Thematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students of 2nd year at III (autumn) semester of 2011-2012 study year icon

Thematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students of 2nd year at III (autumn) semester of 2011-2012 study year




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НазваThematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students of 2nd year at III (autumn) semester of 2011-2012 study year
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1. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/KTP_EN.doc
2. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/KTP_RU.doc
3. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/KTP_UA.doc
4. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/MVOPR-EN.doc
5. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/MVOPR-RU.doc
6. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/MVOPR-UA.doc
7. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/PROGRAM.doc
8. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/TIME-EN.doc
9. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/TIME-RU.doc
10. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/TIME-UA.doc
11. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/VOPR-EN.doc
12. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/VOPR-RU.doc
13. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/VOPR_UA.doc
14. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/KTP_EN.doc
15. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/KTP_RU.doc
16. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/KTP_UA.doc
17. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/MVOPR_EN.doc
18. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/MVOPR_RU.doc
19. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/MVOPR_UA.doc
20. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/PROGRAM.doc
21. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/TIME_EN.doc
22. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/TIME_RU.doc
23. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/TIME_UA.doc
24. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/VOPR_EN.doc
25. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/VOPR_RU.doc
26. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/VOPR_UA.doc
27. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/KTP_EN.doc
28. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/KTP_RU.doc
29. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/KTP_UA.doc
30. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/MVOPR_EN.doc
31. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/MVOPR_RU.doc
32. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/MVOPR_UA.doc
33. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/PROGRAM.doc
34. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/TIME_EN.doc
35. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/TIME_RU.doc
36. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/TIME_UA.doc
37. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/VOPR_EN.doc
38. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/VOPR_RU.doc
39. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/VOPR_UA.doc
Thematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students pharmacological facalty of 2nd year at IV (spring) semester of 2011-2012 study year
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Календарно-тематичний план лекцій для студентів фармацевтичного факультету 2-го курсу на IV (весняний) семестр 2011-2012 навчального року
The first final module control card for the first final module control # 1
Модульный контроль №1 (общая микробиология) билет №1 Определение бактерий. Отличие прокариотов от эукариотов. 2
Модульний контроль №1 (загальна мікробіологія) білет №1 Визначення бактерій. Відмінності прокаріотів від еукаріотів. 2
Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни луганський державний медичний універсітет
Schedule of consultations and reworks for 2
Консультаций и отработок для студентов 2-3 курсов
Консультацій та відробок для студентів 2-3 курсів
Practical training # 1
Список вопросов, выносящихся на рассмотрение каждого практического занятия по микробиологии в 4-м и 5-м семестрах практическое занятие №1
Список питаннь, що вівчаються на практичних заняттях з мікробіології в 4-му и 5-му семестрах практичне заняття №1
Thematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students of 2nd year at III (autumn) semester of 2011-2012 study year
Календарно-тематический план лекций для студентов стоматологического факультета на 3-й (осенний) семестр 2011-2012 учебного года
Тематичний план лекцій для студентів стоматологічного факультету на 3-й (осінній) семестр 2011-2012 учбового року
The first final module control card for the first final module control # 1
Модульный контроль №1 (общая микробиология) билет №1 Определение бактерий. Отличие прокариотов от эукариотов. 2
Модульний контроль №1 (загальна мікробіологія) білет №1 Визначення бактерій. Відмінності прокаріотів від еукаріотів. 2
Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни луганський державний медичний універсітет
Schedule of consultations and reworks for 2
Консультаций и отработок для студентов 2-3 курсов
Консультацій та відробок для студентів 2-3 курсів
Practical training # 1
Список вопросов, выносящихся на рассмотрение каждого практического занятия по микробиологии в 3-м, 4-м и 5-м семестрах практическое занятие №1
Список питаннь, що вівчаються на практичних заняттях з мікробіології в 3-му, 4-му и 5-му семестрах практичне заняття №1
Thematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students of 2nd year at III (autumn) semester of 2011-2012 study year
С. М. Смирнов проф. С. А. Кащенко " " 2011 г. " " 2011 г. Календарно-тематический план
Питання, які вивчаються
The first final module control card for the first final module control # 1
Модульный контроль №1 (общая микробиология) билет №1 Определение бактерий. Отличие прокариотов от эукариотов. 2
Модульний контроль №1 (загальна мікробіологія) білет №1 Визначення бактерій. Відмінності прокаріотів від еукаріотів. 2
Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни луганський державний медичний універсітет
Schedule of consultations and reworks for 2
Консультаций и отработок для студентов 2-3 курсов
Консультацій та відробок для студентів 2-3 курсів
Practical training # 1
Список вопросов, выносящихся на рассмотрение каждого практического занятия по микробиологии в 3-м, 4-м и 5-м семестрах практическое занятие №1
Список питаннь, що вівчаються на практичних заняттях з мікробіології в 3-му, 4-му и 5-му семестрах практичне заняття №1

THEMATIC SCHEDULE OF LECTURES ON MICROBIOLOGY, VIROLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY FOR THE STUDENTS OF 2nd YEAR AT III (AUTUMN) SEMESTER OF 2011-2012 STUDY YEAR

№№

Topic

The revised questions

Amount of hrs

Lecturer

1.

Classification, morphology and ultrastructure of bacteria.

