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MINISTRY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH OF UKRAINE

BUKOVINIAN STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY


APPROVED»

Executive Pro-rector of scientific

and pedagogical work

professor___________ Yu.T.Akhtemiychuk

„_______” _______________ 2010 year


STUDENT’S MANUAL ON THE SUBJECT

“Histology, Cytology and Embryology”


for students of the speciality “General Medicine”

(structure, aims, content of the science, estimation criteria, review questions)


The student’s Manual is compiled on the basis of the current educational plan and curriculum on the subject “Histology, Cytology and Embryology” for the students of higher medical educational establishments of the III-IV levels of accreditation (MPH of Ukraine, Kiev, 2005).


Approved at the sitting of Medical Biology,

Genetics and Histology Department

“__”_________ 2010 minutes No ________


Chief,

Department

fssistant professor Bulyk R.Ye.


Approved at the sitting of Subject Methodological Board

on the Medical-Biological Disciplines of a Morphological profile

“__”_________ 2010 minutes No ________


Chief

Subject Methodological Board

professor B. G. Makar


^
Chernivtsi – 2010

Study discipline

Histology, Cytology and Embryology


normative discipline, discipline by the student’s selection (necessary to underline)

The subject «Histology, Cytology and Embryology» is a compulsory and integral chain in the system of medical-biological sciences. Sometimes Histology is called microscopic anatomy, as it studies the structure of the body on the microscopic level. The knowledge about the structure and functions of the cells and tissues is necessary for further mastering and learning fundamental medical-biological disciplines, such as Normal Physiology, Pathological Physiology, Biochemistry, Pathological Anatomy, Pharmacology. This subject ensures the essential basis for successful mastering of clinical subjects and, thus, plays the role of an integrating science which creates the link between medical-biological and clinical disciplines.



The final aims of the subject:

ПН.015 To determine critical periods of embryogenesis, abnormalities of the human development

ПН.027 To interpret regularities of the human embryonic development

ПН.029 To interpret microscopic and submicroscopic cellular structure

^ ПН.041 To explain the main principles of organization of various tissues, their interrelation

ПН.042 To explain peculiarities of embryonic development of the tissues (histogenesis) and organs (organogenesis)

ПН.051 To explain microscopic structure of various human organs in the aspect of interrelations of the tissues which constitute them in different periods of age as well as under of physiological and reparation regeneration


The periods of studies for the subject “Histology, Cytology and Embryology” is 1 year consisting of 2 educational semesters: II – spring and III – autumn. The number of hours – 285 (9,5 credits of ECTS) including lectures – 40 hours, practical classes – 130 hours, independent student’s work – 115 hours. The content is divided into 3 modules and 6 content modules:

MODULE І Fundamentals of cytology and general embryology.

Content module 1. Fundamentals of cytology.

Content module 2. General and comparative embryology.

^ MODULE IІ General hіstоlоgy.

Content module 3. Hіstоlоgy of the general tissues.

Content module 4. Hіstоlоgy of the special tissues.

MODULE ІII Special histology and embryology.

Content module 5. Special histology and embryology of the regulatory and sensory systems.

Content module 6. Special histology and embryology of the internal organs.


Structure of the discipline and score for the current education

Number of the module, amount of hours

Amount of content modules, their numbers

Number of practical classes

Conversion of traditional marks

Minimal score*

Traditional marks

Grades given for independent work

"5"

"4"

"3"

"2"

Module 1 55/1,8

2

(№№ 1-2)

15

8

7

5

0

8

70

Module 2 75/2,5

2

(№№ 3-4)

16

7

6

5

0

15

75

Module 3 155/5,2

2

(№№ 5-6)

34

3,5

3

2

0

4,5

70,5


*Minimal score which the student has to gain for his current education within a certain module in order to be allowed to take the final module test.


^ CONTENT OF THE PROGRAM

MODULE І. Fundamentals of cytology and general embryology


The thematic plan of the lectures



Theme

Hours

1.

Introduction. History of the science development. Basic cytology.

2

2.

Fundamentals of the general embryology. Peculiarities of the human embryogenesis.

2

TOTAL

4


The thematic plan of the practical classes



Theme

Hours

1.

History of the science development.

2

2.

Preparation of tissues for the microscopic examination. Methods of the microscopic investigations.

2

3.

Cellular theory. Cell, its structure and function. Plasmalemma.

2

4.

Cytoplasm: general organelles.

2

5.

Cytoplasm: specialized organelles. Inclusions.

2

6.

Nucleus of the cell. Cell division. Aging and death of the cells.

2

7.

Control of the content module 1.

2

8.

Gametogenesis. Sex cells.

2

9.

Fertilization. Cleavage.

