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Content module Basic cytology Practical class №




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MODULE І. Fundamentals of cytology and general embryology

Content module 1. Basic cytology

Practical class № 2

Duration of the practical class: 2 hours

Theme: PREPARATION OF TISSUES FOR MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION. METHODS OF THE MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS


Professional Motivation: In medical practice it is very often necessary to perform a microscopic investigation. Contemporary histology is characterized by a wide usage of complex modern methods of investigation: microscopic, histochemical, electron microscopy, skanning, radioautography, living cells method, tissues and organs transplantation. They give the possibility to study in detail the structure and functions of the cells and organs under normal conditions and in pathology. Each doctor has to know all the stages of modern methods of histologic investigation.


Basic Level

  1. Conception of a main using apparatus in microscopy (Medical and Biologic Physics department).

  2. Light microscopy skill (Biology department).

  3. Chemical composition of main stains and their interreactions with substance (Chemistry department).
^

Students’ Independent Study Program:


I. Objectives for Students’ Independent Studies

You should prepare for the practical class using the existing textbooks and lectures. Special attention should be paid to the following:

  1. Rules of working with a light microscope.

  2. Rules of specimen investigation in light microscope.

  3. Basic steps of preparing of tissue specimens for a light microscope.

  4. Basic steps of preparing of tissue specimens for an electron microscope.

  5. Histologic dyes classification.

  6. Methods of histologic investigation: a light microscopy, an electron microscopy, histochemistry, an immune histochemistry, morphometry, radioautography.


Rules of working with a light microscope

  1. Put a microscope on your working place.

  2. Arrange the objective of a low magnification opposite to the object-table opening at the distance 1,5 cm away.

  3. Light up the visual field using a mirror.

  4. Put a specimen on the microscope table with cover glass up. Place the section opposite to microscope frontal lens.

  5. Look from the side, lower the microscope tubus down, leave a minimal lumen between the objective and the specimen (up to 1 cm).

  6. Look through the objective and slowly rise the tubus up by means of macroscrew until the appearance of the object under observation.

  7. Observe the whole specimen while observing it under a low magnification.

  8. Choose the most particular portion while studying the specimen under a high magnification.

  9. Look through the objective and raise slowly the tubus by means of microscrew until the appearance of image.

  10. Raise the tubus by turning the macroscrew, remove the specimen from the object-table.



^
Main rules of specimen investigation in light microscope

It is necessary to watch the specimen under the low magnification that gives the possibility to learn its general structure. Profound investigation of the specimens is one of the microstructure observation stages and its aim is to fasten the shape and disposition of the investigated structures in a student’s memory.

Illustration includes an attentive studying of a specimen and its painting in detail.

Notice, colour and scale reproduction of histologic structures is of great importance. It is performed with colour pencils in an album with corresponding indications.


Main steps of preparing of tissue specimens for a light microscopy
  1. ^

    Selection and fixation of the material for investigation (formalin, ethyl alcohol, special mixtures)


  2. Dehydration (substitutions) in ethyl alcohol

  3. Clearing (xylene)

  4. Infiltration (ethyl alcohol, xylol)

  5. Embedding (in paraffin or celloidin)

  6. Sectioning with microtome (6-8 mkm thick)

  7. Mounting (glass slide)

  8. Removal of paraffin

  9. Rehydration

  10. Staining and covering.


Main steps in preparing tissue specimens for an electron microscopy
  1. ^

    Selection and chemical fixation of the material for an electron microscopy (glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide)

  2. Dehidration (substitution) and infiltration (ethyl alcohol, acetone)


  3. Clearing

  4. Embedding (in plastics and epoxy resins)

  5. Sectioning with ultramicrotome (0,02-0,1 mkm thick)

  6. Staining (contrasting) with heavy metal solt (lead citrate, uranilacetate)



^

Histologic dyes

              1. Nuclear or alcaline: hematoxylin, carmine, saphranin.


              2. Cytoplasmic or acidic: eosin, acid fuscin, picrin acid, orange.

              3. Special dyes: orsein, sudan, osmic acid.

              4. Heavy metal impregnation: silver, gold.


Students’ Practical Activities:

Task No 1. Students’ acquaitance with department of histology, cytology and embryology, its laboratories and equipments.

