Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology icon

Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology




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Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch. 60.


Practical work #1 : "Investigation of vegetative tone and autonomic reactivity in humans.”


Materials and equipment: plastic sticks, stopwatches, sphygmomanometer, stethoscope.


Procedure:

  1. Determination Kerdu index.
    1. In the experimental determine pulse frequency and magnitude of arterial pressure (AP).

  2. 2. Calculate Kerdu index by the formula:



3. Estimate the value received. If the index is 0 Kerdyu - a state of autonomic balance (eutonia). If the index is positive, then dominated by the of the SNS,
          if negative - PSNS.


  1. Determination of dermographism.
          1. Blunt end of the dashed line sticks to the skin anterior chest wall.
          2. Rate received stripes. Long white bar shows the predominance of tonus
              SNS, pink strip - the prevailing tone of PSNS.




  1. Research of Danini-Ashner reflex.
         1. In the subject to determine the pulse frequency.
         2. Within 30 sec. press on the apple of the eye increasing efforts.
         3. Determine pulse rate after press.
         4. Compare the received values. Slowdown or increased heart rate at 6-12 strokes shows normal vegetative reactivity. Increased heart rate more than 12 attacks show the excess reactivity. If the pulse rate does not change, then reduced autonomic reactivity.



  1. Research of Chermak reflex
        1. In the experimental determine pulse frequency and magnitude of arterial pressure.
        2. Within 30 sec. press on in the carotid artery.
        3. Determine the pulse frequency and magnitude of arterial pressure after pressing.
        4. Compare the received values. Reducing the pulse rate of 12 strokes or more, AP 10 mm or more indicates a normal autonomic reactivity.



Results:
1) Kerdu index in patient is _______, indicating ________________________.
2) ____________ color bar that shows ___________________________________.
3) Pulse rate before pressing __________________, after pressing _______________________,
      indicating ______________________________________________________________.
4) Pulse rate before pressing________________, AP before pressing ___________________,
      pulse rate after pressing________________, AP after presing ________________,
      indicating _____________________________________________________________ .

5) Draw reflex arc of Danini-Ashner reflex.




Conclusion: Specify the type of autonomic nervous system predominates in the patient's level of its autonomic reactivity.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #2 : "Investigation of work of the internal organs of a man."


Materials and equipment: stopwatches, sphygmomanometer, stethoscope.


Procedure:

  1. Determination Hildebrandt coefficient (HC)
         1. In a patient to determine the pulse frequency and breathing rate.
         2. The patient performs 20 sits per 30 seconds.
         3. Determine the pulse frequency and breathing rate.
         4. Calculate the Hildebrandt coefficient before exercises and after exercises by the formula:

HC = pulse rate / respiratory rate


     5. Rate obtained values. At normal HC = 2,8-4,9.
         Other figures show agreement in violation of the autonomic nervous system.


  1. Conducting of Letunov test.
         1. In a patient to determine the pulse frequency and magnitude of arterial pressure.
         2. The patient performs 20 sits per 30 seconds.
         3. Determine the pulse frequency and magnitude of arterial pressure after exercises.
         4. Compare the received values. In normal pulse rate increases by 30%, and systolic pressure increased by 20-40 mm Hg. Update indicators should be within 3 minutes.



Results:

1) Pulse frequency before exercises ______________, breathing rate before exercises___________,
      Hildebrandt coefficient before exercises _________________________________________.
     Pulse frequency after exercises _______________, breathing rate after exercises _________,
      Hildebrandt coefficient after exercises ___________________________________________,
      indicating _________________________________________________________________.

2) Pulse frequency before exercises _____________, AP before exercises____________________,
     Pulse frequency after exercises ______, AP after exercises ________________,
      indicating ________________________________________________________________.
      Recovery performance was due to ________.