Nomenclature and systematic of microorganisms. Bacterial morphology. Ultrastructure of prokaryotes.

2

I.S. Gaidash


2.


Physiology of bacteria

Bacterial nutrition and reproduction. Sterilization methods. Substrate-level and electron-transport phosphorylation.

1

I.S. Gaidash


Sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis.

Definition of sterilisation, its methods (dry heat, moist heat, ultraviolet light, ionising radiation, filtration). Autoclaving as practical method of sterilization. Preparation of different objects for sterilization. Action on microbes of low temperatures, pressure, different types of radiation, chemical agents. Asepsis and antiseptic, methods, quality control. Disinfection (or germicidals), its main methods.

1

I.S. Gaidash


3.


Genetics of microbes.

Forms of genetic variability. Modifications. Changes of the main bacterial properties: morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, and virulence. Genotypical variability. Mutations, their role in evolution of microorganisms. Recombinant variability: transformation, transduction, conjugation. Basics of gene engineering. Achievements, usage of preparations in medicine.

1

I.S. Gaidash


Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of infectious diseases. Antibiotics.

Main groups of chemotherapeutic drugs. Antibiotics. Studies of A. Chain, Flori, A. Fleming, Z. Ermolyeva, Waxman and others. Classification of antibiotics. Mechanism of action on microbial cell. Resistance of microbes to antibiotics, its genetic and physiological aspects. Side effect of antibiotics (toxic, allergic and dysbacterial)

1

I.S. Gaidash


4.

Infectious process

Pathogenicity and virulence. Measurement of virulence. Factors of microbial virulence. Role of macroorganism, social and natural environments in development of infectious process

1

I.S. Gaidash


Immunity. Immune diagnostic. Clinical Immunology.

Barrier function of skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes. Bactericidal substances of organism liquids. Phagocytosis. 2Humoral nonspecific factors of resistance. Types and forms of the acquired immunity. Antigens. Antigenic structure of bacterial cell. Specificity of antigens. The basic components of immune system. Immune competent cells, intercellular co-operation. Structure of antibodies molecule. Classes of antibodies. Immune diagnostic. Serologic reactions. Clinical immunology. The congenital and acquired immune deficiencies. Problems and basic approaches to immune therapy and correction.

1

I.S. Gaidash


5.

Allergy.

Allergens. Hypersensivity of immediate type (anaphylaxis, serum disease, atopy).

1

I.S. Gaidash


Vaccines. Immune sera. Immunoglobulins.

Classification of vaccines and requirements to them. Live, killed (inactivated), chemical vaccines, method of obtaining. Anatoxins. Ramon method. Units of antigenic activity. Concept about vaccination and revaccination. Calendar of vaccinations. Antibodies: their nature, place of synthesizing, classes of immunoglobulins, production dynamics - primary, secondary answer, autoantibodies. Assigning of immune serums. Antitoxic medical sera: obtaining, purifying, units of force measurement. Immunoglobulins: the raw, methods of obtaining, applying. Diagnostic sera. Obtaining, assigning in reactions, units of activity measurement.

1

I.S. Gaidash





Total amount of hrs




10



THEMATIC SCHEDULE OF PRACTICAL TRAINING ON MICROBIOLOGY, VIROLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY FOR THE STUDENTS OF 2nd YEAR AT III (AUTUMN) SEMESTER OF 2011-2012 STUDY YEAR

##

Topic

The revised questions

Practical skills

Amount of hours

Module # 1 – ‘Morphology and Physiology of Microbes. Infection. Immunity’

1.

Organization of microbiology lab activity. Dyes. Morphology of cocci. Simple staining methods. Microscopy.

Organization, technique and functioning of microbiological lab. The requirements to the students in regime labs. Methods of microbiological researches. Immersion objective, resolution of an immersion system. Engineering of microscopy. Technique of smear preparation from microbial specimen, fixation. Simple methods of staining, purpose of staining. Morphology of cocci. Species of pathogenic cocci. Structure of bacterial cell.

Learn rules of activity of the student in educational lab. Learn the technique of smear preparation, technique of staining by simple method and technique of microscopy. Prepare the smear from culture of staphylococci, streptococci, stain by methylene blue or water fuchsin, perform the microscopy and draw. Perform the microscopy and draw preparations with gonococci. Draw a path of rays through immersion oil and air.

2

2.

Morphology of rods. Spores

Bacteria, bacilli, clostridia. Spores of bacilli and clostridia, their role. Process of sporulation, spore localization in bacterial cell. Spore-forming pathogenic bacteria. Structure, resistance and germination of spores. Methods of detection and destruction of spores.

Draw smears with spore-forming culture.

2

3.

Complex staining methods.

Gram-staining, method.

Make the smears for Gram-staining from clean culture of colibacilli and staphylococci, perform the microscopy and draw.

2

4.

Curved forms of bacteria. Bacterial flagella. Capsules

Vibrios, spirilla as curved and spiral forms of bacteria. Spirochete, features of structure, classification. Staining of spirochetes by Romanowsky-Giemsa. Definition of motility. Making of wet-mount preparation. Methods of analysis of microorganisms in living condition. Principles of dark field and phase-contrast microscopy. Bacterial flagella, examples of curved bacterial forms. Capsule of bacteria, its biological role, structure of encapsulated bacteria. Examples of bacteria making capsules in human organism. Klebsiella as encapsulated microorganisms. Technique of staining by Burri-Gins.