              1. Microscopes: MBI, Biolam, MBI-6.

              2. Electron microscopes: EMB-100 LM, EM-125 K.

              3. Microtomes – sledge and freezing.

              4. Ultramicrotome UMTP-6.

              5. Universal apparatus of histologic processing tissues – AT-4.

              6. Microtome-cryostat.

              7. Morphometric installation.

Task No 2. Staining the section with hematoxylin and eosin.

              1. To remove paraffin from the specimens using two portions of xylol for 2-4 min.

              2. To remove xylol from the sections using 100o alcohol for 2-3 min.

              3. To place the sections into spirit of decreasing concentration in succession (96o, 70o,50o) and distilled water for 2-3 min every time.

              4. To dye the specimens with hematoxylin solution for 2-3 min.

              5. To wash the section under running water and in distilled water for 2-3 min in every case.

              6. To stain the section by means of eosin solution for 0,5-1 min.

              7. To wash in distilled water.

              8. To dehydrate using spirit of rising concentration (70o, 96o, 100o) – 1-2 min.

              9. To bleach by means of carbol-xylol and xylol for 1-2 min in every case.

              10. To place into balsam and cover under glass.




                • How can one define the magnification of a light microscope?

                • What are the basic histologic dyes?

                • What are the acidic histologic dyes?


References:

                  1. Histology / A text and atlas. Fourth Edition. Michael H.Ross, Cardon I.Kaye, Wojciech Pawlina. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia.2003. P.2 – 16.

                  2. Cytology and general histology. N. O. Melnyk. Kyiv. 2007. pp. 1-10.


^ MODULE І. Fundamentals of cytology and general embryology

Content module 1. Basic cytology

Duration of the practical class: 2 hours

Practical class № 3.

Theme: CELLULAR THEORY. CELL, ITS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS. PLASMALEMMA


Professional Motivation: Cells are the structural and functional units of life. Each eukaryotic cell consists of three principal components: cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. It provides reproduction, transference of hereditary information, growth of organism, his adaptation processes, physiologic and reparative regeneration. Noncellular structures (symplast, syncytium and intercellular substance) are the derivatives of the cells or the product of their vital activity and together with cells they participate in the human body construction. Morphofunctional changes in the cells are the basic points of the pathologic processes development (congenital diseases, inflammations, dystrophies, neoplasm and so on). Cytodiagnostic data are widely used in clinical practice for diagnosis verification.


Basic Level

  1. Cytology. General structure of the cell (Biology department).

  2. Light microscopy skill (Biology department).



^

Students’ Independent Study Program


I. Objectives for Students’ Independent Studies

You should prepare for the practical class using the existing textbooks and lectures. Special attention should be paid to the following:

  1. Living substance organization forms.

  2. Shwann cell theory.

  3. The term of the cell, its structural components.

  4. Cell membrane ultrastructure and functions.

  5. Cell junctions types (adhesive, isolating, communicative).

  6. Noncellular structures (symplast, syncytium and intercellular substance) morphofunctional features.

Real-life situations to be solved

  1. Numerous little diverticula of the cell membrane and light vesicles are seen under the electron microscope. What is this caused by?

  2. Under the electron microscope one surface of the cell has a cilii, the other – shows desmosomes. Which surface is free and which one is attached?

  3. Intestine surface cells have a special border. It may be destroyed by some diseases. What cell function is broken out in such case and why?

  4. Special proteins or polysacharides are disposed on the cell membrane. What are they? What function do they carry out?

  5. A specimen demonstrates histologic structure surrounded by the cell membrane. It contains much cytoplasm and numerous nuclei. What is this structure?


