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Practical training # 1




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1. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/KTP_EN.doc
2. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/KTP_RU.doc
3. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/KTP_UA.doc
4. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/MVOPR-EN.doc
5. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/MVOPR-RU.doc
6. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/MVOPR-UA.doc
7. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/PROGRAM.doc
8. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/TIME-EN.doc
9. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/TIME-RU.doc
10. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/TIME-UA.doc
11. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/VOPR-EN.doc
12. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/VOPR-RU.doc
13. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Pharmakology/VOPR_UA.doc
14. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/KTP_EN.doc
15. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/KTP_RU.doc
16. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/KTP_UA.doc
17. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/MVOPR_EN.doc
18. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/MVOPR_RU.doc
19. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/MVOPR_UA.doc
20. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/PROGRAM.doc
21. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/TIME_EN.doc
22. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/TIME_RU.doc
23. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/TIME_UA.doc
24. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/VOPR_EN.doc
25. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/VOPR_RU.doc
26. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/Stomatology/VOPR_UA.doc
27. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/KTP_EN.doc
28. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/KTP_RU.doc
29. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/KTP_UA.doc
30. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/MVOPR_EN.doc
31. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/MVOPR_RU.doc
32. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/MVOPR_UA.doc
33. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/PROGRAM.doc
34. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/TIME_EN.doc
35. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/TIME_RU.doc
36. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/TIME_UA.doc
37. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/VOPR_EN.doc
38. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/VOPR_RU.doc
39. /КрфхфЁр ьіъЁюсіюыюуії/general medicine&pediatric/VOPR_UA.doc
Thematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students pharmacological facalty of 2nd year at IV (spring) semester of 2011-2012 study year
Календарно-тематический план лекций для студентов фармацевтического факультета на 4-й (весенний) семестр 20102012 учебного года
Календарно-тематичний план лекцій для студентів фармацевтичного факультету 2-го курсу на IV (весняний) семестр 2011-2012 навчального року
The first final module control card for the first final module control # 1
Модульный контроль №1 (общая микробиология) билет №1 Определение бактерий. Отличие прокариотов от эукариотов. 2
Модульний контроль №1 (загальна мікробіологія) білет №1 Визначення бактерій. Відмінності прокаріотів від еукаріотів. 2
Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни луганський державний медичний універсітет
Schedule of consultations and reworks for 2
Консультаций и отработок для студентов 2-3 курсов
Консультацій та відробок для студентів 2-3 курсів
Practical training # 1
Список вопросов, выносящихся на рассмотрение каждого практического занятия по микробиологии в 4-м и 5-м семестрах практическое занятие №1
Список питаннь, що вівчаються на практичних заняттях з мікробіології в 4-му и 5-му семестрах практичне заняття №1
Thematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students of 2nd year at III (autumn) semester of 2011-2012 study year
Календарно-тематический план лекций для студентов стоматологического факультета на 3-й (осенний) семестр 2011-2012 учебного года
Тематичний план лекцій для студентів стоматологічного факультету на 3-й (осінній) семестр 2011-2012 учбового року
The first final module control card for the first final module control # 1
Модульный контроль №1 (общая микробиология) билет №1 Определение бактерий. Отличие прокариотов от эукариотов. 2
Модульний контроль №1 (загальна мікробіологія) білет №1 Визначення бактерій. Відмінності прокаріотів від еукаріотів. 2
Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни луганський державний медичний універсітет
Schedule of consultations and reworks for 2
Консультаций и отработок для студентов 2-3 курсов
Консультацій та відробок для студентів 2-3 курсів
Practical training # 1
Список вопросов, выносящихся на рассмотрение каждого практического занятия по микробиологии в 3-м, 4-м и 5-м семестрах практическое занятие №1
Список питаннь, що вівчаються на практичних заняттях з мікробіології в 3-му, 4-му и 5-му семестрах практичне заняття №1
Thematic schedule of lectures on microbiology, virology and immunology for the students of 2nd year at III (autumn) semester of 2011-2012 study year
С. М. Смирнов проф. С. А. Кащенко " " 2011 г. " " 2011 г. Календарно-тематический план
Питання, які вивчаються
The first final module control card for the first final module control # 1
Модульный контроль №1 (общая микробиология) билет №1 Определение бактерий. Отличие прокариотов от эукариотов. 2
Модульний контроль №1 (загальна мікробіологія) білет №1 Визначення бактерій. Відмінності прокаріотів від еукаріотів. 2
Міністерство охорони здоров’я україни луганський державний медичний універсітет
Schedule of consultations and reworks for 2
Консультаций и отработок для студентов 2-3 курсов
Консультацій та відробок для студентів 2-3 курсів
Practical training # 1
Список вопросов, выносящихся на рассмотрение каждого практического занятия по микробиологии в 3-м, 4-м и 5-м семестрах практическое занятие №1
Список питаннь, що вівчаються на практичних заняттях з мікробіології в 3-му, 4-му и 5-му семестрах практичне заняття №1