Microscopy the bacterial flagella preparation stained by Loeffler. Microscopy and draw smears with vibrios stained by water fuchsin. Microscopy and draw smears with pathogenic spirochetes (borrelia, treponema), stained by Romanowsky-Giemsa. From tooth surface content make the smear by Burri, perform the microscopy and draw. From alive culture of E. coli make the preparation the "crushed" drop, perform the microscopy of bacterial motility. Make the smear from encapsulated bacteria, stain by Burri-Gins, microscopy and draw.

2

5.

Morphology of rickettsiae, chlamydia, mycoplasma, actinomyces, fungi

Position of rickketsiae in systematization of microorganisms. Morphology of rickketsiae, diseases, caused by them. Staining technique by Zdrodovskiy. Chlamydia as non-motile coccobacilli. Developmental cycle, major diseases caused by chlamydia species. Mycoplasma: morphology, biological properties, caused diseases. Actinomycetes: morphology, biological properties, caused diseases. Fungi: classification, structure, reproduction, classes – Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Deuteromycota. Making of wet-mount preparation. Principle of fluorescence microscopy.

Stain by Zdrodovsky the smear with rickketsiae, microscopy and draw. From specimen of mould make the ‘crushed’ drop preparation, microscopy and draw. From slurry of baking yeast make smear, stain by methylene blue, microscopy and draw. Microscopy the smear of fungi from Candida species. Learn the type of growth of fungi on Saburo medium. Acquaint with fluorescence microscopy.

2

6.

Bacterial nutrition and reproduction. Sterilization methods

Growth and reproduction of bacteria, phases of reproduction. Concept of population. The factors limiting and stimulating growth and reproduction of microbes in human organism; usage of this principle in medicine. Bacterial nutrition requirements, types (active and passive). Classification of bacteria on nutritional type. Energy transformation by bacteria. Usage of knowledge of the nutritional type for diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures of infectious diseases. Media, their classification on physical condition (liquid, dense, semi-liquid) and on diagnostic capabilities. Concept of sterilization, its methods. Autoclave as practical method of sterilization. Preparation of different objects for sterilization. Action on microbes of low temperatures, pressure, different types of radiation, chemical agents. Asepsis and antiseptic, methods, quality control. Disinfecting (or germicidals), its main methods.

Prepare smear from bacterial mixture, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw. Put bacterial mixture on petri dish with plated agar for obtaining of isolated colonies. Learn the type of growth of staphylococci, sarcina, E. coli, anthracoid on liquid and dense media. Learn the technique of bacterial cultivation on liquid and dense media. Examine the demonstration techniques for cultivating of anaerobes. From culture grown on plated agar prepare the smear, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw.

Learn the structure and action of hot-air oven, boiling water, autoclave, and thermostat.

2

7.

Substrate-level and electron-transport phosphorylation.

Bacterial metabolism (carbon flow, substrate-level and electron-transport phosphorylation, glycolysis fate of pyruvate, tricarbonic acid cycle, etc.).

Analyze the colonies, which have grown on plated agar. Prepare from part of colonies the smear, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw to the album for laboratory work. Spread the rest of colony on new plated agar.

2

8.

Methods of obtaining of aerobes culture.

Methods of cultivating of aerobic microbes. Obtaining of pure culture of aerobic microbes. Definition and usage of pure bacterial culture. Principles of clean culture obtaining: mechanical separation on dense medium with the help of closed loop; usage of biological properties of bacteria (enzymatic, capacity to move on dense medium, stability to heats, acids, alkalis). Colony of microbes, characteristic (S- and R-forms).

Study the phases of clean culture obtaining.

2

9.

Methods of obligate anaerobes cultivating

Methods of cultivating of anaerobic microbes. Obtaining of pure culture of anaerobic microbes.

Study the phases of clean culture obtaining.

2

10.

Bacterial enzymes

Classification of enzymes. Mechanism of enzymes action. Permeases. Usage of bacterial enzymatic activity for their identification. Methods of definition of saccharolytic and proteolytic enzymes. Differential-diagnostic media, their structure. Automatic systems of bacterial identification, principles of the registration of bacterial enzymatic activity.

Examine the growth of E. coli and staphylococci on different media. Register bacterial biochemical activity due to changed and not changed hydrogen sulphite and indole samples. Learn the technique of definition of bacterial biochemical activity of with the help of automatic systems of bacterial identification

2

11.

Genetics of microbes. Phages.

Structure, morphology and elemental composition of phages. Types of interaction between phages and bacteria: productive (virulent phage), integrative (moderate phage). Lysogenic, phage conversion. Titration of phages on Аppelman. Propagation of phages in the nature, obtaining of phages. Usage of phages for microbial indication and identification. Organization of genetic material in bacterial cell. Most important types of genetic exchange between organisms: plasmids, transposons, insertion sequences. Forms of genetic variability. Modifications. Changes of the main bacterial properties: morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, and virulence. Genotypical variability. Mutations, their role in evolution of microorganisms. Recombinant variability: transformation, transduction, and conjugation. Practical values of bacterial genetics for laboratory diagnostic, production of antibiotics, obtaining of live vaccines.