Visual Aids and Material Tools
Electron micrographs:

  1. Eukaryotic cell (plasmocyte).

  2. Cell with the processes (neuron).

  3. Multinuclear structure.

  4. Intercellular substance (loose connective tissue).

  5. Electron image of the plasmolemma.

  6. Phagocytosis.

  7. Macropinocytosis by microvilli of endothelial cells of blood capillary.

  8. External secretion from goblet cell

  9. System of intercellular junctions


Students’ Practical Activities

Students must know and illustrate such diagrams:

Diagram 1. Molecular structure of the plasma membrane.

The plasma membrane consists of: 1. glycocalyx; 2. bilayer of phospholipids and associative structural proteins; 3. undermembrane (cortical) layer.

Glycocalyx is the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane. It consists of carbohydrates which are attached to the protein – glycoproteins and to the lipids of the bilayer – glycolipids. Phospholipid molecules consist of a hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. The phospholipid molecules form a bilayer with their fatty acid chains facing each other. Structural proteins extend through the lipid bilayer are known as integral proteins. Structural proteins extend partially the lipid bilayer are known as hemiintegral proteins. Structural proteins which do not insert the lipid bilayer are known as peripheral. The cytoskeleton components of the cells cytoplasm form the undermembrane (cortical) layer of the plasma membrane.

Illustrate and indicate: I. Glycocalyx (cell coat); 1. Carbohydrates; II. Lipid bilayer; 2. Lipid molecule; 3. Integral proteins; 4. Peripheral proteins; 5. Semi-integral proteins; III. Submembrane cortical layer; 6. Actin microfilaments; 7. Microtubules.

٧ What kind of proteins are called the integral?

٧ What are the principle components of the cell?

Diagram 2. Ultramicroscopic structure of the cell.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Plasmalemma; 2. Cytoplasm: a) smooth endoplasmic reticulum; b) rough endoplasmic reticulum; c) ribosome; d) Golgi apparatus; e) mitochondrion; f) lysosome; g)cell center; 3. Nucleus.

٧ What are the principle structural components of the plasma membrane?

٧ What are the functions of glycocalyx?

References:

  1. Histology / A text and atlas. Fourth Edition. Michael H.Ross, Cardon I. Kaye, Wojciech Pawlina. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadel­phia.2003. P.19 – 28.

  2. Textbook of human histology with colour atlas. Fifth edition. Inderbir Singh. Jaypee brothers. Medical publishers (P) LTD. New Delhi.2006. P.6-9.

  3. Cytology and general histology. N. O. Melnyk. Kyiv. 2007. pp. 11-16.


^ MODULE І. Fundamentals of cytology and general embryo­logy

Content module 1. Basic cytology

Practical class № 4

Duration of the practical class: 2 hours

Theme: CYTOPLASM: GENERAL ORGANELLES


Professional Motivation: The cytoplasm contains the cytoplasmic matrix, organelles and inclusions. Many important living processes occur within the cytoplasm, such as: the synthesis of proteins, storage of lipids, glycogen, generation of energy and other. These processes provide the specific functions of cells, but also to contribute to the viability of the organism as a whole. The morphofunctional changes of organelles give rise to the development of some diseases. The accumulation of inclusions within the cell (protein, lipid, carbohydrates dystrophies) is the patho-morphological diagnostic data of pathologic process.


Basic Level

  1. Cytology. General structure of the cell (Biology department).

  2. Light microscopy skill (Biology department).



^

Students’ Independent Study Program


I. Objectives for Students’ Independent Studies

You should prepare for the practical class using the existing textbooks and lectures. Special attention should be paid to the following:

  1. Cytoplasm structural components.

  2. Organelles: attribute and classification:

a) in accordance with its meaning;

b) accordingly to its size;

  1. by the structure.

  1. Microscopic- and ultrastructure and functions of common meaning organelles (mitochondria, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, peroxysomes, ribosomes, cell center, filaments and microtubules).

Real-life situations to be solved

  1. Under radiation some cell organelles were destroyed. How will they be utilized?

  2. At the electronmicrography are distinguished well development rough endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes within the cytoplasm of the cell. What is the function of this cell?