Practical training # 1

Topic: Organisation of microbiological lab activity. Morphology of cocci and rods. Spores. Simple and complex staining methods.

Basic questions

  1. Organisation, equipment and operational mode of microbiological lab. The requirements to the students shown in regime labs.

  2. Methods of microbiological researches. An immersion objective, resolution of an immersion system. Engineering of microscopy.

  3. Technique of smear preparation from specimen of microorganisms, fixation.

  4. Simple methods of staining, purpose of staining.

  5. Morphology of cocci. Species of pathogenic cocci.

  6. Structure of bacterial cell.

  7. Bacteria, bacilli, clostridia.

  8. Gram-staining, method.

  9. Spores of bacilli and clostridia, their role. Process of sporulation, spore localisation in bacterial cell. Spore-forming pathogenic bacteria. Structure, resistance and germination of spores. Methods of detection and destruction of spores.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Learn rules of activity of the student in educational lab.

  2. Learn the technique of smear preparation, technique of staining by simple method and technique of microscopy.

  3. Prepare the smear from culture of staphylococci, streptococci, stain by methylene blue or water fuchsin, microscopy and make the draw.

  4. Microscopy and draw preparations with gonococci.

  5. Draw a path of rays at passing them through immersion oil and air.

  6. Make the smears for Gram-staining from clean culture of E. coli and staphylococcus, microscopy and draw.

  7. Draw smears with spore culture.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 2

Topic: Curved and spiral forms of bacteria. Bacterial flagella. Capsules.

Basic questions

  1. Vibrio, spirillum as curved and spiral forms of bacteria.

  2. Spirochete, features of structure, classification. Staining of spirochetes by Romanowsky-Giemsa.

  3. Definition of motility. Making of preparation the "trailing" and "crushed" drip.

  4. Methods of analysis of microorganisms in living condition. Principles of microscopy in dark field and phase-contrast microscopy.

  5. Bacterial flagella, examples of curved forms of bacteria.

  6. Capsule of bacteria, its biological role, constitution of encapsulated bacteria. Examples of bacteria making capsules in human organism. Klebsiella as encapsulated microorganisms. A technique of staining by Burri-Gins.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Microscopy the bacterial flagella preparation stained by Loeffler.

  2. Microscopy and to draw smears with vibrio stained by water fuchsin.

  3. Microscopy and draw smears with pathogenic spirochetes (borrelia, treponema), stained by Romanowsky-Giemsa.

  4. From tooth raid make smear by Burri, to microscopy and to draw.

  5. From alive culture of E. coli make the preparation the "crushed" drip, microscopy motility of bacteria.

  6. Make the smear from encapsulated bacteria, stain by Burri-Gins, microscopy and draw.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 3

Topic: Morphology of rickettsiae, chlamydia, mycoplasma, actinomyces, fungi.