Determine the phage titer by Appelman method. Conduct the phage diagnostics. Determine the type of isolated culture by means of standard types of phages (typhoid, paratyphoid A and B). Register the lysotypy of staphylococcal culture with the help of standard phages. Examine the set of phages used for treatment and diagnostic. Register the phenomenon of conjugation. Learn S- and R-forms of colonies.

2

12.

Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of infectious diseases

Chemotherapy at infectious diseases and its definition. Chemotherapy index of antimicrobial drugs. Main groups of chemotherapeutic drugs. Antibiotics. Studies of A. Chain, Flori, A. Fleming, Z. Ermolyeva, Waxman and others. Classification of antibiotics. Mechanism of action on microbial cell. Resistance of microbes to antibiotics, its genetic and physiological aspects. Side effect of antibiotics (toxic, allergic and dysbacterial). Definition of sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics by method of production dilutions, disc method.

Determine sensitivity of staphylococci to penicillin by method of production dilutions. The scheme draw in the album. Determine sensitivity of staphylococci to penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, neomycin by paper disc method and draw the petri dish.

2

13.

Infectious process

Definition of concepts: infectious process, infectious disease. Role of microbes in infectious process. Pathogenicity and virulence. Measurement of virulence. Factors of microbial virulence. Role of macroorganism, social and natural environments in development of infectious process. Propagation of microbes in organism. Transmission mechanism of causative agents and classification of infectious diseases. Dynamics and types of infectious process. Value of experimental method in microbiological practice.

From corpse material prepare the smear, stain by methylene blue, microscopy and draw. Spread the corpse material (blood, liver, lien) in bouillon. Register the virulence of culture of staphylococci: growth on saline agar (lecithinase activity), citrate plasma (plasmocoagulase), on blood agar (hemolysin). Register of blood analysis on sterility.

2

14.

Vaccines.

Immunity: definition. Types and forms of immunity. Antigens, their properties. Artificial active immunity. Works of E. Jenner. Scientific fundamentals of vaccines obtaining. Studies of L. Paster. Classification of vaccines and requirements to them. Live vaccines. Methods of obtaining of vaccine strains. Inactivated vaccines. Ways of inactivating of vaccine strains. Chemical vaccines, method of obtaining. Anatoxins. Method of Ramon. Units of antigenic activity. Concept about vaccination and revaccination. Calendar of vaccinations.

Learn vaccines: tubercular, poliomyelitic, measles, antirabic (Fermi, cultural), pertussoid, diphtheria and tetanus anatoxins, typhoid vaccine with sextaanatoxin.

2

15.

Immune sera. Immunoglobulins

Antibodies: their nature, place of synthesising, classes of immunoglobulins, production dynamics - primary, secondary answer, autoantibodies. Assigning of immune serums. Antitoxic medical serums: obtaining, purifying, units of force measurement. Merits of E. Bering. Method of serums injection by Besredka. Immunoglobulins: the raw, methods of obtaining, applying. Diagnostic serums. Obtaining, assigning in reactions, units of activity measurement.

Learn sera: diphtheria, tetanus, botulin, gangrenous. Learn immunoglobulins: measles, influenza, antirabic. Learn diagnostic serums: agglutinative, antitoxic, fluorescent.

2

16.

Agglutination tests

Characteristic of immunocompetent cells. Co-operation of cells in the immune answer. Theory of antibodies generation. Principles of obtaining of diagnostic immune serums. Agglutination test: the mechanism, technique, registration, practical value.

Perform and make conclusion on agglutination test by Vidale type. Perform and to make conclusion on approximate agglutination test on glass and draw. Make conclusion on reaction of indirect hemagglutination with serum of patient and red blood cell diagnosticum and draw.

2

17.

Precipitation assays


Precipitation test: the mechanism, technique, registration, practical value. Reaction of indirect agglutination: the mechanism, technique, registration, practical value.

Perform and make conclusion on precipitation test.

2

18.

Reactions of lysis and fixation of the complement.

Immune deficiency conditions, classification. Immune tolerance. Role of T-suppressors in tolerance. Reactions of bacteriolysis and hemolysis. Complement: titer, working dose. Reaction of complement binding: the mechanism, technique, registration, practical value.

Determine the titer and working dose of complement. Perform to make conclusion on reaction of complement binding, draw the scheme.

2

19.

EIA, RIA, ELISA.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Techniques, ingredients, registration. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Techniques, ingredients, registration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Techniques, ingredients, registration.

Learn the principles of RIA, EIA, ELISA.

2

20.

Final control of Module # 1 – ‘Morphology and Physiology of Microbes. Infection. Immunity’

To check the knowledge of theoretical questions

To check the practical skills

2




Total amount of hrs




40


Tasks for self-dependive work of students


Topic


Amount of hours

1

History of Microbiology.


2

2

Phagocytose. Cells, stages, their characteristic. The complete and incomplete phagocytose. Works of I.I. Mechnikov.



2

3

Methods of microbiological researches. An immersion objective, resolution of an immersion system. Engineering of microscopy. Technique of smear preparation from specimen of microorganisms, fixation. Simple methods of staining, purpose of staining.



7

4

Antibiotics. Studies of A. Chain, Flori, A. Fleming, Z. Ermolyeva, Waxman and others. Classification of antibiotics. Mechanism of action on microbial cell. Resistance of microbes to antibiotics, its genetic and physiological aspects. Side effect of antibiotics (toxic, allergic and dysbacterial).