  3. Mushrooms’ poison destroyed lysosomes in hepatocytes. What will happen with the cells if the majority of lysosomes are ruptured?


Visual Aids and Material Tools
Electron micrographs:

  1. Rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. Golgi complex.

  4. Mitochondrion.

  5. Lysosomes.

  6. Peroxisomes.

  7. Ribosomes.

  8. Cell center – centrosomes.

  9. Microfilaments in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cell.

  10. Microtubules in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cell.


Students’ Practical Activities

Students must know and illustrate such histologic specimens and electron microphotographs:

Specimen 1. Golgi complex in the neurons of the spinal ganglion.

Stained with osmic impregnation.

Using low magnification find the large round-shaped cells, which are placed at the periphery of the ganglion. Using high magnification find the Golgi complex within these cells. The complex Golgi is looked as a network or droplets. It is placed in the whole cytoplasm, but most often, nerly to the nucleus.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Plasmalemma; 2. Cytoplasm; 3. Nucleus; 4. Golgi complex.

  • What is the function of the complex Golgi?

  • To what type of cytoplasmic organelles does refer the complex Golgi?

Electron microphotography 1. Mitochondrion.

Mitochondria are most often elongated. Each mitochondrion consists of two membranes – the outer and inner. The inner membrane is thrown into folds called cristae. The amorphous substance within the mitochondrion is called matrix.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Outer membrane; 2. Inner membrane; 3. Cristae; 4. Matrix.

  • What is the function of the mitochondrion?

  • To what type of cytoplasmic organelles does refer the mitochondrion?

Electron microphotography 2. Endoplasmic reticulum.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum is a series of interconnected membrane-limited flattened sacs called cisternae, which are closely packed in parallel arrays and with the ribosomes studding the exterior surface of the membrane.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum consists of short anastomosing tubules that are not associated with ribosomes.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum: a) ribosomes; b) cisternae; 2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

  • What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

  • What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Electron microphotography 3. Lysosomes.

Lysosomes are the digestive organelles of the cell. Newly formed lysosomes those that have pinched off from the ends of the Golgi cisternae, are called primary lysosmes and contain all the enzymes that are used in digestion in the cell.

Primary lysosomes fuse with the membrane of the structure that contains the material to be digested and release their enzymes, thus forming a secondary lysosomes may also be called phagosomes, digestive vacuoles, or autophagic vacuoles, depending on the origin (intracellular or extracellular) of the material to be digested.

Hydrolytic breakdown of the contents of secondary lysosomes often produces a debris-filled vacuole that is called a tertiary lysosome or residual body.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Primary lysosome; 2. Secondary lysosome (phagosome); 3. Residual body.

  • What kind of enzymes does contain the primary lysosome?

References

  1. Histology / A text and atlas. Fourth Edition. Michael H.Ross, Cardon I.Kaye, Wojciech Pawlina. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia.2003. P. 32 – 59.

  2. Textbook of human histology with colour atlas. Fifth edition. Inderbir Singh. Jaypee brothers. Medical publishers (P) LTD. New Delhi. 2006. P. 14 – 22.

  3. Cytology and general histology. N. O. Melnyk. Kyiv. 2007. pp. 17-29.


^ MODULE І. Fundamentals of cytology and general embryology

Content module 1. Basic cytology

Practical class № 5

Duration of the practical class: 2 hours

Theme: CYTOPLASM: SPECIALIZED ORGANELLES. INCLUSIONS

Professional Motivation: A cell is the morphofunctional unit of the living sub­stance. It consists of plasmalemma, cytoplasm and nucleus. Organelles and inclusions disposed in hyaloplasm are the main components of the cytoplasm. For future doctors it is necessary to know how the human body is built.

