The resulting product is called thalamic frog.
2. Lock the frog for the lower jaw in a stand and define a Turk reflex.
3. After 2-3 minutes to dry the surface thoroughly brain filter paper to sodium chloride is not as fast dissolve and not flowed in brain, with its flowed in the spinal canal is observed excitation spinal motor centers and convulsions appear.
4. In visual bumps impose some crystals of NaCl.
5. After 3 minutes to determine a Turk reflex. If the index has not changed, repeat the definition of a few minutes.
6. Remove NaCl; carefully wash brain by physiological solution.
7. After 5 minutes to determine a Turk reflex.

Sechenov’s inhibition





Results:

1) Time of bending reflex by Turk method in thalamic frog before imposing crystal of NaCl ___________________.

2) Time of bending reflex by Turk method in thalamic frog before imposing crystal of NaCl ___________________.

3) Time of bending reflex by Turk method in thalamic frog after removing crystal of NaCl ____________________.


Conclusion: 1. How does visual irritation bumps on spinal neurons of center bending reflex?
                     2. Which type (pre-or postsynaptic) is Sechenov’s inhibition?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________

^ Work for the independent exercise:

  1. Motoneuron to simultaneously receive 8 stimulant presynaptic nerve impulses. Will this generate motoneuron efferent nerve impulses, if the amplitude of single ZPSP is 2 mV?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Draw schemes of feedback, lateral and reciprocal inhibition.


Зворотне гальмування

Латеральне гальмування

Реципрокне гальмування


  1. What is the difference in the operation of ionotropic and metabolotropic synapses?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What is equal the time of the excitation through a central synapse? Is it different from the time of the excitation through neuromuscular synapse? Explain why.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. What kind of central inhibition provides inhibition in CNS were biologically significant afferent signals?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


PRACTICAL CLASS #8 Data_______________


^ THEME:"ROLES OF SPINAL AND BRAIN STEM IN ADJUSTING OF MOTIVE FUNCTIONS OF ORGANISM"


Questions for discussion:

  1. Organization of the Spinal Cord. Alpha Motor Neurons. Gamma Motor Neurons. Neurochemical integrative mechanisms of CNS function.

  2. Functions of the Spinal Cord. Ascending tracts and Functions. Descending Tracts.

  3. Autonomic Reflexes in the Spinal Cord

  4. Functions of the Muscle Spindle it Roles in Muscle Control.

  5. Golgi Tendon Organs it Roles in Muscle Control

  6. Gamma Motor System (gamma efferent loop).

  7. Muscle Stretch Reflex. Flexor Reflex and the Withdrawal Reflexes. Reflexes of Posture and Locomotion

  8. Clinical Applications of the Stretch Reflex

  9. Spinal Cord Transection and Spinal Shock. The Brown-Sequard Syndrome.

  10. Function of the Brain Stem. Excitatory-Inhibitory Antagonism Between Pontine and Medullary Reticular Nuclei.

  11. Vestibular sensation and maintenance of equilibrium, mechanism for stabilizing the eyes.

  12. Vegetative function of the Brain Stem



Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch. 54,55.

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