4

5

Immune tolerance. Reasons of originating. Role of Т-suppressors in tolerance.



6


7

Immune deficiency conditions: definition of concept, inherent, acquired, their characteristic, reason of originating.



2

8

Hypersensivity of immediate type. Anaphylaxis. Serum disease. The pathogenesis of anaphylaxis, deallergisation. Besredka method.



4


9

Hypersensivity of delayed type. The pathogenesis. Types of allergic reactions of this type, usage in diagnostic of infectious diseases.


3



Total amount of hrs


30



THEMATIC SCHEDULE OF LECTURES ON MICROBIOLOGY, VIROLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY FOR THE STUDENTS OF 2nd YEAR AT IV (SPRING) SEMESTER

№№

Topic

The revised questions

Amount of hours


1.


Laboratory diagnostic of staphylococcal, streptococcal diseases and diseases caused by Gram-negative cocci.

Main peculiarities of staphylococci and streptococci. Pathogenesis of the diseases caused by them. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis. Main peculiarities of gonococci and meningococci. Pathogenesis of the diseases caused by them. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis.

1

Laboratory diagnostic of diphtheria

Causative agent of diphtheria: biovars, main properties. Sources and mechanism of infection, pathogenesis, clinical forms of diphtheria. Immunity: type, definition of tension. Laboratory diagnostic of diphtheria. Differentiation of corynebacteria. Treatment of diphtheria. Serotherapy. Prophylaxis.

1


2.

Laboratory diagnostic of tetanus, botulism and gas gangrene

Causative agent of tetanus, main biological properties. Sources and mechanism of infection, pathogenesis, clinic of tetanus, laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis. Causative agents of botulism: biovars, main properties. Sources and mechanism of infection, pathogenesis, clinic of botulism, laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis. Clostridia of gas gangrene.

1

Laboratory diagnostic of tuberculosis

Characteristic of genus Mycobacteria, pathogenic species. Causative agents of tuberculosis: species, main properties. Sources and mechanism of infection. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis, clinical manifestations of disease. Features of anti-tuberculosis immunity. Laboratory diagnostic of tuberculosis. Treatment and prophylaxis.

1



3.

Laboratory Diagnostic of syphilis

Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum – causative agent of syphilis: habitat, transmission, properties of the organism, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, immunity to reinfection, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.

1

Laboratory diagnostics of escherichioses, salmonelloses and shigelloses



Escherichia species: morphology, cultural and biochemical properties. Antigenic structure of colibacilli. Physiological role of colibacilli. Intestinal dysbacteriosis and medicines for its treatment. Escherichioses: enteritis in younger children, dysentery- and cholera-like diseases, mechanism of transmission, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnostics. Sanitary significance of colibacilli. Salmonella as causative agents of nosocomial gastroenteritis: main species, morphology, cultural, fermentative, antigenic properties. Diseases in humans: source of infection, mechanism of transmission. Pathogenesis, clinic of salmonelloses, immunity. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis. Shigella: properties, classification. Diseases in humans. Pathogenesis of dysentery, role of toxins and enzymes in pathogenicity. Immunity. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis.

1

4.

General virology

Stages of virology development. Biological properties of viruses. Taxonomy, classification and nomenclature of viruses. Mechanism of viral-cell interaction. Reproduction and cultivation of viruses. Viral infectious process.

1

Myxoviruses

Characteristic of influenza and parainfluenza viruses, structure, classification. Pathogenesis of influenza, laboratory diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment. Parainfluenza viruses.

1

5.

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G and TT viruses. Human immune deficiency virus (HIV)

Characteristic and peculiarities of hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G and TT viruses. Epidemiology, pathogenesis of hepatites, immunity, laboratory diagnostic, prophylaxis, treatment. Characteristic and structure of HIV-1 and HIV-2. Epidemiology, pathogenesis of HIV-infection and AIDS, laboratory diagnostic, principles of prophylaxis and treatment.


2




Total amount of hrs




10



THEMATIC SCHEDULE OF PRACTICAL TRAINING ON MICROBIOLOGY, VIROLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY FOR THE STUDENTS OF 2nd YEAR AT IV (SPRING) SEMESTER

##

Topic

The revised questions

Practical skills

Amount of hrs

1.


Laboratory diagnostic of staphylococcal and streptococcal diseases



Main peculiarities of staphylococci and streptococci. Pathogenesis of the diseases caused by them. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis.



Take the material from feces and spread it on bile-saline agar. Prepare smear from pure culture of staphylococci, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw. Account growth of staphylococci on Giss media, blood agar, bile-saline agar, citrate plasma. Account antibioticogram of isolated streptococci, make the conclusion.


2,5


2.

Laboratory diagnostic of diseases caused by Gram-negative cocci

Main peculiarities of gonococci and meningococci. Pathogenesis of the diseases caused by them. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis.

Perform the microscopy of smears with gonococci and meningococci. Account the growth of Neisseria meningitidis and catarrhal diplococcus on serum and simple agar at different temperatures (37˚C and 22˚С).

2,5

3.

Laboratory Diagnostic of syphilis

Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum – causative agent of syphilis: habitat, transmission, properties of the organism, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, immunity to reinfection, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.