Basic Level

1. General structure of the cell (School Biology).

^

STUDENTS’ INDEPENDENT STUDY PROGRAM


I. Objectives for Students’ Independent Studies

You should prepare for the practical class using the existing textbooks and lectures. Special attention should be paid to the following:

  1. Special organelles: types, localization and functions.

  2. Inclusions: attribute, differences from organelles, classification.

  3. Morphofunctional characteristic of inclusions.


Real-life situations to be solved

  1. What kinds of organelles are well manifested in the contractive cells?

  2. The cells contain well developed rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and some inclusions. What kind of inclusions are they?

  3. The cells contain well developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum and some inclusions. What kind of inclusions are they?


^ VISUAL AIDS AND MATERIAL TOOLS

Students should be able to indicate elements in the electron micrographs:

  1. Myofibrilles in the cytoplasm of the cardiac muscle cell.

  2. Neurofilaments in the cytoplasm of the nervous cell.

  3. Cilia.

  4. Flagella.

  5. Glycogen inclusions in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes.

  6. Lipid inclusions in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes.

  7. Secretory inclusions in the pancreatic acinar cell.

  8. Pigment inclusions in the melanocytes.


Students’ Practical Activities

Students must know and illustrate such histologic specimens:

Specimen 1. Neurofibrils in the cytoplasm of the multipolar neurons of the spinal cord.

Stained with silver impregnation.

At low magnification find the part of the specimen, where the neurons are placed within the anterior horns of the spinal cord. Under the high magnification you can see within of the cytoplasm of the neuron the numerous neurofibrils. They form a network in the perikaryon of the neuron, and are parallel arranged in the processes of the neuron.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Neuron; 2. Cytoplasm; 3. Nucleus; 4. Processes; 5. Neurofibrils.

  • Are neurofibrils specialized organelles or inclusions?

  • What are neurofibrils represent?

Specimen 2. Glycogen inclusions in hepatocytes.

Stained with SHIK-reaction.

At low magnification find the part of specimen, where the inclusions are uniformly placed in hepatocyte. Under the high magnification you can see small irregularly shaped red coloured glycogen granules, which surround the blue nucleus.

Illustrate and indicate: 1.Nucleus; 2.Cytoplasm; 3.Glycogen granules.

  • What are the differences between glycogen and organelles?

  • What kind of inclusions is the glycogen?

Specimen 3. Lipid inclusions in hepatocytes.

Stained with osmic acid.

At a low magnification find group of cells with lipid inclusions in their cytoplasm. Under the high magnification watch them carefully, notice different size of regularly shaped black drops of lipid. Pay attention to red colour of the round-shaped nucleus.

Illustrate and indicate: 1.Cytoplasm; 2.Nucleus; 3.Lipid inclusions.

  • What kind of inclusions are the lipids?

  • What is the disposition of lipid inclusions in hepatocytes?


References

  1. Histology / A text and atlas. Fourth Edition. Michael H. Ross, Cardon I.Kaye, Wojciech Pawlina. Lippincott Williams and Wil­kins. Philadelphia.2003. P.59.

  2. Textbook of human histology with colour atlas. Fifth edition. Inderbir Singh. Jaypee brothers. Medical publishers (P) LTD. New Delhi.2006. P.23 – 26.

  3. Cytology and general histology. N. O. Melnyk. Kyiv. 2007. pp. 17-29.


^ MODULE І. Fundamentals of cytology and general embryo­logy

Content module 1. Basic cytology

Practical class № 6

Duration of the practical class: 2 hours.

Theme: NUCLEUS OF THE CELL. CELL DIVISION. AGING AND DEATH OF THE CELLS


Professional Motivation: Knowledge of the cell nucleus and chromosomes structure is especially necessary for understanding the heredity information reproduction essence, chromosomal diseases diagnosis and for the elaboration of prophylaxis measures as for hereditary defects in infant birth.


