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Ministry of the public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university




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Tasks for the independent (individual) students’ work

TOTAL

68



Theme

Hours

1.

Development of the nervous system.

4

2.

Functional significance and principles of organization of brain stem.

4

3.

Notion about “analyzer”, its content parts and functional significance.

4

4.

Taste organ.

2

5.

Organ of smell.

2

6.

Morpho-functional particularities of lymphatic vessels.

4

7.

Elements of the macrophage system in the haemopoietic organs and its role in the protective reactions of organism.

4

8.

Structural organization and functional significance of the skin derivatives.

4

9.

Nasal cavity. Pharynx.

4

10.

Development of organs of digestive system.

4

11.

Teeth.

4

12.

Gallbladder.

2

13.

Endocrine apparatus of kidney.

2

14.

Spermatogenesis.

3

15.

Oogenesis.

3

16.

Family planning. Modern views to the problem of infertility, pregnancy regulation. Contraception methods. Bioethic problems of demographic crisis and ways of their decision.

3

17.

Preparation for the final control test on the module 3.

10

TOTAL

63


^ THE LIST OF INDIVIDUAL TASKS:

1. To write histological crosswords on certain topics of the subject.

2. Participation in the work of a student’s scientific club, making reports at scientific conferences.

3. Making tables with illustrations.


^ ESTIMATION OF STUDENT’S EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY

THE MARK FOR A MODULE is calculated as a sum of current, educational score plus the score received after passing the final module test. Maximal score is 200 including 120 for current studies and 80 for the final module test.

^ Students are estimated at every practical class by means of theoretical questioning, testing, solution of situational tasks, description of histological specimens and electron microphotos, writing protocols of the practical classes.

EXCELLENT” is given to a student who competently, logically and clearly using the data of additional literature has answered all the questions and revealed his/her ability to read histological specimens.

GOOD” is given to a student who is quite competent in the material but makes two or three insignificant mistakes while answering.

SATISFACTORY” is given to a student who knows the whole material of the program but has some difficulty to reproduce it logically without help from outside and thus making an examiner to ask some loading additional questions.

BAD” is given in cases when a student demonstrates poor or complete lack of knowledge of the questions and does not understand the main topics of histology which can be revealed by asking additional questions.

^ The maximal score that a student can gain for the current educational activities while learning a module is 120, which is calculated by multiplying the points corresponding to the traditional mark “5” by the number of topics in the module, plus the points for the student’s individual task.

^ The minimal score that a student can gain for the current educational activities while learning a module is 70, which is calculated by multiplying the points corresponding to the traditional mark “3” by the number of topics in the module, plus the points for the student’s individual task.

While assessing every topic of a module students are given marks according to the 4 points scale. The marks will be converted into points depending on the number of topics in the module in the following way:


Mark

Module 1

Module 2

Module 3

"5"

8

7

3,5

"4"

7

6

3

"3"

5

5

2

"2"

0

0

0


The final module test is carried out special practical classes after completion of content modules 2, 4 and 6. According to the educational curriculum there are three final module tests which include situational tasks, diagnostics of histological specimens and electron microphotos, answers to theoretical questions from a certain chapter of the subject. The final module test is taken orally and in written form in two stages:

  1. Solving the tests in the form of situational tasks.

  2. Describing two histological specimens with the analysis and estimation of structural peculiarities of the tissues and organs; identification of the main structures on electron microphoto.

The list of review questions, histological specimens and microphotos is included into methodological instructions for the students. The final module test contains also the questions from lectures and topics for individual work.


^ Estimation criteria of the final module test

The final module test is estimated in the score between 50 (minimal) and 80 (maximal).

The first stage of the final module test: every student is given 25 or 50 tests each question of which is estimated as 1 or 0,5 point respectively, as a result, the student can get 25 in maximum.

The second stage of the final module test: every student is given to describe two histological specimens and one electron microphoto with the further oral analysis and estimation of structural peculiarities of the cells, tissues and organs. This stage is estimated maximum in 55 (25 points for each specimen and 5 points for electron microphoto).

