Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology icon

Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology




НазваMinistry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology
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Part of the space, which covered the fixed condition the eyeball is called the field of view. Size of the visual field is limited to nose, superciliary arcs, cheeks. In normal field of view of an adult is: top - 48-50o, down - 65-70o, outside - 90o inside - 50-60o. Determine the field of view by using perimeter or under the control of the visual field experiment. The limits of the visual field size measured angle that formed the eye visual axis and the line held by the last seen point to the periphery through the point of the eye to the retina.


Materials and equipment: board, chalk, marker, object for investigation – people.


Procedure:

  1. A patient stays at a distance of 1 m from the board.

  2. In the center of the board at eye level the patient to draw a circle with diameter 1 - 2 cm and hold it through the 8 lines every 45o.

  3. The patient covers one eye, and the second captures Token, which is located in the circle.

  4. Experimenter moves the marker on each line from the center to the periphery and makes on the icon at the place the line where the patient stops seeing token.

  5. The marked points connecting straight lines.


Results: Draw received schematic view for each eye.








Right eye Left eye


Conclusions: mark the visual field. : _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #3 : "Observation blind spots (Marriott’s experiment)"


Materials and equipment: cards, object for investigation – people.


Procedure:

1. Set at a distance of 20-25 cm at eye level the patient card, a painted cross (left) and circle (right).
2. Close right eye. Left lock right image.
3. Estrange or bringing the card to the eye, find the distance at which the image disappears.
4. Repeat the study, closing the left eye.

Results: Describe the results of observations.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Conclusions: explain results. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #4 : "Investigation of pupillary reflex."


Materials and equipment: object for investigation – people.


Procedure:

1. The patient sits down on a chair so that eyes light up a moderate light, and captures the eyes and external remote high point so that the eyes were directed upwards.
2. Eyes close by hands on 20 sec.
3. Quickly take your hands and observe the change of the width of pupil.
4. Close one eye and hand to observe or change the width of pupil second eye.

Results: Describe the results of observations.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Draw the reflex arch of pupillary reflex


Conclusions: explain results. : _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #5 : "Determination of sharpness hearing."


Materials and equipment: object for investigation – people.


Procedure:

  1. The patient sits down at a distance of 6 m from the experimenter, one hand covering the ear.

  2. Experimenter called whisper words with hard consonants (or numbers).

  3. The patient repeats the words heard.

  4. If the patient cannot hear the words, then reduce the distance to the experiment at 1 m and closer.

  5. Repeat the study for the second ear.


Results:
sharpness hearing for the right ear _________________________________,
sharpness hearing for the left ear _________________________________.

Conclusion: explain the results.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #6: "Investigation of air and bone conduction of sounds."


Air conducting sounds are normal physiological process, and bone-conducting (through the skull bone) - a related process and to obtain sound information is of secondary importance. In the normal relations between duration of air and bone conduction 2: 1. When you damage the sound device sound tuning fork to hear through bone. This study has important diagnostic value.


Materials and equipment: Tuning forks, stopwatches, cotton tampons, object for investigation – human.

Procedure:

  1. Patient sits down on a chair.

  2. Make stem tuning fork that sounds to mastoid process.

  3. Fix the time during which the patient hears the sound of tuning fork. This duration of bone conduction sounds.

  4. Once the sound disappears, pitchfork to move the ears and placed at 0.5 cm from the outer ear passage.

  5. Fix the time during which the patient hears the sound of tuning fork. This duration of air conduction sounds.

  6. To avoid adaptation hearing analyzer during the study pitchfork is remote from the ear (50 cm), then again bring to it. Fork must be held for the legs, not touching it bransh not to extinguish it amplitude fluctuations.

  7. Put the fork stem, which sounds at mid sinciput.

  8. Fix any sound in both ears.

  9. Close the external acoustic duct of right ear a wadding tampon.

  10. Mark amplification in a closed ear.



Results:
The duration of bone conduction ______________________,
The duration of air conduction ________________________.
The relationship between the duration of bone conduction and air conduction _______________.

Conclusion: What kind of conduct sound better? What kind of conduct sound prevailing in the patient? Why increasing bone conduction in the closed ear?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #7 : "Investigation of the vestibular analyzer."


Materials and equipment: object for investigation – human.



Procedure:

  1. Patients with closed eyes set on a background of vertical lines (edge of the cabinet, cheek) with heel upon and socks and hands extended forward. Mark, in which direction and how many cm is a deviation from the vertical line.

  2. On the floor to draw 3 circles with diameters 25, 50 and 100 cm Cola divided into 8 sectors of 45o each. The patient with closed eyes becomes the center of the circle back to the light. Under its own arithmetic makes 50 steps in place raising feet high. When he stops, evaluate degree of rotation around its own axis. In the normal rotation does not exceed 45o. Linear displacement forward while allowed tagging 100 cm.