Basic Level

  1. Interphase nucleus structural compounds (Biology department).

  2. Chromosomes, karyotype disorders, chromosomal diseases (Biology department).

  3. Light microscopy skill (Biology department).



^

Students’ Independent Study Program


I. Objectives for Students’ Independent Studies

You should prepare for the practical class using the existing textbooks and lectures. Special attention should be paid to the following:

  1. General morphology of the interphase cell nucleus and its biological significance.

  2. Nuclear envelope ultrastructure and functions.

  3. Chromatin chemical compounds. Euchromatin, heterochromatin.

  4. Chromosomes types and significance. Thin structure and chemical composition of chromosomes.

  5. Human karyotype (chromosomal set).

  6. Sex chromatin, its investigation significance in medicine.

  7. Nucleolus and karyoplasma structure and compositions.


Real-life situations to be solved

        1. Microsurgically the cell was divided into two portions: with a nucleus and without it. What will happen with both parts? What is the reason?

        2. The cell was influenced by the preparation that blocked up the nucleus function. How does it influence the cell vital activity?

        3. Chromosomes despiralization process was damaged. What processes will be destroyed in the nucleus?

        4. A few epithelial cells of the oral cavity were investigated after special histologic processing. Sex chromatin was revealed in some of them. Who do these cells belong to: a man or a woman?

        5. A cell nucleus was processed by some preparation that destroys histones (proteins). What nucleus components will be damaged first of all?


^ VISUAL AIDS AND MATERIAL TOOLS

Electron micrographs

  1. Round-shaped nucleus

  2. Fragment of the nucleus

  3. Ovoid and elongated nucleus

  4. Structure of the nucleolus


Students’ Practical Activities

Students must know and illustrate such a histologic Specimens and electron microphotographies.

Specimen 1. Karyokinesis of the plant cell.

Stained with iron haematoxylin.

Under a low magnification one must find in the specimen a portion with dividing cells. Under a high magnification one must watch 4 stages of mitosis: prophase – chromosomal tangle (ball), metaphase – equatorial disposition (maternal star) of the chromosomes, anaphase – two daughter stars in the poles and telophase – daughter cells formation. Notice: there are no centrioles in the cells (a specific feature of the plant cells mitosis).

Illustrate and indicate: А. Interphase: 1.Plasmalemma; 2.Cytoplasm; 3.Nucleus; 4.Nucleolus;

В. Mitosis: I. Prophase: 1. Early рrophase: а) chromosomes; 2. Late рrophase; ІІ. Metaphase: 1. Metaphase plate (maternal star); 2. Spindle fibers; 3. Centrioles; ІІІ. Anaphase: 1. Spindle fibers; 2. Chromosomes; 3. Centrioles; ІV. Telophase: 1. Early telophase: а) invagination of the plasmalemma; b) chromosomes; c) future daughter cells; 2. Late telophase: d) daughter cells.

  • What mitosis stages could you observe in the plant cells?

  • What are the differences between plant and animal cell mitosis?

Electron microphotography 1. Nucleus of an interphase.

A nucleus is one of the principal component of the eukaryotic cell. The nuclear content is set apart from the cytoplasm by the double membrane called the nuclear envelope with perinuclear space. The envelope is perforated by many nuclear pores with diaphragms. The nucleoplasm is the matrix where the chromosomes are embedded. A human somatic cell chromosomal set includes 46 chromosomes. In the specimen stained chromosomes are organized in chromatin. Due to its condition it may be euchromatin (despiralized active chromosomes) or heterochromatin (spiralized nonactive chromosomes). A nucleolus is the place of r-RNA appearance. It includes globular and fibrillar compounds.

Watch the nucleus structure, illustrate and indicate: 1. Nuclear envelope: a) outer membrane, b) inner membrane, c) perinuclear space, d) nuclear pores. 2. Nuclear matrix. 3. Chromatin: a) euchromatin, b) heterochromatin. 4. Nucleolus.

  • What are the differences between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope?

  • What is “euchromatin”?

  • What is “heterochromatin”?


References

  1. Histology / A text and atlas. Fourth Edition. Michael H.Ross, Cardon I.Kaye, Wojciech Pawlina. Lippincott Williams and Wil­kins. Philadelphia.2003. P.60 – 72.