Perform the microscopy and draw ready preparation with T. pallidum, stained by Romanowsky-Giemsa method, make the conclusion. Perform and read Wasserman reaction, make the conclusion

2,5

4.

Laboratory diagnostic of diphtheria

Causative agent of diphtheria: biovars, main properties. Sources and mechanism of infection, pathogenesis, clinical forms of diphtheria. Immunity: type, definition of tension. Laboratory diagnostic of diphtheria. Differentiation of corynebacteria. Treatment of diphtheria. Serotherapy. Prophylaxis.

Streak faeces it on Buchin media. Stain the smears with diphtheria bacteria by Gram and Loeffler, perform microscopy and draw. Account growth of diphtheria causative agents on Roux and Buchin media. Account and draw results of toxygenicity definition of diphtheria bacteria.

2,5

5.


Laboratory diagnostics of tetanus and botulism and gas gangrene and diseases caused by Strict Anaerobic Non-sporing Bacteria

Causative agents of tetanus and botulism, main properties. Sources and mechanism of infection, pathogenesis, clinics of tetanus and botulism, laboratory diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis

Causative agents of wound anaerobic infections, sources and mechanism of infections, pathogenesis. Treatment and prophylaxis of gas gangrene.

Main conditionally pathogenic species of non-sporing strict anaerobes. Epidemiology, pathogenesis of infections caused by non-sporing strict anaerobes. Laboratory diagnostic of infections caused by non-sporing strict anaerobes. Principles of treatment and prophylaxis of diseases caused by non-sporing strict anaerobes.

Read the results of neutralization test on animals. Study the morbidity with tetanus and botulism, in Lugansk region. Learn the diagnostic, medical and prophylaxis preparations. Solve the situational tasks.

Perform the microscopy and draw preparations with causative agents of gas gangrene. Study the morbidity with gas gangrene in Lugansk region. Learn the diagnostic, medical and prophylaxis preparations. Solve the situational tasks.

Learn the ‘classic’ and modern equipment for cultivation of anaerobes; write main data to the album. Study the content of the most frequently used nutrient media for cultivation of anaerobes; write main data to the album. Perform species identification of strict anaerobic bacteria on their biochemical activity with usage of commercial kit ‘АNАERОtest 23’ (‘Lachema’ Chech). Study additional biochemical tests (indole production, nitrate reduction and others), used at identification of anaerobic bacteria, write main data

2,5


6.

Laboratory Diagnostic of Tuberculosis and Leprosy


Mycobacteria. Causative agents of tuberculosis. Habitat, transmission, properties of the organism, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, immunity to reinfection, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. Diseases due to “atypical” mycobacteria. Mycobacterium leprae - causative agent of leprosy. Habitat, transmission, properties of the organism, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, immunity to reinfection, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.

Make the smears from vaccine strain of BCG, stain by Ziehl-Neelsen, microscopy and draw.

Perform microscopy and draw the smear from sputum of patient with pulmonary tuberculosis.

Learn diagnostic and preventive drugs.

3

7.

Laboratory diagnostics of brucellosis and anthrax and plague and tularemia

Brucella: species, main properties. Pathogenesis of brucellosis, laboratory diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis. Causative agent of anthrax: main properties. Clinical forms of anthrax, pathogenesis of the disease, laboratory diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis.

Yersinia. Causative agent of plague, main properties. Clinical forms of plague, main properties. Sources and mechanism of infection, laboratory diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis. Causative agent of tularemia: main properties. Clinical forms of tularemia, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis

Prepare the smear from brucella culture, stain it by Gram’s method, perform the microscopy and draw. Perform and draw Hadleson’s and Right’s reactions. Prepare the smear from anthracoid culture, stain it by Gram’s method, perform the microscopy and draw. Perform and credit the reaction of thermal precipitation by Ascoli.

Perform the microscopy and draw causative agent of plague in preparation of animal corps. Perform the differentiation of yersinia (2 methods). Perform the microscopy and draw causative agent of tularemia. Perform and credit accelerated agglutination assay on glass slide with tularemia diagnosticum. Read the agglutination test with blood serum of patient with tularemia. Solve the situational tasks.

2,5


8.

Laboratory diagnostics of escherichioses and of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and of salmonelloses


Escherichia species: morphology, cultural and biochemical properties. Antigenic structure of colibacilli. Serogroups, serovars. Physiological role of colibacilli. Intestinal dysbacteriosis and medicines for its treatment. Escherichioses: enteritis in younger children, dysentery- and cholera-like diseases, mechanism of transmission, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnostics. Sanitary significance of colibacilli. Method of determining of coli-index and total microbial amount of food water.

Salmonella species, serological classification of Kauffman-White. Etiological agents of typhoid and paratyphoid fever: morphology, cultural biochemical abilities, antigenic structure, virulence factors. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever: source of infection, routes of dissemination. Pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Laboratory diagnostic: bacteriological method, blood, fecal and urine culture, serological method. Bacterial carriage: indication. Prophylaxis and treatment of typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

Salmonella as causative agents of nosocomial gastroenteritis: main species, morphology, cultural, fermentative, antigenic properties. Diseases in humans: source of infection (main species of animals and birds), mechanism of transmission (endogenous and exogenous infection of foodstuff). Pathogenesis, clinic of salmonelloses, immunity. Laboratory diagnostic: blood and fecal cultures, other materials, serological reactions. Treatment and prophylaxis. Salmonella – etiological agents of nosocomial salmonellosis. Acute food gastroenteritis of other etiology.