^ Estimation criteria of the identification and description of the histological specimen:

The student is given 25, when he diagnosed histological specimen independently, substantiated its staining, answered theoretical questions completely and in a logical order concerning, peculiarities of the structure of cells, and tissues of the given histological specimen.

The student is given 21-24, when he diagnosed histological specimen independently, identified the main structural components of cells and tissues, but made 2-3 not very big mistakes.

The student is given 11-20, when he has certain difficulties to identify histological specimen independently, but knows the material and has some problems to show his knowledge and the teacher has to ask more questions to help the student in answering completely.

The student is given ^ 1-10, when he is not able to diagnose histological specimen, but knows theoretical material.

The student is given 0, when he does not know histological specimen, reveals poor knowledge of the main material, is not able to answer correctly.


Estimation criteria of the identification and description of the histological specimen:

The student is given 5, when he diagnosed electron microphoto independently, answered theoretical questions completely and identified the main structural components of the cells and tissues on the electron microphoto.

The student is given 4, when he diagnosed electron microphoto independently, identified the main structural components of cells and tissues, but made 1-2 not very big mistakes.

The student is given 2-3, when he has certain difficulties to identify microphoto independently, but knows the material and has some problems to show his knowledge and the teacher has to ask more questions to help the student in answering completely.

The student is given ^ 1, when he is not able to diagnose electron microphoto, but knows theoretical material.

The student is given 0, when he does not know electron microphoto, reveals poor knowledge of the main material, is not able to answer correctly.


Note: if a student has protocol which is not signed, the general mark of the content module is lowered to 1 point, general score is lowered to 6 points.


Only the students who attended all the practical classes and lectures stipulated by the educational curriculum and got general score no less than minimal are allowed to take the final module test.


^ If the student fails, he is allowed to take the final module test twice only:


^ The mark for the subject is given only to the students who passed all the modules. It is calculated as an arithmetical mean of all the scores for three modules. The grades are converted according to the following scale:

^ Mark according to ECTS

Mark by the national scale


Score by BSMU scale

A (excellent)

5

180 – 200

B (very good)

4

165 – 179

C (good)

4

150 – 164

D (satisfactory)

3

135 – 149

E (poor)

3

120 – 134

FX (bad with an attempt to take again)

2

70 – 119

F (bad with obligatory repeated course)

2

1 – 69

The marks A, B, C, D, E are given to the students who passed the subject successfully.

The marks ^ FX, F are given to the students who did not pass at least one final module test after completion of studies.

The mark FX is given to the students who gained the minimal score for their current educational activities but failed the final module test.

The mark F is given to the students who attended all practical classes of the course but did not gain the minimal score for their current educational activities and were not allowed to take the final module test. They must attend a repeated course again according to the individual plan.


^ LIST OF REVIEW QUESTIONS

for the final, content modules and the discipline at all


MODULE І. Fundamentals of cytology and general embryology.

Content module 1. Fundamentals of cytology.

  1. Histology. Definition, content and tasks of the modern histology. Parts of discipline, its significance for biology and medicine.

  2. Basic steps of the historical development of histology as a science. Histological schools in Ukraine.

  3. Basic principles and steps of the preparation of histological specimens for the light and electron microscopy.

  4. Special methods of the histological investigations for the vital, supravital and postvital investigations.

  5. Cell theory. History of the problem. Basic states.

  6. Cell as elementary living system of the multicellular organism. Definition. Noncellular structures of the organism.

  7. General structure of the eukaryotic cells. Cell membrane, its structure and chemical content.

  8. Functions of plasmolemma: delimitation and transport, membrane digestion.

  9. Receptor functions of the cell membrane.

  10. Intercellular junctions, its types and morpho-functional characteristic.

  11. Energetic apparatus of the cell structure and functions.

  12. Synthetic apparatus of the cell, its structural content and functional significance.

  13. Apparatus of the intracellular digestion, general characteristic, structure and functions.

  14. Cytoskeleton, its content components and its functional significance.

  15. Inclusions of cytoplasm, its classification, structure, properties and functional significance.

  16. Nucleus, its significance in the vital activity of the cell. Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as the singe of the functional state of the cell.

  17. Morpho-functional characteristic of the basic components of the nucleus: karyolemma, karyoplasm, chromatin and nucleolus.