Conclusion: The conclusion of consistency in the autonomic nervous system.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________


Work for the independent exercise:

1. Draw reflex arc of vegetative reflex, mark its components.




2. What has been called ganglioblockers? Provide examples of ganglioblockers, noting their effects.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3. What are parasympatholytic substances? Provide examples of parasympatholytic substances, noting their effects.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


4. What are parasympathomimetic substances? Provide examples of parasympathomimetic substances, noting their effects. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


5. What are sympatholytic substances? Provide examples of sympatholytic substances, noting their effects. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


6. What are sympathomimetic substances? Provide examples of sympathomimetic substances, noting their effects. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


7. Explain the mechanism of expansion in the human pupil, which occurs when strong pain.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


8. Patients increased red dermographism. Kerdu index is negative (-8). After pressing on the eyes pulse frequency decreased by 15 strokes. Man complains of apathy, frequent depression, indecision. What is the conclusion of the functional activity of the autonomic system you do? Explain it. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


PRACTICAL CLASS #11 Data:_______________


Theme:" Practical skills in physiology of nervous regulation of body functions."


  1. Basic lines of the nervous adjusting of functions.

  2. Functions of neuroglia.

  3. Reflex. Reflexes Classification.

  4. Reflex arc. Features of conducting of excitation are on a reflex arc.

  5. Classification of receptors. General mechanisms of functioning receptors.

  6. A concept is about a nerve-centre. Properties of nerve-centers.

  7. Classification of mediators, their general characteristics.

  8. Description exciting and brake postsynaptic potentials.

  9. CNS synapse, their structure, mechanisms of information transfer. Features transfer excitation in the central synapses.

  10. Central inhibition and its views and values.

  11. Characteristics and mechanisms of pre-and postsynaptic inhibitions.

  12. Functions of spinal cord.

  13. Mechanisms of muscular and joint reception (proprioreceptions).

  14. Description of tonic reflexes (miotatichnogo and neck tonic), those reflex arcs.

  15. Description of phase reflexes (tendon, leather, rhythmic, bend, cross-reflex), them reflex arcs.

  16. Neuron organization of back brain.

  17. Neuron organization of middle brain.

  18. The role of reticular formation in the implementation of motor functions. Influence of medial and lateral paths of reticulospinal motoneuron spinal cord.

  19. Functional organization and functions of basal nuclei.

  20. The functions of the cerebellum. Effects of removal or destruction of the cerebellum that occur in humans, their physiological mechanisms.

  21. Functional characteristic nuclei thalamus.

  22. Functions of hypothalamus.

  23. Features articulate the structure of the crust of large hemispheres. Areas of large hemisphere cortex. Electroencephalography.

  24. Structural features of PSNS and SNS.

  25. PSNS and SNS influence on the internal organs: heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, secretory organs, pupil, lacrimal glands.

  26. Vegetative reflexes.


Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch.. 45, 46, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60,


PRACTICAL CLASS #12 Data:_______________


^ THEME:"EXAMINATION OF MECHANISMS OF HUMORAL REGULATION OF VISCERAL FUNCTIONS "

Questions for discussion:

  1. Basic features of humoral regulation of functions.

  2. Regulation of humoral factors, their characterization and classification.

  3. The concept of hormones. Properties hormones.

  4. Classification of hormones.

  5. The concept of endocrine function of components.

  6. Regulation of the endocrine glands.

  7. The mechanism of secretion of hormones and forms of transport.

  8. Characterization of mechanisms cytoreception. The value of secondary mediators.

  9. The concept of the hypothalamic-hypophysial system.

  10. Neurohypophysis Hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action and functional effects.

  11. Adenohypophysis Hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional, metabolic and structural effects.

  12. Role of somatotropin in ensuring the growth and development. Value somatomedine. Effects of hypo-and hypersecretion somatotropin. The role of other hormones that affect the processes of growth (insulin, sex hormones, cortisol).


Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch. 74,75.


^ Work for the independent exercise:

Hormone

Place of creation

Chemical nature

Mechanism of сytoreception

Regulation of the secretion

Biological effects

Note

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Vasopressin




























































































































Oxytocin




























































































































TSH







































































































1

2

3

4

5

6

7

ACTH







































































































FSH





























































LH





























































Somatotropin







































































































Prolactin




























































































































Thyroxine


















































































Triiodthyronine






































































































































































Calcitonin






































































































































































Parathyroid



















hormone







































































































1,25(ОН)2D3








































1

2

3

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5

6

7










































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