Basic questions

  1. Position of rickketsiae in systematisation of microorganisms. Morphology of rickketsiae, diseases, caused by them. Staining technique by Zdrodovskiy.

  2. Chlamydia as nonmotile coccobacilli. Developmental cycle, the major diseases caused by chlamydia species.

  3. Mycoplasma: morphology, biological properties, caused diseases.

  4. Actinomyces: morphology, biological properties, caused diseases.

  5. Fungi: classification, structure, reproduction, classes – Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Deuteromycota.

  6. Making of preparation called the "trailing" and "crushed" drip. Principle of fluorescence microscopy.
Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Smear with rickketsiae stain by Zdrodovskiy, microscopy and draw.

  2. From specimen of mould make preparation the "crushed" drip, microscopy and draw.

  3. From slurry of baking yeast make smear, stain by methylene blue, microscopy and draw.

  4. Microscopy the smear of fungi from Candida species.

  5. Learn the type of growth of fungi on Saburo medium.

  6. Acquaint with fluorescence microscopy method.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.


Practical training # 4

Topic: Bacterial nutrition and reproduction. Sterilisation methods.

Basic questions

  1. Growth and reproduction of bacteria, phases of reproduction. Concept of population.

  2. The factors, which limit and stimulate growth and reproduction of microbes in human organism; usage of this principle in medicine.

  3. Bacterial nutrition requirements, types (active and passive).

  4. Classification of bacteria on nutritional type.

  5. Energy transformation by bacteria.

  6. Usage of knowledge of the nutritional type for diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures of infectious diseases.

  7. Media, their classification on physical condition (liquid, dense, semi-liquid) and on diagnostic capabilities.

  8. Concept of sterilisation, its methods (dry heat, moist heat, ultraviolet light, ionising radiation, filtration).

  9. Autoclave as practical method of sterilisation.

  10. Preparation of different objects for sterilisation.

  11. Action on microbes of low temperatures, pressure, different types of radiation, chemical agents.

  12. Asepsis and antiseptic, methods, quality control.

  13. Disinfection (or germicidals), its main methods.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Prepare smear from bacterial mixture, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw.

  2. Put bacterial mixture on petri dish with plated agar for obtaining of isolated colonies.

  3. Learn the type of growth of staphylococci, sarcina, E. coli anthracoid on liquid and dense media.

  4. Learn the technique of bacterial cultivation on liquid and dense media.

  5. Examine the demonstration techniques for cultivating of anaerobes.

  6. From evolved on plated agar culture prepare the smear, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw.

  7. Learn the structure and action of hot-air oven, boiling water, autoclave, and thermostat.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 5

Topic: Substrate-level and electron-transport phosphorylation. Methods of obtaining of aerobes culture. Methods of obligate anaerobes cultivating.

Basic questions

  1. Bacterial metabolism (carbon flow, substrate-level and electron-transport phosphorylation, glycolysis fate of pyruvate, tricarbonic acid cycle, etc.).

  2. Methods of cultivating of aerobic and anaerobic microbes.

  3. Obtaining of pure culture of aerobic and anaerobic microbes.

  4. Definition and usage of pure bacterial culture.

  5. Principles of clean culture obtaining: mechanical separation on dense medium with the help of closed loop; usage of biological properties of bacteria (enzymatic, capacity to move on dense medium, stability to heats, acids, alkalis).

  6. Colony of microbes, characteristic (S- and R-forms).

  7. Phases of clean culture obtaining.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Analyse the colonies, which have grown on plated agar.

  2. Prepare from part of colonies the smear, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw to the album for laboratory work.

  3. Spread the rest of colony on new plated agar.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 6

Topic: Bacterial enzymes.