  18. Cell cycle.

  19. Types of cells reproduction, its morphological characteristic, significance for biology and medicine.

  20. Morpho-functional characteristic of the cell cycle. Interphase.

  21. Reorganization of the structural components of the cell at time of different phases of mitosis.

  22. Particularities and biological significance of meiosis.

  23. Notion about endoreproduction and polyploidy.

  24. Growth, differentiation, aging and death of the cell. Reaction of cells on harmful influence. Adaptation. Apoptosis.


Content module 2. General and comparative embryology.

  1. Embryology, its matter, tasks, scientific directions and significance for biology and medicine.

  2. Characteristic of the content components of the process of embryo development: induction, determination, division, migration, growth, differentiation.

  3. Ontogenesis and phylogenesis, definition. Processes and stages of the embryogenesis.

  4. Comparative characteristic of spermato- and oogenesis.

  5. Morphological and functional characteristic of sex cells. Fertilization.

  6. Extracorporal fertilization, its medical and social significance.

  7. Cleavage, its characteristic and significance. Types of blastulae.

  8. Manners and stages of gastrulation. Characteristic of different types of gastrulation. Structure of gastrula.

  9. Differentiation of germ layers, formation of the axial complex of germ organs.

  10. Characteristic of histo- and organogenesis. Features and relation of processes of development of basic organ systems.

  11. Features of the lancet fluke embryo on the different steps of the embryogenesis.

  12. Features of the amphibian embryo on the different steps of the embryogenesis.

  13. Features of the bird embryo on the different steps of the embryogenesis.

  14. Formation, structure and functions of the embryonic membranes and provisory organs.

  15. Particularities of the human embryo development.

  16. Notion about the critical periods of the human embryo development.

  17. Connection of the human embryo with maternal organism. System “mother- fetus”. Placenta and umbilical cord.



^ MODULE IІ. General hіstоlоgy.

Content module 3. Hіstоlоgy of the general tissues.

  1. Tissue as one of the levels of organization of living organisms. Definition. Classification.

  2. Patterns of the tissue origin, mechanisms of histogenesis.

  3. Cellular populations. Notion about differon and stem cells.

  4. Morpho-functional characteristic of the cellular derivatives (syncytium, symplast, extracellular matrix).

  5. Renewed ability and the borders of changeability of the tissues

  6. Morpho-functional particularities of the epithelial tissues.

  7. Phylogenetic and morpho-functional classification of the covering epithelium.

  8. Morpho-functional characteristic of different types of simple and stratified epithelia.

  9. Glandular epithelium. Classification, sources of the development and structure of glands.

  10. Morphology of phases of secretory cycle. Types of secretion.

  11. General characteristic of tissues of internal environment. Classification, origin. Morphology and functions of blood.

  12. Basic components of blood plasma, its function.

  13. Morpho-functional characteristic of erythrocytes. Poikilocytosis. Anisocytosis.

  14. Classification and morpho-functional characteristic of leukocytes.

  15. Microscopic, ultramicroscopic and cytochemical characteristic of granular leukocytes.

  16. Microscopic, ultramicroscopic and cytochemical characteristic of nongranular leukocytes

  17. The role and significance of leukocytes in the immune reactions of organism.

  18. Structure and functional significance of platelets.

  19. Hemogram, leukocyte formula, its significance for clinic.

  20. Lymph. Lymph plasma and formed elements of lymph.

  21. Postembryonic haemopoiesis. Haemopoietic organs. Types of haemopoietic tissue.

  22. Postembryonic haemopoiesis. Modern scheme of the haemopoiesis.

  23. Morpho-functional characteristic of stem haemopoietic cell.

  24. Postembryonic erythropoiesis.

  25. Postembryonic granular leukocytopoiesis.

  26. Postembryonic platelets cytopoiesis.

  27. Postembryonic lymphocytopoiesis.

  28. Postembryonic monocytopoiesis.

  29. Particularities of the embryonic haemopoiesis.

  30. Morpho-functional characteristic and classification of connective tissue.

  31. General structure and localization of loose connective tissue.

  32. Structure and functions of cells of loose connective tissue. Participation of cells in the protective reactions of organism.