2

10.

Gastrulation.

2

11.

Differentiation of the germ layers.

2

12.

Extraembryonic organs.

2

13.

Human embryogenesis.

2

14.

Control of the content module 2.

2

15.

Final control test of the module 1.

2

TOTAL

30


Tasks for the independent (individual) students’ work



Theme

Hours

1.

Histology in Ukraine. History of the department of histology BSMU.

1

2.

Basic legal and medicosocial aspects of the experimental investigations in histology, cytology and embryology. Notion of the fundamentals of biosafety and bioethics at the level of the government regulation of the biomedical invasions.

2

3.

Reactions of cells on the damage. Adaptation, its significance for the life saving in the changed conditions of existence.

2

4.

Meiosis.

1

5.

Embryogenesis of lancelet, lower and higher vertebrates.

2

6.

Formation, structure and development of placenta in the different periods of pregnancy. System "mother-fetus".

2

7.

Preparation for the final control test on the module I.

10

TOTAL

21


^ MODULE ІІ. General histology


The thematic plan of the lectures



Theme

Hours

1.

The study of tissues. Epithelial tissues.

2

2.

Blood and lymph. Haemopoiesis.

2

3.

Connective tissues.

2

4.

Skeletal tissues.

2

5.

Muscle tissues.

2

6.

Nervous tissue.

2

TOTAL

12


The thematic plan of the practical classes



Theme

Hours

1.

The study of tissues. Epithelial tissues: covering epithelium.

2

2.

Epithelial tissues: glandular epithelium.

2

3.

Blood: erythrocytes, thrombocytes.

2

4.

Blood: leukocytes. Lymph.

2

5.

Postembryonic haemopoiesis.

2

6.

Loose connective tissue.

2

7.

Dense connective tissue.

Connective tissues with special properties.

2

8.

Skeletal connective tissues: cartilage.

2

9.

Skeletal connective tissues: bone.

2

10.

Control of the content module 3.

2

11.

Smooth muscle tissue.

2

12.

Skeletal muscle tissue.

Cardiac muscle tissue.

2

13.

Nervous tissue: neurons, neuroglia.

2

14.

Nerve fibers. Nerve endings.

2

15.

Control of the content module 4.

2

16.

Final control test of the module 2.

2

TOTAL

32


Tasks for the independent (individual) students’ work



Theme

Hours

1.

General principles of the tissue organization.

3

2.

Glandular epithelium. Morpho-functional particularities of the endocrine and exocrine glands.

4

3.

Embryonic haemopoiesis.

2

4.

Interaction of blood cells and cells of connective tissue in the immune reactions.

4

5.

Histogenesis of the bone tissue. Integration of the cartilage and bone matrix.

2

6.

Nerve endings.

2

7.

Regeneration. Particularities of regeneration of muscle and nervous tissues.

4

8.

Preparation for the final control test on the module 2.

10

HOURS

31



^ MODULE ІІІ. Special histology and embryology


The thematic plan of the lectures



Theme

Hours

1.

Nervous system.

2

2.

Sense organs. Eye.

2

3.

Sense organs. Audiovestibular organ.

2

4.

Cardiovascular system.

2

5.

Organs of haemopoiesis and immune defense.

2

6.

Endocrine system.

2

7.

Respiratory system.

2

8.

Digestive system: digestive tube.

2

9.

Digestive system: pancreas, liver.

2

10.

Urinary system.

2

11.

Male reproductive system.

2

12.

Female reproductive system.

2

TOTAL

24


The thematic plan of the practical classes



Theme

Hours



Spinal cord.

2



Large hemisphers of the brain.

2



Cerebellum.

2



Spinal ganglion. Peripheral nerve.

2



Autonomic nervous system.

2



Organ of the smell. Taste organ.

2



Sense organs. Eye.

2



Audiovestibular organ.

2



Arteries and veins. Microcirculatory bed.

2



Heart.

2



Bone marrow. Thymus.

2



Lymph node.

2



Spleen.

2



Hypothalamus. Pituitary gland.

2



Pineal body. Dissociative endocrine system.

2



Thyroid and parathyroid glands.

2



Adrenal glands.

2



Skin and its derivatives.

2



Control of the content module 5.

2



Respiratory system.

2



Digestive system: organs of the oral cavity.

2



Esophagus.

2



Stomach.

2



Small intestine. Large intestine.

2



Salivary glands.

2



Pancreas.

2



Liver. Biliary tract.

2



Kidney and uurinary tract.

2



Male reproductive system.

2



Ovaries. Uterine tubes.

2



Uterus. Menstrual cycle.

2



Mammary glands.

2



Control of the content module 6.

2



Final control test of the module3.

2
  1   2   3

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