Examine the colonies of colibacilli on Endo and Ploskirev’s media. Prepare the smear form culture, stain by Gram method, perform the microscopy and draw. Study fermentative activity of E. coli by means of ENTEROtest and in Ressel medium. Perform and read the agglutination assay on glass slide with mixture of OK-sera. Examine the equipment for the account of coli-index of food water by means of membrane filters. Count the number of lactose-positive strains, that have grown on filters, placed to Endo medium. Read the results of determining of oxidase activity in lactose-positive colonies. Examine the growth of cultures from colonies on glucose-peptone medium with indicator Andrede (glucose fermentation). Using this data, count the coli-index. Determine the total microbial amount of water. Count the number of colonies in petri dish on meat infusion agar by means of apparatus for colonies counting. Point out the ability of water usage for drinking purposes if you have determined that coli-index equals 2, and total microbial amount in 1 ml of water is 32.

Perform the microscopy and draw the ready Gram-stained preparation of typhoid bacteria. Examine the growth of Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B on Endo and Ploskirev’s media. Study fermentative activity of S. typhi, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B by means of ENTEROtest and in Ressel medium. Read the result of phage-typing of typhoid salmonella. Perform and read the agglutination assay (Widal’s type) with typhoid O-diagnosticum, make the conclusion. Read the indirect hemagglutination assay with erythrocytic O- and Vi-diagnosticums. Study main diagnostic preparations.

Prepare the smears form pure salmonella cultures (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. cholerae-suis), stain by Gram method, perform the microscopy and draw. Examine the growth of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. cholerae-suis on Ressel medium. Study fermentative activity of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. cholerae-suis by means of ENTEROtest. Perform and read the agglutination assay on glass slide with polyvalent, group-specific and monoreceptor sera, determine the serovar of salmonella. Study main diagnostic preparations. Learn principles of Kauffmann-White classifications.

2,5

9.

Laboratory diagnostic of shigelloses and of cholera

Shigella: properties, classification. Diseases in humans. Pathogenesis of dysentery, role of toxins and enzymes in pathogenicity. Immunity. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis (non-specific and specific).

Cholera vibrio, main properties. Antigenic structure, classification of vibrios. Toxins, mechanism of their action on human organism. Disease in human: source of infection, route of infection, pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnostic, prophylaxis and treatment of cholera.


Prepare the smears form pure culture of S. flexneri, stain by Gram method, perform the microscopy and draw. Examine the growth of S. flexneri and S. sonnei on Ressel medium. Study fermentative activity of S. flexneri and S. sonnei by means of ENTEROtest. Study the fermentative activity of S. flexneri and S. sonnei on Endo and Ploskirev’s media. Read the results of S. sonnei colicin-genotyping on shorten method with indicative strains K12, B and gamma. Study the sensitivity of shigella to antibiotics. Read the indirect hemagglutination assay. Study the diagnostic preparations.

Stain by water fuchsin the ready smear with vibrios, perform the microscopy and draw. Examine the growth of cholera vibrios on peptone water and alkaline meat infusion agar, make the conclusion. Study fermentative activity of vibrios by means of NEFERMtest. Learn Heiberg grouping of vibrios. Study the fermentative activity of vibrios on ‘cholera’ Ressel medium (meat infusion agar, 0.1 % sucrose solution, 0.1 % lactose solution, indicator), draw to the album. Study the differential diagnostic of vibrios. Read the agglutination assay at glass slide with O-immune anticholera serum. Read the agglutination assay at glass slide with type sera Ogawa and Inaba. Study the preparations for diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis.

2,5

10.

Methods of cultivation and indication in virology.

History of virology. Works of D. Ivanovsky. General characteristic of viruses. Morphology, elemental composition and constitution of virions. Simple and complex viruses. Taxonomy and classification of viruses. Reproduction of viruses. The main stages of viral-cell interaction. Reproduction of viruses. The main stages of viral-cell interaction. Organization of the viral genetic material. Reproduction of RNA and DNA viruses. Interference. Defective interfering fragments, their value in development of viral infection. Viruses-satellites. Types of viral infection of the cell-host: productive, abortive, integrative. Viral persistence in cells. Features of immune answer at viral infections. Variability of viruses: (a) modification (phenotypic mixing, polyploidia); (b) mutation (spontaneous, induced, straight lines, reversed). Genetic relationships between viruses. Recombination, transduction. Genetic reactivation. Complementation. Viral indication and identification. Cultivation of viruses in cell cultures and chicken embryo. Reaction of hemagglutination.

Remove the cell culture Нер-2 from flacons to test tubes. Microscopy and draw samples with cytopathic effect of viruses. Examine and open chicken embryo to draw its structure. Infect chicken embryo with virus-containing material. Learn the technique of virology researches

2,5

11.

Laboratory diagnostics of Russian spring-summer (tick) encephalitis and rabies

The Flavivirus family: general characteristic. Virus of Russian spring-summer (tick) encephalitis. Source of infection, mechanism of transmission, pathogenesis of encephalitis. Laboratory diagnostic. Treatment and particular prophylaxis of Russian spring-summer (tick) encephalitis. Rabies virus, biological properties. Sources of infection, mechanism of contamination, pathogenesis of rabies. The main clinical signs of animal and human rabies. Methods of laboratory diagnostic. Peculiarities of tissue staining. Prophylaxis of rabies. Louis Pasteur works. Modern vaccines, antirabic gamma-globulin.