  33. Content, physical-chemical properties and functional significance of the extracellular matrix.

  34. Dense connective tissue, its types, structure and functions.

  35. Features of the structure and localization of connective tissues with special properties.

  36. Classification and particularities of the structure of skeletal tissues.

  37. Structural organization and classification of the cartilage.

  38. Structure, features of localization and functions of chondroblasts and chondrocytes.

  39. Histochemical properties of extracellular matrix of cartilage.

  40. Morpho-functional characteristic of hyaline, elastic and fibrous cartilages. Structure and functional significance of the perichondrium.

  41. Development, growth, regeneration and aging changes of cartilage.

  42. General structure, chemical content and functional significance of bone tissue.

  43. Microscopical structure and functional significance of osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts.

  44. Chemical content and properties of the extracellular matrix of bone tissue.

  45. Classification of bone tissue. Morpho-functional characteristic of woven and lamellar bone tissues.

  46. Structure of tubular bones. Periosteum, its role in structure, nutrition, growth and regeneration of bone.

  47. Structure of diaphysis of tubular bone. Osteon, as morpho-functional unit of the bone.

  48. Regeneration and aging changes of bones.

  49. Direct and indirect osteogenesis.


Content module 4. Hіstоlоgy of the special tissues.

  1. General morpho-functional characteristic of muscle tissues and its classification.

  2. Structure, origin, localization, features of contraction and regeneration of smooth muscle tissue.

  3. Structure and localization of striated skeletal muscle tissue. Structure of muscle fiber.

  4. Microscopic and ultramicroscopic structure of myofibril. Sarcomere.

  5. Types of muscle fibers and its functional particularities. Mechanism of the muscle contraction.

  6. Structure of muscle as an organ. Features of regeneration.

  7. Particularities of histological structure, development, localization and regeneration of cardiac muscle tissue.

  8. Morpho-functional characteristic and sources of the development of nervous tissue.

  9. Morphological and functional classification of nerve cells.

  10. General structure of the neuron. Structural-functional particularities of the perikaryon and processes.

  11. Classification, structure and significance of different types of neuroglia.

  12. General characteristic and classification of nerve fibers.

  13. Thin structure of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers.

  14. General morpho-functional characteristic and classification of nerve endings.

  15. Classification, structure and functions of receptors.

  16. Notion about the synapse. Classification, structure, mechanism of the transmission of stimulation in the interneural synapse.

  17. Classification and structure of effectors.

  18. Structure of simple and compound reflex arcs.


^ MODULE ІII. Special histology and embryology.

Content module 5. Special histology and embryology of the regulatory and sensory systems.

  1. Morpho-functional characteristic, classification and sources of the development of nervous system.

  2. General marks of structural organization of nervous centers.

  3. Brain membranes. Blood-brain barrier.

  4. Morpho-functional characteristic and embryogenesis of the spinal cord.

  5. Structure of the grey matter: neuron content, nuclei.

  6. Structure of the white matter: basic ascending and descending conducting ways.

  7. Types and localization of the neuroglia of spinal cord.

  8. Reflex arc, its types and morphological components.

  9. Histological structure and development of the cerebral cortex of brain.

  10. Characteristic of the neuron content of cerebral cortex layers.

  11. Particularities of the structure of granular and agranular types of cerebral cortex and its functional significance.

  12. Myeloarchitectonics of cerebral cortex.

  13. Notion about cerebral module.

  14. Structural organization of basic nuclei of the brain stem.

  15. Morpho-functional characteristic of the reticular formation.

  16. Principles of organization of ascending conducting ways.

  17. General structure and functions of cerebellum.

  18. Neuron content of the cerebellar cortex layers. Interneuron communication.

  19. Characteristic of the afferent and efferent fibers of cerebellum.

  20. Structure and functional significance of glial cells of cerebellum.

  21. Development, general structure and functional significance of the spinal ganglion.

  22. Morphological and functional particularities of sensory neurons and neuroglial element of spinal ganglion.

  23. Structure of the peripheral nerve, importance of its connective tissues membranes.

  24. Degeneration and regeneration of the nerve after damage.

  25. General morpho-functional characteristic and classification of the autonomic (vegetative) nervous system.

  26. Particularities of the histological structure of vegetative ganglion. Structure of extra- and intramural ganglia.

  27. Classification of neurons by O. S. Dogeli.

  28. Content parts of sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of autonomic nervous system and its action on functions of organs.