  2. Textbook of human histology with colour atlas. Fifth edition. Inder­bir Singh. Jaypee brothers. Medical publishers (P) LTD. New Del­hi.2006. P.26 – 44.

  3. Cytology and general histology. N. O. Melnyk. Kyiv. 2007. pp. 30-38.


MODULE І. Fundamentals of Cytology and General Embryo­logy.

Content module 1. Fundamentals of Cytology.

Practical class № 7.

Duration of the practical class: 2 hours.

Theme: CONTROL OF THE CONTENT MODULE 1.


Professional Motivation: Eukaryotic cell is an elementary living system consisting of the tree main structural components: plasma lemma, cytoplasm and nucleus. The cell ensures multiplication, hereditary information, body development, adaptation processes, physiological and reparation regeneration. Non-cellular elements are derivatives of cells or products of their activity, and together with cells take part in the structure of the human body. Morphofunctional changes in cells are the bases for the development of many pathological processes (hereditary, diseases, inflammations, dystrophy, tumors). That is why, only correct understanding of the character of cytophisiological disorders is directed to the prognosis of disease development.


^ SPECIAL TASKS:

To determine the subject and tasks of histology, cytology and embryology, the main methods of the histological examinations;

To estimate the main modern trends in the development of the subject;

To analyze the contribution of the prominent scientists-histologists in the development of histology as a fundamental discipline;

To explain the main principles and stages to prepare histological specimens;

To explain structural organization of cells on microscopic and submicroscopic levels;

To conclude about the role of a superficial complex of the cells, organelles and cytoplasm inclusions;

To estimate nucleus condition in the cell in the interphase and during mitosis;

To analyze the processes of eldering and death of the cells;

To differentiate and describe morphological objects on histological specimens with explanation of staining;

To differentiate the main structural components of cells on electron microphotos.


Basic Level

1. Interphase nucleus structural compounds (Biology department).

2. Chromosomes, karyotype disorders, chromosomal diseases (Biology department).

3. Light microscopy skill (Biology department).

^

Students’ Independent Study Program


I. Objectives for Students’ Independent Studies

You should prepare for the practical class using the existing textbooks and lectures. Special attention should be paid to the following:

Histology. Definition, content and tasks of the modern histology. Parts of discipline, its significance for biology and medicine.

Basic steps of the historical development of histology as a science. Histological schools in Ukraine.

Basic principles and steps of the preparation of histological specimens for the light and electron microscopy.

Special methods of the histological investigations for the vital, supravital and postvital investigations.

Cell theory. History of the problem. Basic states.

Cell as elementary living system of the multicellular organism. Definition. Noncellular structures of the organism.

General structure of the eukaryotic cells. Cell membrane, its structure and chemical content.

Functions of plasmolemma: delimitation and transport, membrane digestion.

Receptor functions of the cell membrane.

Intercellular junctions, its types and morpho-functional characteristic.

Energetic apparatus of the cell structure and functions.

Synthetic apparatus of the cell, its structural content and functional significance.

Apparatus of the intracellular digestion, general characteristic, structure and functions.

Cytoskeleton, its content components and its functional significance.

Inclusions of cytoplasm, its classification, structure, properties and functional significance.

Nucleus, its significance in the vital activity of the cell. Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as the singe of the functional state of the cell.

Morpho-functional characteristic of the basic components of the nucleus: karyolemma, karyoplasm, chromatin and nucleolus.

Cell cycle.

Types of cells reproduction, its morphological characteristic, significance for biology and medicine.

Morpho-functional characteristic of the cell cycle. Interphase.

Reorganization of the structural components of the cell at time of different phases of mitosis.

Particularities and biological significance of meiosis.

Notion about endoreproduction and polyploidy.

Growth, differentiation, aging and death of the cell. Reaction of cells on harmful influence. Adaptation. Apoptosis.