  3. On the floor to hold 2 parallel lines at a distance of 20 cm length of 5 m race ends on both sides start-finish rectangular 30x40 cm sites studied offer pass line first opened, and then with eyes closed - forward and back. Deviation should not exceed 15 cm.


Results:
1. Deviation from the vertical line is _________ cm.
2. Deviation forward (back) is _______ cm axis _______ o.
3. Deviation from the site is _________ cm.

Conclusion: mark vestibular analyzer.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________


Work for the independent exercise:


  1. Draw the scheme of visual analyzer, label the component parts.



  1. Draw the scheme of hearing analyzer, label the component parts.




3. Draw the scheme of vestibular analyzer, label the component parts.




Practical class #16 Data:_______________


Theme17: "Physiological bases of behavior. Investigation of formation and inhibition of conditional reflexes. Research types of Higher Nervous Activity (HNA)."

Questions for discussion:

1. General characteristics of congenital and acquired forms of behavior.

2. Comparison of conditional and unconditional reflexes.

  1. Conditional reflexes: general characteristics, properties, conditions of formation and preservation. Mechanism of closure of the temporary connection.

  2. Braking conditional reflexes, brake types, their physiological significance.


Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch.


Practical work #1 : "Evaluation of short-term memory capacity."


Materials and equipment: colored pictures, object for investigation – human.

Procedure:

  1. Assessment of visual memory capacity.

  2. During the 30 sec. study examines 15 cards with colored drawings. Then he called drawings, which are remembered in an arbitrary sequence. The number of these cards is the capacity of visual memory.

  3. Evaluation of auditory memory capacity.

  4. During 30 sec. studied read aloud 15 words. He calls the words, remember that in an arbitrary sequence. The number of these cards is the capacity of auditory memory.

  5. Rating capacity logical memory.

  6. During 30 sec. studied reading set of 15 words that are interlinked content and form of the specific event or phenomenon. He calls the words that remembered. Number of these words is the capacity of logical memory.


Results:

  1. The capacity of visual memory is __________

  2. List of words to assess auditory memory

_________________________ ________________________ ________________________

_______________________ ______________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________


Capacity auditory memory is __________


3. List of words to assess the logical memory


_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________

_______________________ ________________________ ______________________


Capacity logical memory is __________

Conclusion: Mark, what kind of short-term memory prevails in the patient.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________


Practical class #18 Data:_______________


Theme: " Examination of higher mental functions types. Practical skills in higher nervous functions."


Questions for discussion:


1. Memory. Types and mechanisms of memory.

2. Structure holistic act behavior (by P.K. Anokhin).

3. The role of motivation in the implementation of behavioral reactions.

4. The mechanism of formation and biological significance of emotions.

  1. Sleep, its phase, the development of mechanisms and biological significance for the organism.

  2. Concept about first and second signal system.

  3. Functions of new part of the brain and higher nervous activity of man.

  4. Functional asymmetry using a large hemispheres of the brain, the concept of dominant hemisphere function non-dominant hemisphere interaction hemisphere.

  5. Language. Functional language. Physiological bases of its formation. Age of higher nervous activity in man.

  6. Types of higher nervous activity, their classification, physiological bases, methods. The role of education.

  7. Types of nervous system in humans, methods of research.

  8. Thinking. Role of brain structures in the process of thinking. Consciousness.



Practical work #1 : "Evaluation of mobility nervous processes."


Materials and equipment: cards, object for investigation – human.


Procedure:

  1. Investigation of speed of visual motor reaction.

  2. Studied offered a card with a set of numbers to 35, placed in random combinations. You need to find early, and show name on the card all the numbers in increasing the order, and then in reverse order. In the first case, the normal timing the 40 – 60 sec, in the second – 60-75 sec.

  3. Determination of latent period of response to verbal stimulus by association.

  4. Experimenter called 20 words (nouns), to study early call word (verb, adjective), which emerged for the association. Fix the time of the end of heard words to the beginning called (latent period of responses - LP) and a response. Duration of latent period and determine the average value. If LP less than 3sec., the high mobility of nervous processes. If the LP extended to the end of the experiment, the examinee has the power and excitement, he quickly tired. Repetition of the same words shows inert nervous processes. By a ratio of specific and talk about abstract concepts to concrete or abstract thinking.

Results:

1.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2. List of words to assess the mobility of nervous processes.


Word

Association

Latent period






















































































































































































Average Latent period – __________ sec.

By the end of the experiment latent period extended – yes (no), indicating

_____________________________________________________________________________

Repetition ____________, which indicates _____________________________________________
Specific notions of abstract ________, __________, which indicates

_____________________________________________________________________________


Conclusions: The rate of mobility of nervous processes the patient.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Practical work #2: "Investigation of temperament."

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