  29. Vegetative reflex arc, its morphological components.

  30. Notion about analyzers and its morphological components.

  31. Classification of sense organs by origin and structure of receptor cells.

  32. Morpho-functional characteristic of taste organ. Structure of taste bud.

  33. Histophysiology of the taste analyzer.

  34. Morpho-functional characteristic of the smell organ. Structure of the smell bud.

  35. Histophysiology of the smell analyzer.

  36. General structure and morpho-functional characteristic of the organ of vision.

  37. Sources of the development and basic steps of the embryogenesis of organ of vision.

  38. Content parts of dioptric, accommodative and receptor apparatus of the eye globe.

  39. Structure and functions of the outer fibrous tunica of the eye globe.

  40. Structural organization and significance of components of vascular tunica (proper vascular tunica, iris, cilliary body).

  41. Microscopic structure of lens and vitreous body.

  42. Structure and functions of visual part of retina. Neuron content.

  43. Histophysiological characteristic of photoreceptor cells.

  44. Characteristic of macula lutea and blind macula of retina.

  45. Structure and functions of structures of auxiliary apparatus of the eye.

  46. General structure and sources of development of organ of hearing and equilibrium.

  47. Structure of the external and middle ear.

  48. Thin structure and significance of the tympanic membrane and auditory ossicles.

  49. Structural organization of the osseous and membranous labyrinths of the inner ear.

  50. Structure of the walls of cochlea duct.

  51. Localization, structure and functions of supporting and sensory cells of organ of Corti.

  52. Structure of the vestibular part of the membranous labyrinth.

  53. Morphological and functional particularities of the maculae of sacculus, utriculus and crista ampullaris of semicircular ducts.

  54. Histophysiology of organ of hearing and equilibrium.

  55. Structural organization and sources of development of cardio-vascular system.

  56. General structure of the wall of blood vessels and its features in connection with haemodynamic conditions of functioning.

  57. Classification and functional significance of arteries of different types.

  58. Morpho-functional characteristic of arteries of muscular and muscular-elastic types.

  59. Structure of arteries of elastic types. Particularities of the tunica media of aorta.

  60. General distinctions in the structure of veins in comparison with the wall of arteries.

  61. Particularities of the structure of veins of muscular and unmuscular types.

  62. Morpho-functional characteristic and significance of the vessels of the microcirculatory bed.

  63. Structure of the wall of blood capillary.

  64. Classification of haemocapillaries dependent on structure of endothelium and basement membrane.

  65. Particularities of the microscopic structure of the wall of arteriole, venule and its functions.

  66. Classification and functions of the arteriolo-venular anastomoses.

  67. Morpho-functional characteristic and sources of development of lympfatic vessels.

  68. Structure of lymphatic vessels of different types. Features of structure of lymphatic capillaries.

  69. Regeneration of vessels.

  70. Sources of the development and particularities of histogenesis of heart.

  71. General structure of the wall of heart.

  72. Structure of endocardium and its structural similarity with blood vessels.

  73. Morpho-functional characteristic of the contractile cardiac muscle cells of myocardium.

  74. Characteristic of the conducting system of the heart. Features of the structure of conducting cardiac muscle cells.

  75. Structure of epicardium and pericardium. Aging changes of the heart.

  76. Modern view about regeneration and transplantation of the heart.

  77. General structure, functional significance and classification of the haemopoietic organs and organs of immune protection.

