Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology icon

Ministry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology




НазваMinistry of education and science of ukraine sumy State University medical institute department of Physiology and Pathophysiology
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Дата28.01.2013
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Procedure:

  1. Sheet of paper divided into 4 and each of the mark according to the name of temperament.

  2. Experimenter read out the standard for each type of temperament traits, and the patient in the appropriate column puts the sign «+», if it is inherent trait.

  3. Count the total number of «+» and of «+» in each column.

  4. The share of each type of temperament calculated by the formula: T = (a: A) × 100%, where T - % expression of the temperament, a – the number of «+» in the column of the temperament, and A – the total number of «+». If the type of temperament as% of 40% or more - the dominant type, 30 - 35% is a distinct, 20 - 25% - quite pronounced, less than 20% weakly expressed, less than 10% - is not evident.



Results:





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Conclusion: Mark is the type of temperament expressed in the patient.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________


Practical class #18 Data___________________

Theme:"Practical skills in physiology HNA"


Individual students' work - protection category.
  

Topic list category:

1. Influence of social factors on the formation of higher mental functions.
2. Analytic-synthetic activity of the cerebral cortex.
3. Human circadian rhythm.
4. The role of the limbic system in the formation of emotions.
5. Neurochemical basis of memory.
6. Organization of primary and secondary memory.
7. Biological motivation and intelligence.
8. The mechanism of sleep.
9. Functional and structural prerequisites for the formation of consciousness.
10. Role prefrontalnoyi cortex in the development strategies of behavior.
11. Principles of behavioral reactions in humans.
12. Principles of formation of automatic movements in human behavior.
13. Nature neural processes that underlie thinking.
14. Principles of coding and transmission of sensory information.
15. Neural mechanisms of the cerebral cortex.
16. Perceptions of information and emotions.
17. The spatial organization of brain processes.
18. Principles of formation of abstract thinking.
19. Neurophysiological aspects of the systemic mechanisms of behavior.
20. The role of biological motivation in the formation of emotions.
21. Information processes of the brain.
22. Mechanisms for evaluation of signals from the environment in the cerebral cortex.
23. Fundamentals of human adaptation to new environmental conditions.
24. The principles of integrity in the brain.
25. Mechanisms of formation of food behavior.
26. The role of instincts in human life.


Practical class #19 Data___________________

Theme: "Research of physical and chemical properties (characteristics) of the blood. Determination of ESR".


Questions for discussion:

1. Functions of blood.

2. Volume of circulatory blood (VCB). Factors which are determine VCB.

3. Composition of peripheral blood.

4. Haematocrit. Factors which determine haematocrit. Methods of haematocrit determination.

5. Value of water.

6. Composition and value of proteins in blood plasma.

7. The role of oncotic pressure in the redistribution of water in an organism.

8. Value of electrolytes in blood plasma.

9. Osmotic pressure of blood plasma. Functional system which provides constancy of osmotic pressure.

10. Physical and chemical properties of the blood.

11. Active reaction of blood. Mechanisms which provides of constancy of pH.

12. Principles of functioning of buffer systems.

13. Indexes of the acid-base state of blood.


Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch. 32


Practical work#1: “Determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)”.

At standing of stabilized blood, erythrocytes under power of the gravity are precipitated. Blood is divided in 2 layers: upper (colorless, transparent) – a plasma; lower (red, opaque) – an erythrocytes. The normal ESR of men is 2-10 mm / hr., of women - 2-15 mm / hr.


^ Materials and equipments: Panchenkov’s apparatus, which consists of to the stand with rubber basis, capillaries for determination of ESR, sentinel glass, 5% solution of sodium citrate, 96% alcohol, 2% solution of alcoholic iodine, cotton wool, rubber pear.


Procedure:

  1. Irrigate the capillary with 5% solution of sodium citrate.

  2. Take the solution of sodium citrate before the mark P of the capillary and release it on the glass.

  3. Take the blood twice before the mark K on the capillary; release both portions on the glass.

  4. Stir mixture of blood and sodium citrate (4:1) thoroughly taking it in the capillary and releasing it on the glass several times.

  5. It is necessary to hold the capillary horizontally, having lowered its tip in the drop of blood, law of capillarity, fills the capillary itself, or you can use a dropping pipette.

  6. Fix the capillary in the Panchenkov’s apparatus.

  7. Determine the height of the vertical column of the plasma in the capillary in 30 minutes or 1 hour.


Results:

  1. Draw Panchenkov’s apparatus and the capillary apart.

  2. Write down the size of ESR in a norm.

  3. Write down the height of the vertical column of the plasma in the capillary:




Panchenkov’s apparatus






Capillary for determination of ESR




  1. ERS for women = ___________ mm per hour;

ESR for men = ___________ mm per hour.


  1. After 30 min. = _________ mm,

After 60 min. (1 hour) = __________ mm.