Basic questions

  1. Classification of enzymes.

  2. Mechanism of enzymes action.

  3. Permeases.

  4. Usage of bacterial enzymatic activity for their identification.

  5. Methods of definition of saccharolytic and proteolytic enzymes.

  6. Differential-diagnostic media, their structure.

  7. Automatic systems of bacterial identification, principles of the registration of bacterial enzymatic activity.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Examine the growth of E. coli and staphylococci on different media.

  2. Register bacterial biochemical activity due to changed and not changed hydrogen sulphite and indole samples.

  3. Learn the technique of definition of bacterial biochemical activity of with the help of automatic systems of bacterial identification.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 7

Topic: Genetics of microbes. Phages.

Basic questions

  1. Structure, morphology and elemental composition of phages.

  2. Types of interaction between phages and bacteria: productive (virulent phage), integrative (moderate phage). Lysogenic, phage conversion.

  3. Titration of phages on Аppelman.

  4. Propagation of phages in the nature, obtaining of phages.

  5. Usage of phages for microbial indication and identification.

  6. Organisation of genetic material in bacterial cell.

  7. Most important types of genetic exchange between organisms: plasmids, transposons, insertion sequences.

  8. Forms of genetic variability.

  9. Modifications. Changes of the main bacterial properties: morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, and virulence.

  10. Genotypical variability. Mutations, their role in evolution of microorganisms.

  11. Recombinant variability: transformation, transduction, and conjugation.

  12. Practical values of bacterial genetics for laboratory diagnostic, production of antibiotics, obtaining of live vaccines.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Determine the phage titre by Appelman method.

  2. Conduct the phage diagnostics. Determine the type of isolated culture by means of standard types of phages (typhoid, paratyphoid A and B).

  3. Register the lysotypy of staphylococcal culture with the help of standard phages.

  4. Examine the set of phages used for treatment and diagnostic.

  5. Register the phenomenon of conjugation.

  6. Learn S- and R-forms of colonies.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 8.

Topic: Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of infectious diseases.

Basic questions

  1. Chemotherapy at infectious diseases and its definition.

  2. Chemotherapy index of antimicrobial drugs.

  3. Main groups of chemotherapeutic drugs.

  4. Antibiotics. Studies of A. Chain, Flori, A. Fleming, Z. Ermolyeva, Waxman and others.

  5. Classification of antibiotics.

  6. Mechanism of action on microbial cell.

  7. Resistance of microbes to antibiotics, its genetic and physiological aspects.

  8. Side effect of antibiotics (toxic, allergic and dysbacterial).

  9. Definition of sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics by method of production dilutions, disc method.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Determine sensitivity of staphylococci to penicillin by method of production dilutions. The scheme draw in the album.

  2. Determine sensitivity of staphylococci to penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, neomycin by paper disc method and draw the petri dish.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 9.

Topic: Control test on general medical microbiology.

Basic questions

  1. Microbiology as science. Problems of medical microbiology, value in activity of the physician. The Nobel Prize winners in the field of microbiology, immunology and virology.

  2. Periods of microbiology development. Achievements of the second half of ХХ century.

  3. Works of L. Paster and R. Koch. Their role in development of microbiology. Works of D. Ivanovsky, their value for microbiology and medicine.

