Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology icon

Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology




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Practical class #13 Data:_______________


Theme:" Role of endocrine glands in regulation of functions of organism."

Questions for discussion:

    1. Hormones of the pancreas: insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and their impact on metabolism and the concentration of glucose in the blood.

    2. Functional System, which provides support for the sustainability of the concentration of glucose in the blood.

    3. Hormones that regulate calcium and phosphate homeostasis: parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, 1,25 (ОН)2D3. The influence of other hormones in calcium metabolism (glucocorticoids, somatotropin. Thyroid hormones, estrogens, insulin).

    4. Thyroid hormones: chemical nature, synthesis and secretion, regulation of the selection mechanism of action. Functional and metabolic effects. Effects of hypo-and hypersecretion.

    5. Adrenal cortex hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional and metabolic effects.

    6. Adrenal hormones in brain matter: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional and metabolic effects.

    7. The concept of stress. Types of adaptation to stressors. Adaptation syndrome (G. Selye). The role of sympatho-adrenal system in adaptation.

    8. Male sex hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional, metabolic and structural effects.

    9. Female sex hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional, metabolic and structural effects.

    10. Monthly ovarian cycle. Pregnancy. Hormones of the placenta.

    11. Thymus hormones. Thymic-lymphatic status.

    12. Hormones epiphysis.


Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Сh. 76-80.


Practical class #14 Data: _______________


Theme:" Practical skills in physiology of humoral regulation of body functions."


Questions for discussion:

1. Basic features of humoral regulation of functions.

  1. Regulation of humoral factors, their characterization and classification.

  2. The concept of hormones. Properties hormones. Classification of hormones.

  3. The concept of endocrine function of components. The mechanism of secretion of hormones and forms of transport. Characterization of mechanisms cytoreception. The value of secondary mediators.

  4. The concept of the hypothalamic-Hypophysial system.

  5. Neurohypophysis Hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action and functional effects.

  6. Adenohypophysis Hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional, metabolic and structural effects.

  7. Role of somatotropin in ensuring the growth and development. Value somatomedine. Effects of hypo-and hypersecretion somatotropin. The role of other hormones that affect the processes of growth (insulin, sex hormones, cortisol).

  8. Hormones of the pancreas: insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and their impact on metabolism and the concentration of glucose in the blood.

  9. Functional System, which provides support for the sustainability of the concentration of glucose in the blood.

  10. Hormones that regulate calcium and phosphate homeostasis: parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, 1,25 (ОН)2D3. The influence of other hormones in calcium metabolism (glucocorticoids, somatotropin. Thyroid hormones, estrogens, insulin).

  11. Thyroid hormones: chemical nature, synthesis and secretion, regulation of the selection mechanism of action. Functional and metabolic effects. Effects of hypo-and hypersecretion.

  12. Adrenal cortex hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional and metabolic effects.

  13. Adrenal hormones in brain matter: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional and metabolic effects.

  14. The concept of stress. Types of adaptation to stressors. Adaptation syndrome (G. Selye). The role of sympatho-adrenal system in adaptation.

  15. Male sex hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional, metabolic and structural effects.

  16. Female sex hormones: chemical nature, the regulation of the selection mechanism of action, functional, metabolic and structural effects. Monthly ovarian cycle. Pregnancy. Hormones of the placenta.



Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch.. 74, 75, 76, 77


Practical class #15 Data:_______________


Theme: «General characteristics of sensory systems. Research of somato-sensory analyzer."

Questions for discussion:

  1. The concept of sensory systems (analyzers).

  2. General principles of structure and basic functions of analysis.

  3. Properties analyzers.

  4. The notion of absolute and differential threshold of feeling. Weber-Fechner Law.

  5. Functional organization analysis.

  6. Classification of receptors and their function.

  7. The functions of conduction and central departments analyzers.

  8. Structural-functional organization of somato-sensory system (cutaneous and proprioseptic sensitivity).

  9. Physiological bases of pain. Nociception, physiological characteristics and classification nociceptors.

  10. Nociassociation or pain system, its structural and functional organization, leading
          ways and levels of processing. Physiological significance of pain.

  11. Antinociassociation system, its structural and functional organization opiatic and non-opiatic
          mechanisms, physiological role. Physiological bases of anesthesia.

  12. Structural-functional organization of taste sensory systems. Types of tastes
          mechanisms of their perception, physiological role.

  13. Structural-functional organization of olfactory sensory system. Classification of smells,
          theory of perception.


Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch. 45-48.


Practical work #1 : " Research of somato-sensory analyzer."


Materials and equipment: peas, esteziometer, ruler, object for investigation – human.


Procedure:

1. Aristotle’s experiment.
Index and middle fingers of the hand cross and ride them pea in the horizontal plane with your closed eyes. In a normal feeling that fingers rolled 2 peas.

2. Ivanov’s experiment.
Cross index and middle fingers of the hand and slowly holding the tip of the nose. In a normal feeling that fingers touched two nose tips.