  78. Notion about stem and hemistem cells of haemopoietic tissue. Modern scheme of haemopoiesis.

  79. Morphological characteristic and localization of myeloid and lymphoid system of haemopoiesis.

  80. Notion about immunity, immune system and its tissue components.

  81. Characteristic of immune cells and its interaction in the reactions of humoral and cell mediated immunities.

  82. Structural components of bone marrow and its functional significance.

  83. Aging changes and regeneration of bone marrow.

  84. General characteristic of thymus as the central organ of haemopoiesis and immune protection.

  85. Structure of the cortex and medulla of the lobule of thymus.

  86. Characteristic of age and accidental involution of thymus.

  87. Notion about thymus-lymphatic status, its morphological manifestations and importance for organism.

  88. Development, general structure and functional significance of lymph node.

  89. Structure of the cortex and characteristic of the cellular content of follicles.

  90. Morpho-functional characteristic and significance of the medulla.

  91. Cellular content and functions of the paracortex of lymph node.

  92. Structure and functional significance of lymphatic sinuses. Role of reticular cells in the protective reactions of organism.

  93. Morphology and functions of haemolymphatic nodes.

  94. General structure of spleen and its functional significance for organism.

  95. Features of the embryonic and postembryonic haemopoiesis in spleen.

  96. Microscopic structure of white pulp of spleen.

  97. Morpho-functional characteristic of red pulp of spleen.

  98. Particularities of blood supply of spleen, structure and functions of venous sinuses.

  99. Elements of macrophage system in haemopoietic organs and its role in protective reactions of organism.

  100. Participation of lymph organs in proliferation, maturation of T- and B-lymphocytes, its differentiation.

  101. General morpho-functional characteristic of endocrine system.

  102. Classification of endocrine glands.

  103. Hormones, mechanism of its action and significance for organism. Notion about target cells and receptors for hormones.

  104. Morpho-functional characteristic of large-cellular and small-cellular nuclei of hypothalamus. Particularities of structure and functions of neurosecretory cells.

  105. Notion about hypothalamus-adenohypophysis systems and its participation in neuro-humoral regulation of organism.

  106. Characteristic of transadenohypophysial and parahypophysial influences of hypothalamus on endocrine organs.

  107. Development, general structure and functions of hypophysis.

  108. Morpho-functional characteristic and classification of cells of anterior lobe of hypophysis.

  109. Trope hormones and their significance in the regulation of endocrine glands.

  110. State of endocrine cells of adenohypophysis at violations of hormone status of organism.

  111. Structure and significance of intermediate and tuberal lobes of hypophysis.

  112. Particularities of structure of posterior lobe of hypophysis. Role of neurohypophysis in excretion into the blood hormones of anterior hypothalamus.

  113. Embryogenesis, structure and functional significance of pineal gland.

  114. Development, general structure and functional significance of thyroid gland.

  115. Morpho-functional characteristic of the follicle.

  116. Morphological particularities and functions of follicular cells and C-cells.

  117. Microstructure of the follicle dependent on functional activity of follicular cells.

  118. Interfollicular epithelium and its functional significance.

  119. Characteristic of phases of secretory cycle of follicle of thyroid gland.

  120. Embryonic development, structure and functional significance of parathyroid glands.

  121. Histogenesis of the cortex and medulla of adrenal gland.

  122. Particularities of structure of endocrine cells of zona glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticular of adrenal cortex.

  123. Morpho-functional characteristic of chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla.

  124. Participation of adrenal glands in protective reactions of organism.

  125. Communication of adrenal glands with hypothalamus, hypophysis and sympathetic part of nervous system.

  126. Localization, sources of development and classification because of origin of single hormone producing cells of nonendocrine organs.

  127. Role of hormones of endocrine cells APUD-system in regulation of organ functions.

  128. Features of paracrine (placed) and distant regulation of organs and system of organs.

  129. Sources of development, general structure, tissue content and functions of skin.

  130. Microscopic structure of cells of different layers of epidermis.

  131. Characteristic of keratinization process and physiological regeneration of epidermis of skin.

  132. Particularities of structure of “thick” and “thin” skin.

  133. Morphological characteristic and significance of dermis.

  134. Sources of development, structure and functional significance of hypodermis.

  135. Features of structure of skin in the different regions of skin.

  136. Thin structure and physiological significance of sweat and sebaceous glands of skin.

  137. General structure, growth and changing of hair.

  138. Particularities of the structural organization of nail.


Content module 6. Special histology and embryology of the internal organs.