  4. Systematisation, nomenclature and classification of bacteria. The characteristic of species.

  5. Morphology and structure of bacteria. Role of separate components.

  6. Main differences between pro- and eucaryotes. The forms of bacteria with defect of synthesising of a cell envelope.

  7. Tinctorial properties of microbes, simple and composite methods of staining.

  8. Spores. Stages of sporulation. Methods of identification.

  9. Classification and morphology of fungi.

  10. Morphology of rickketsiae, methods of staining.

  11. Morphology of spirochetes, methods of staining. Species of pathogenic spirochetes.

  12. Nutrition of microbes. Types, mechanisms. An elemental composition of microbes.

  13. Media for microbes. Classification, requirement.

  14. Substrate-level and electron-transport phosphorylation. Ways of anaerobes cultivation.

  15. Enzymes of microbes. Usage for differentiation of bacteria.

  16. Growth and reproduction of bacteria. The main phases.

  17. Bacteriological laboratory methods. Obtaining and identification of clean culture.

  18. Influencing of the physical and chemical factors on microbes. Sterilisation: methods, control.

  19. Asepsis. Antiseptic. The characteristic, methods.

  20. The material basis of microbial heredity. Genotype, phenotype.

  21. Types of variability. Non-heritable variability.

  22. Heritable variability. Mutations, their variety.

  23. Genetic recombination.

  24. Non-chromosome factors of bacterial heredity. Plasmids, their properties. Migrating genetic units.

  25. Basics of gene engineering. Achievements, usage of drugs in medicine.

  26. Phages. Structure, classification on morphology. Lysogeny and phage conversion.

  27. Chemotherapy. Works of P. Erlich and G. Domagk. Chemotherapy index.

  28. Chemotherapy. Main groups of drugs. The mechanism of action of sulphanilamide.

  29. Antibiotics. Classification, mechanism of action, units of measurement.

  30. Antibiotics. The history: role of A. Chain, A. Fleming, G. Flori, other scientists. Producents of antibiotics.

List of practical skills

  1. Technique of smear preparing from the culture grown on dense medium.

  2. Technique and mechanism of Gram-staining.

  3. Method of spore staining.

  4. Method of detection of capsules.

  5. Technique of preparing of the "trailing" and "crushed" drip.

  6. Algorithm of obtaining of pure culture of aerobes.

  7. Algorithm of obtaining of pure culture of anaerobes.

  8. Giss media, its purpose. Make the conclusion about enzymatic activity of culture.

  9. Endo media. Structure characteristic of colonies.

  10. Ploskirev media. Structure characteristic of colonies.

  11. Ressel media. Structure characteristic of changes at growth of bacteria from different species.

  12. Kitt-Tarocci media. Structure, usage, change at growth of bacteria.

  13. Techniques for anaerobes cultivation.

  14. Type of growth of sarcina, anthracoid, E. coli on agar and bouillon.

Practical training # 10.

Topic: Infectious process.

Basic questions

  1. Definition of concepts: infectious process, infectious disease.

  2. Role of microbes in infectious process.

  3. Pathogenicity and virulence. Measurement of virulence.

  4. Factors of microbial virulence.

  5. Role of macroorganism, social and natural environments in development of infectious process.

  6. Propagation of microbes in organism.

  7. Transmission mechanism of causative agents and classification of infectious diseases.

  8. Dynamics and types of infectious process.

  9. Value of experimental method in microbiological practice.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. From corpse material prepare the smear, stain by methylene blue, microscopy and draw.

  2. Spread the corpse material (blood, liver, lien) in bouillon.

  3. Register the virulence of culture of staphylococci: growth on saline agar (lecithinase activity), citrate plasma (plasmocoagulase), on blood agar (hemolysin).

  4. Register of blood analysis on sterility.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 11.

Topic: Vaccines. Immune serums. Immunoglobulins.

Basic questions

  1. Immunity: definition. Types and forms of immunity.

  2. Antigens, their properties.

  3. Artificial active immunity. Works of E. Jenner.

  4. Scientific fundamentals of vaccines obtaining. Studies of L. Paster.

  5. Classification of vaccines and requirements to them.

  6. Live vaccines. Methods of obtaining of vaccine strains.

  7. Inactivated vaccines. Ways of inactivating of vaccine strains.

  8. Chemical vaccines, method of obtaining.

  9. Anatoxins. Method of Ramon. Units of antigenic activity.

  10. Concept about vaccination and revaccination.

  11. Calendar of vaccinations.

  12. Antibodies: their nature, place of synthesising, classes of immunoglobulins, production dynamics - primary, secondary answer, autoantibodies.