3. Determination of the spatial threshold tactile sensitivity of human skin.
Target sits in a chair; he offered to close the eyes. Esteziometer (compasses Weber) with the most elevated legs to affect different areas of the skin (ends of fingers, palms, nose tip, forehead, forearm, shoulder, back). This followed the two legs esteziometer touched the skin simultaneously with the same stamping. Continue to touch different areas of the skin in that order, gradually increasing the distance between the arms, adding each time to 1 mm. Each sample has a touch answer, one or two touch, he feels. Record in which the distance between the arm and the skin area where he first felt the double touch.


Results:

1. When skating pea crossed fingers, we feel _____________________________________________________________________________

because __________________________________________________________________________


2. When you touch the tip of the nose crossed fingers felt

_____________________________________________________________________________

because _____________________________________________________________________________


3. Spatial threshold tactile skin sensitivity:























Aldosterone






































































































































































Cortisone

















































































































































Insulin

















































































































































Glucagon

















































































































































Epinerphine
















































































































































































































Progesteron






































































































































































1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Estrogen






































































































































































Androgens






































































































































































MSH

















































































































































Tymosin






































































































































































Relaxin






































































































































































Chorionic



















gonadotropin





































































































































































































































Skin

Distance (mm)

Ends of fingers




Palms




Nose tip




Forehead




Forearm




Shoulder




Back





Conclusion: Mark where the body segment density location tactile receptors in? What body area the patient is most sensitive?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________


^ Work for the independent exercise:


  1. Draw a scheme of olfactory analyzer, designate its parts.




  1. What would seem studied water temperature of 200, while lowering it in both hands, if he kept one hand in the water temperature of 400, and another - a temperature of 100? How to explain the feeling that when this occurs?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. During the application of weak shots to the back surface of the skin brush sample mostly felt touch, less pain. With more intense injection of the same area, he felt only pain. Please explain this phenomenon.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. A man, who entered the room, felt a sharp smell of lily of the valley. She soon ceased to feel it. Why do people who were long in this room doing not feel this smell?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Draw the scheme of the main ways of somatosensory system; specify its types of receptors on which they transmit nerve signals.



Practical class #16 Data:_______________


Theme: "Investigation of visual, auditory and vestibular sensory systems."

Questions for discussion:

  1. Structural-functional organization of the visual analyzer.

  2. The optical system of the eye. Mechanism of refraction and accommodation. Refractive errors eyes.

  3. Pupillary reflex, its physiological significance.

  4. Receptor apparatus visual analyzer. Structure and function of individual layers of the retina.

  5. Photochemical and electrical phenomena in the retina.

  6. Light and Contrast Sensitivity of view. The notion of adaptation view.

  7. Modern understanding of the mechanisms of perception of color. Major violations
          perception of color.

  8. Basic visual function and physiological basis of their research.

  9. Overview of the hearing analyzer. Features external and middle ear.

  10. Structural-functional organization of the inner ear. The mechanisms of perception of sounds.

  11. Analyze frequency and strength of sounds. Characteristics of sound sensations.

  12. Structural-functional organization of the vestibular analyzer. Vestibular reactions.



Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch. 49-53.


Practical work #1 : "Determination of sharpness vision."


Visual acuity - the ability to see these two points separately at their closest approach. Develop measures of the image on the retina depends on the angle of view - the angle that is formed between the light rays that come to the eyes of two light points. Minimum angle of view, which distinguishes between two people is illuminated point is 1o.
Visual acuity is determined in relative units (standard - 1.0) Definition for transmitting to help special-tables (Sivtsev-Golovin’s tables). Tables are containing 12 rows of letters and symbols as rings. On the left side of the table near each line represents the distance from which recognize letters in normal stars. On the right side indicated visual acuity patient, which recognize the letters and characters of this line from a distance of 5 m.
 

Materials and equipment: Sivtsev-Golovin’s tables, object for investigation – human.


Procedure:

  1. Hang on a wall Sivtsev’s table so that its bottom line was at eye level patient.

  2. The patient sits down on a chair at a distance of 5 meters from the table.

  3. Close one eye a corymb.

  4. Experimenter showed him the letters and invites them to call. Investigations begin with
         top line, gradually moving to lower.

  5. Finds a row in which the patient cannot name all the letters. The last line in which the patient correctly named all the letters is an indicator of visual acuity. On the right side of the table specified visual acuity patient, which recognize the letters and characters at a distance of 5 m.

  6. If the study conducted at a distance, more or less than 5 m, the calculation of visual acuity are Snellen’s formula: v = d / D, where v-visual acuity, d - the distance from which the patient sees this line, D - the distance from which he should see this line for normal visual acuity (1.0) - shown on the left side of the table.

  7. Similarly, exploring the second eye.

Results:

Sharpness vision: right eye – ___________, left eye – ___________.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Conclusions: mark, whether certain indexes a norm answer _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #2 : "Determination of the visual field."


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