Conclusions:

1.Was your ESR value normal in the study of the blood?
2.Was the ratio of albumin and globulin in blood plasma normal?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Teacher’s signature ___________________


^ Work for the independent exercise:

    1. Draw the reflex arc of the osmoregulative reflex.




    1. Write down reactions, explaining the mechanism of the phosphate buffer system.



When acidosis:

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


When alkalosis:

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3. What are the factors that affect the ESR?

Accelerating ESR

Reduce ESR

























































Practical class #20 Data:_______________


Theme: "Determination of the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in blood ".


Question for discussion:

  1. 1. The concept of Erythron.

  2. The functions of erythrocytes.

  3. Amount of red blood cells. Understanding of erytrocytosis and erytropenia.

  4. Methods of counting the number of red blood cells.

  5. Forms of the red blood cells.

  6. Diameter of erythrocytes. Curve of Price - Jones.

  7. Plasticity of erythrocytes.

  8. Osmotic resistance of erythrosytes.

  9. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Factors that influence the ESR.

  10. Functional properties of the components of erythrocytes.

  11. Forms and compounds of hemoglobin.

  12. Methods for determination of hemoglobin in peripheral blood.

  13. Indicators used to assess erythropoiesis.

  14. Formation of red blood cells in the body.

  15. Mechanisms of regulation of erythropoiesis.

  16. Causes and mechanisms of destruction of erythrocytes.

  17. Types of hemolysis.



Literature:

Guyton, Arthur C. Textbook of medical physiology – Ch. 32.


Practical work#1: "Erythrocyte count."

Erythrocytes are counted with the help of Goryaev’s calculating camera under the microscope. This method is complicated but regular enough (permissible variation is not up to 2,5%).

The net rate of calculating camera consists of 225 large quadrates, 25 out of them are divided into 16 small ones.

The side of small quadrate is 1/20 mm, square is 1/400 mm2, the height of camera (the distance between the bottom and the covering glass) is 1/10 mm. So, the size of the camera upon the small quadrate is 1/4000 mm3 (1/400•1/10).

Blood for the count of the erythrocytes is diluted in special mixing tube (melanger) – capillary pipettes with the ampoule dilation. There are marks 0,5 and 101 on the mixing tubes. Mark 0,5 shows what part of the mixing tube takes this column of capillary, filled with blood. This volume takes 1/200 of the all volume of the mixing tube. So, blood is dissolved in 200 times. Blood can be diluted in 200 times by other methods. For example, put 4 ml of 5% solution of sodium citrate in the test-tube and add 20 ml of blood with micropipette. It is necessarily to wash out the micropipette three times in this solution, so that all blood will get into the tube.

Normally the amount of erythrocytes of men is 4-5•1012, of women 3,9-4,7•1012.


^ Materials and equipments: microscope, Goryaev’s camera, covering glass, mixing tube for the erythrocytes, 3% solution of sodium chloride, 96% alcohol, 2% alcohol solution of iodine, cotton wool.


Procedure:

  1. To prepare Goryaev’s camera for work:

  • perform defatting with alcohol and dry the camera and the covering glass;

  • lap the covering glass to the camera till the appearance of the Newton’s rings;

  • find the net under the large enlargement.

  1. Prepare blood for work:

  • fill the capillary till the mark of 0,5; clean the opening from blood with the cotton wool;

  • don’t release the blood from the capillary and fill it with 3% solution of sodium chloride till the mark of 101;

  • mix the solution with blood in the ampule of mixing tube (there is a tiny red ball to ease the mixing process). Blood will be diluted in 200 times.

  1. To fill camera with blood:

  • blow first two drops of solution out of the capillary on the cotton wool;

  • next drops from the ampule solution put in the camera. Put the tip of the melager on the edge of camera near the covering glass and blow it out accurately. Solution will go under the covering glass into the camera and will fill it. Wait for 1-2 minutes for erythrocytes to sedimentate on the bottom of the camera.

  1. Calculate the amount of the erythrocytes:

  • count the amount of erythrocytes in 5 large quadrates of the net diagonally. Remember Burker’s rule when counting erythrocytes: in small quadrates count cells, which are inside the quadrate and on its superior and left sides. This will predict counting erythrocytes twice;

  • calculate the amount of erythrocytes in 1 mkl of blood by formula:





Where E – is the quantity of erythrocytes in 1 mkl;

a – the amount of erythrocytes in 5 large quadrates of net;

5 – the amount of large quadrates;

16 – the amount of small quadrates;

200 – the degree of blood dilution;

1/4000 mm3 – the volume of 1 small quadrate


There is a simplified formula: E = a•104

- to find the amount of erythrocytes in 1 l of blood by formula E•106


Results:

  1. Draw down the mixing tube for the erythrocytes.

  2. Write down the process of the erythrocyte counting.

  3. Define the amount of erythrocytes in 1 l of blood.

  4. What is the normal number of erythrocytes for men?


1
Mixing tube for the erythrocytes
)


2) The process of the erythrocyte counting:































































































































































































































































3)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


4) At norm the number of erythrocytes for men = ________________,

for women______________.

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