^ Visual Aids and Material Tools

Electron micrographs

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi complex

Mitochondrion

Lysosomes

Peroxisomes

Ribosomes

Cell center – centrosome

Microfilaments in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cell

Microtubules in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cell

Myofibrils in the cytoplasm of the cardiac muscle cell

Neurofilaments in the cytoplasm of nervous cell

Cilia

Flagella

Glycogen inclusions in hepatocytes

Lipid inclusions in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes

Secretory inclusions in pancreatic acinar cells

Pigment inclusions in melanocytes

Round – shaped nucleus

Fragment of the nucleus

Ovoid and elongated nuclei

Structure of the nucleolus


^ Students’ Practical Activities

Testing of the content module 1 “Fundamentals of Cytology” is conducted on a special practical class after completing of the chapters “Methods of the histological examination” and “Cytology”. Practical importance includes real-life situations, diagnostics of the electron microphotographs, answers to the review questions on the above mentioned chapters. Testing is conducted orally and in written form in two stages”:

Solving the tests in the form of real-life situations and multiple choice questions. Every student is offered 10 tests.

Describing 5 electron microphotographs with their further analysis and estimation of structural peculiarities of eukaryotic cells and extra cellular structures.

EXCELLENT” is given to a student who competently, logically and clearly using the data of additional literature has answered all the questions and revealed his/her ability to read histological specimens.

GOOD” is given to a student who is quite competent in the material but makes two or three insignificant mistakes while answering.

SATISFACTORY” is given to a student who knows the whole material of the program but has some difficulty to reproduce it logically without help from outside and thus making an examiner to ask some loading additional questions.

BAD” is given in cases when a student demonstrates poor or complete lack of knowledge of the questions and does not understand the main topics of histology which can be revealed by asking additional questions.

NOTE: If a student has at least one protocol which is not signed, the general mark of the content module is lourred to 1 point.


Students are supposed to learn on their own electron microphotographs and to solve real-life situations and multiple-choice questions. They should use situational tasks from the manual of tests “Module I. Fundamentals on Cytology and General Embryology” and learn electron microphotographs. Using the tables, schemes and graphological structures of the previous practical classes the should understand the stages of making histological specimens and main peculiarities in the structure and functions of the eukaryotic cells determined in the objectives.


References

  1. Lectures.

  2. Histology / A text and atlas. Fourth Edition. Michael H.Ross, Car­don I.Kaye, Wojciech Pawlina. Lippincott Williams and Wil­kins. Philadelphia.2003.

  3. Textbook of human histology with colour atlas. Fifth edition. Inder­bir Singh. Jaypee brothers. Medical publishers (P) LTD. New Del­hi.2006.

  4. Histology and cell biology. Johnson, K.E. Pensylvania. 1991.

  5. Wheater, Paul R. Functional Histology: a text and colour atlas. - 2nd ed. Longman Group UK Limited, 1985.

  6. Atlas of Normal Histology /Mariano S.H. di Fiore. – 6th ed./ rev. and edited by Victor P.Eroschenko. Philadelphia, London. 1988. – 267 p.

  7. Johanes, A.Y., and Rhodin M.D.: An Atlas of Ultrastructure. Philadelphia, London, Saunders Co., 1963.

  8. Tissues and organs: a text atlas of scanning electron microscopy. – Kessel RG, Kardon RH. – Freeman Co. – 1979.

Russian books:

  1. Гистология, цитология и эмбриология: Атлас: Учебное пособие /О.В.Волкова, Ю.К.Елецкий, Т.К.Дубовая и др. //Под ред. О.В.Волковой, Ю.К.Елецкого. – М.: Медицина, 1996. – 544 с.

  2. Атлас по гистологии и эмбриологии /И.В.Алмазов, Л.С.Сутулов. – М.: Медицина, 1978. – 544 с.

  3. Атлас по гистологии, цитологии и эмбриологии /С.Л.Кузнецов, Н.Н.Мушкамбаров, В.Л.Горячкина. – М.: Медицинское информационное агенство, 2002. – 374 с.

  4. Ультраструктура клітин і тканин (навчальний посібник-атлас) /К.С. Волков, Н.В.Пасєчко – Тернопіль: Укрмедкнига, 2004. – 96 с.

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