Infect the culture of embryonic pig kidney with extract from corpse material, which contains viruses of tick encephalitis. Perform the hemagglutination test for virus indication in cell culture. Microscopy and draw the histology preparation with Babes-Negri inclusions. Infect chicken embryo in allantoic cavity with nasopharyngeal outwash of patient with influenza.

2,5

12.

Laboratory diagnostics of influenza, paragrippe, mumps, measles and RS-infection

Classification of influenzaviruses. The main properties. Antigenic variability. Sources of infection, mechanism of viral transmission. Pathogenesis, clinic, immunity, laboratory diagnostic. Treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Parainfluenzaviruses. Measles. Biological properties of viruses. Source of infection, way of transmission of measles viruses. Pathogenesis of measles, immunity, laboratory diagnostic, special prophylaxis. Parainfluenzaviruses, causing acute low respiratory tract illness: pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology and prophylaxis. The mumpsvirus, properties. Pathogenesis of disease in human, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology and prophylaxis. The respiratory syncytial virus. Diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, prophylaxis.

Perform reaction of hemagglutination. Perform reaction of passive hemagglutination with pair sera. Study medical, diagnostic and preventive drugs. Microscopy and draw phenomenon of hemadsorption.


2,5

13.

Laboratory diagnostics of poliomyelitis, enteroviral infections (Coxsakieviruses, есhоviruses)

Poliomyelitis virus: morphology, serotypes, cultivation methods. Poliomyelitis: source of infection, mechanism of contamination, path of transmission. Pathogenesis, clinical forms, immunity. Laboratory diagnostic of poliomyelitis. Particular prophylaxis. Vaccines of Salk (killed) and Sabin (attenuated). Coxsakieviruses group A and B. Morphology, serotypes, cultivation methods, pathogenesis, clinical forms, immunity, laboratory diagnostic. Echoviruses: morphology, serotypes, cultivation methods. Laboratory diagnostic, pathogenesis, clinical forms.

Microscopy and draw normal cell culture Нер-2. Microscopy and draw normal cell culture Нер-2, infected by poliomyelitis virus. Learn poliomyelitic vaccine. Register color reaction. Microscopy and draw normal cell culture Нер-2, infected by Coxsakie virus.

2,5

14.

Laboratory diagnostics of HAV, HEV HBV, HCV, HDV, HGV infections

Hepatitis A virus. Morphology, properties. Pathogenesis of hepatits A, clinic, laboratory diagnostic. Hepatitis E virus. Morphology, properties. Pathogenesis of disease, clinic, laboratory diagnostic of hepatitis. Hepatitis B, D, C viruses: biological properties. Source of infection, mechanism of transmission, pathogenesis and clinic of hepatitis B, D, С. Laboratory diagnostic of hepatitis B, D, C. Methods of detection in blood of НBs-antigen and antibodies (reaction of passive hemagglutination, immune fluorescence, radio-immune method). Prophylaxis of viral hepatitis.

Study principles of laboratory diagnostic of viral hepatitis A and E. Learn gamma-globulin for prophylaxis of hepatitis А. Interpret the results of enzyme immunoassay for antibodies detection to antigen of hepatitis B virus. Solve the problems. Study the EIA kits for diagnostics of HBV, HCV infection (enzyme-immune system for indication of: HBsAg, immuniglobulins to HBsAg, antibodies to hepatitis C virus, etc.). Study the modern vaccines.

2,5

15.

Laboratory diagnostics of HIV-infection

HIV: main biological properties. Source of infection, mechanism of transmission, pathogenesis and clinic of AIDS. Laboratory diagnostic of HIV-infection. Principles of treatment and prophylaxis of AIDS. Viral hepatitis and HIV-infection as nosocomial infections

Register the results of ELISA on detection of antibodies to HIV in blood serum. Register the result of immune blotting on definition of antibodies to HIV structures.3

2,5

16.

Final control of Module # 2

To check the knowledge of theoretical questions

To check the practical skills

2,5




Total amount of hrs





40



Tasks for self-dependive work of students


Topic


Amount of hrs

1

Klebsiella: habitat, transmission, properties of the organism. Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of caused illnesses. Immunity to reinfection, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.


5

2

Pseudomonas: habitat, transmission, properties of the organism. Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of caused illnesses. Immunity to reinfection, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.


5

3

Virology as science.


5

4

Adenoviruses. Morphology, properties. Pathogenesis of disease, clinic, laboratory diagnostic, prevention.


5

5

Herpesviruses. Morphology, properties. Pathogenesis of disease, clinic, laboratory diagnostic, prevention.


5

6

Oncogenous DNA and RNA viruses. General characteristic, participation in viral carcinogenesis.


5

7

Papilomaviruses. Morphology, properties. Pathogenesis of disease, clinic, laboratory diagnostic, prevention.


4

8

Poliomaviruses. Morphology, properties. Pathogenesis of disease, clinic, laboratory diagnostic, prevention.


4

9

Filoviruses. Morphology, properties. Pathogenesis of disease, clinic, laboratory diagnostic, prevention.


4



Total amount of hrs


42

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