  1. General morpho-functional characteristic of respiratory system and its significance.

  2. Sources of development, content parts and functional significance of air conducting ways.

  3. Structural particularities and functions of the epithelium of air conducting ways.

  4. Features of the structure of tunica mucosa of nasal cavity.

  5. Structure and functions of larynx, significance of vocal ligaments.

  6. General structure of the wall of trachea, role of fibrous-cartilage tunica.

  7. Structural organization of the bronchial tree and general structure of the wall of bronchi.

  8. Particularities of structure of bronchi dependent on caliber.

  9. Morpho-functional characteristic of acinus as morpho-functional unit of respiratory part of lungs.

  10. Cellular content of aliveoli, morphological characteristic of alveolar cells.

  11. Microscopic and ultramicroscopic structure of blood-air barrier.

  12. General morpho-functional characteristic and sources of development of digestive system.

  13. Division of digestive tube on regions dependent on structure and functions.

  14. General structure of the wall of digestive tube, particularities of structural organization of its tissue content in the different regions of digestive tube.

  15. Particularities of the tunica mucosa of the organs of oral cavity (lips, cheeks, gums, hard and soft palates).

  16. Tissue content and features of structure of the tongue on different its surfaces.

  17. Morpho-functional characteristic, classification and localization of tongue papillae. Structure and functions of taste bud.

  18. Sources of development, general structure and tissue content of tooth.

  19. Histological structure, chemical content of enamel, dentin and cement.

  20. Structure and functions of pulp and periodontum.

  21. Characteristic and features of the teeth changing. Deciduous and permanent teeth.

  22. Histological structure of the wall of pharynx.

  23. Structural components and functional significance of the lympho-epithelial ring of Pirogov.

  24. Morphology, function and regeneration of palatine tonsil.

  25. Sources of development, general structure of the wall of esophagus and its functional significance.

  26. Particularities of structure of tunics in the different parts of esophagus.

  27. Microscopic structure, localization and functions of esophageal glands.

  28. Age changes and regeneration of the esophagus.

  29. Development, general structure of the stomach and its functional significance.

  30. Particularities of the structure of tunics and relief of stomach in different its regions.

  31. Types, localization and general structure of gastric glands.

  32. Cellular content and functional significance of proper gastric glands.

  33. Morpho-functional features of pyloric and cardiac glands of stomach.

  34. Regeneration and age features of the stomach.

  35. Embryonic development, regions and tissue content of tunics of small intestine.

  36. Particularities of relief of the tunica mucosa of small intestine. Cellular content and functional significance of the system “crypt-villus”.

  37. Morpho-functional characteristic of epithelial cells of villi and crypts of tunica mucosa of small intestine.

  38. Histophysiology of absorption and role of microvilli of columnar epithelial cells in the parietal digestion.

  39. Particularities of structure of tunica submucosa of small intestine. Thin structure of the duodenal glands and its function.

  40. Localization and functional significance of aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer’s patches) in the wall of small intestine.

  41. Structure of muscularis externa and tunica serosa of small intestine in different its regions.

  42. Sources of embryonic development of large intestine.

  43. General morpho-functional characteristic and structure of the wall of large intestine.

  44. Particularities of the relief of tunica mucosa of large intestine.

  45. Histophysiology of the absorption in the large intestine.

  46. Structure and functions of appendix.

  47. Development, classification and general structure of large salivary glands.

  48. Particularities of the structure of the terminal secretory parts of parotid, submundibular and sublingual salivary glands.

  49. Basic microscopic and ultramicroscopic signs of mucous and serous cells.

  50. Morpho-functional characteristic of excretory ducts of large salivary glands.

  51. Sources of development and general structure of the pancreas.

  52. Morphology and functional significance of the exocrine part of pancreas.

  53. Microscopic structure of the acinus. Intercommunication between terminal secretory parts and intercalated excretory duct.

  54. Particularities of structure and functions of the excretory ducts.

  55. Structural organization of the endocrine part of the pancreas.

  56. Cellular content and morpho-functional characteristic of endocrine cells of pancreatic islets.

  57. Sources of the development and general morpho-functional characteristic of liver.

  58. Thin structure of the classical hepatic lobule. Structural organization of hepatic cords, morpho-functional characteristic of hepatocytes.

  59. Circulatory system of the liver and particularities of its blood supply.

  60. Particularities of the structure of intralobular haemocapillaries. Significance of the space of Disse.

  61. Notion about portal lobule and liver acinus.

  62. Morphological characteristic of the bile-excreting ways. Microscopic structure of the bile canaliculi and bile ducts.

  63. Sources of development, structure and functional significance of the gallbladder.

  64. Morpho-functional characteristic and functional significance of the urinary system.

  65. Sources and basic steps of the embryonic development of kidney.

  66. Structural organization and microscopic structure of the cortex and medulla of kidney.

  67. Particularities of the blood supply of kidney.

  68. Types, localization and parts of nephron.

  69. Structure and functional significance of cortical nephrons.

  70. Histophysiology of the nephron and collecting tubules connecting with the mechanism of the urine formation.

  71. Histophysiological particularities of the juxtaglomerular nephrons.

  72. Structural components and functional significance of the endocrine apparatus of kidney.

  73. General characteristic and functional significance of the urine excretory ways.

  74. Structure and physiological particularities of the transitional epithelium.

  75. Particularities of the structure of the wall of ureter.

  76. Histological structure and functions of the urinary bladder.

  77. Particularities of the structure of the urethra in male and female.

  78. Development and general morpho-functional characteristic of male reproductive system.

  79. General structure and functions of testis.

  80. Characteristic of spermatogenesis, its regulation. Particularities of the structure of spermatogenic cells on the different stages of development.

  81. Structure and functions of convolutes seminiferous tubules of testis.

  82. Structure and significance of blood-testis barrier.

  83. Morpho-functional characteristic of endocrine cells of testis.

  84. Structure of the wall of tubules in epididymis.

  85. Morphology and functional significance of deferent and ejaculatory ducts.

  86. General structure and functions of prostate gland.

  87. Structure of the terminal secretory parts and excretory ducts of prostate.

  88. Structure and functions of seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands.

  89. Hormone connection between hypophysis and male reproductive system.

  90. Development and general morpho-functional characteristic of female reproductive system.

  91. Development and general structure of the ovary.

  92. Basic stages of oogenesis and its morpho-functional characteristic. Comparison of stages of oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

  93. Structure of the primordial, primary, secondary and mature follicles. Dynamic of its development.

  94. Stages of the formation of corpus luteum.

  95. Atresia of follicles. Basic differences of the arteric body from corpus albicans and corpus luteum.

  96. Biological sense and hormonal regulation of ovulation.

  97. Age particularities of the ovary structure.

  98. General structure of the wall of the uterine tubes. Particularities of the relief of tunica mucosa and cellular content of the epithelium.

  99. General structure of the wall and functions of uterus.

  100. Characteristic of basal and functional layers of endometrium of uterus and particularities of its vessels.

  101. Particularities of histophysiology of myometrium and perimetrium.

  102. Restructure of the uterus at time of pregnancy and after delivery.

  103. Ovarian-menstrual cycle, characteristic of cyclic changes in the ovary, uterus and vagina in the different phases of the cycle.

  104. Action of hypophyseal hormones and action of hypothalamic centers of regulation of ovarian-menstrual cycle.

  105. Development and general structure of the mammary gland.

  106. Thin structure of the terminal secretory parts and excretory ducts before lactation.

  107. Particularities of the structure of parenchyma of mammary gland at time of lactation and in no lactation.

  108. Hormone connection of hypophysis with mammary gland.

  109. Modern methods of contraception.


^ LIST OF THE HISTOLOGICAL SPECIMENS,

which are necessary to identify during the passing of modules


MODULE І Fundamentals of cytology and general embryology.

Content module 1. Fundamentals of cytology.

  1. Golgi complex in the neurons of the spinal ganglion. Silver impregnation

  2. Neurofibrils in the cytoplasm of the multipolar neurons of the spinal cord. Silver impregnation

  3. Glycogen inclusions in the hepatocytes. SHIK – reaction

  4. Lipid inclusions in the hepatocytes. Osmic acid

  5. Mitosis of the plant cell. Iron haematoxylin


Content module 2. General and comparative embryology.
  1. 1   2   3

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