  13. Assigning of immune serums.

  14. Antitoxic medical serums: obtaining, purifying, units of force measurement. Merits of E. Bering.

  15. Method of serums injection by Besredka.

  16. Immunoglobulins: the raw, methods of obtaining, applying.

  17. Diagnostic serums. Obtaining, assigning in reactions, units of activity measurement.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Learn vaccines: tubercular, poliomyelitic, measles, antirabic (Fermi, cultural), pertussoid, diphtheria and tetanus anatoxins, typhoid vaccine with sextaanatoxin.

  2. Learn serums: diphtheria, tetanus, botulin, gangrenous.

  3. Learn immunoglobulins: measles, influenza, antirabic.

  4. Learn diagnostic serums: agglutinative, antitoxic, fluorescent.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 12.

Topic: Agglutination and precipitation tests.

Basic questions

  1. Characteristic of immunocompetent cells.

  2. Co-operation of cells in the immune answer.

  3. Theory of antibodies generation.

  4. Principles of obtaining of diagnostic immune serums.

  5. Agglutination test: the mechanism, technique, registration, practical value.

  6. Precipitation test: the mechanism, technique, registration, practical value.

  7. Reaction of indirect agglutination: the mechanism, technique, registration, practical value.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Perform and make conclusion on agglutination test by Vidale type.

  2. Perform and make conclusion on precipitation test.

  3. Perform and to make conclusion on approximate agglutination test on glass and draw.

  4. Make conclusion on reaction of indirect hemagglutination with serum of patient and red blood cell diagnosticum and draw.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 13.

Topic: Reactions of lysis and fixation of the complement. EIA, RIA, ELISA.

Basic questions

  1. Immune deficiency conditions, classification.

  2. Immune tolerance. Role of T-suppressors in tolerance.

  3. Reactions of bacteriolysis and hemolysis.

  4. Complement: titre, working dose.

  5. Reaction of complement binding: the mechanism, technique, registration, practical value.

  6. Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Techniques, ingredients, registration.

  7. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Techniques, ingredients, registration.

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Techniques, ingredients, registration.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Determine the titre and working dose of complement.

  2. Perform to make conclusion on reaction of complement binding, draw the scheme.

  3. Learn the principle of RIA, EIA, ELISA.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 14.

Topic: Control test.

Basic questions

  1. Concept of «infectious process», «infectious disease». Indispensable conditions for infectious disease originating, difference of infectious diseases from other illnesses.

  2. Role of microbes in infectious process. Pathogenicity and virulence, factors of virulence, their characteristic.

  3. Bacterial toxins, their nature and properties. Units of measurement of exotoxin force.

  4. Role of macroorganism, social and natural environments in infectious process.

  5. Mechanisms of transmission of causative agents. Works of L.V. Gromashevsky.

  6. Dynamics of infectious process. The infection types: mono-, mixed, secondary, reinfection, superinfection, relapse. The forms of expressiveness of signs and of duration.

  7. Stages of immunology development. Immunity. Definition. Types and forms of immunity.

  8. Humoral non-specific factors of protection: complement system, lysines, leukins, lysozyme, properdin.

  9. Phagocytose. Cells, stages, their characteristic. The complete and incomplete phagocytose. Works of I.I. Mechnikov.

  10. Immune system of organism, its organs. Role of thymus gland: immunocompetent cells, their varieties and interplay in the immune answer.

  11. Regulation of the immune answer in organism. Immune reactions. Immune memory: definition of concept, mechanism, memory cells.

  12. Classes of immunoglobulins, their characteristic. Structure of molecule of immunoglobulin.

  13. Antigens. Definition of concept, antigen activity, adjuvanticity, specificity. Valuable and incomplete antigens.

  14. Antigenic structure of bacterial cell. Formation, specific, type-specific, heterogeneous antigens. Autoantigens.

  15. Antibodies. The nature, constitution of molecule, place of formation, dynamics of commodity, primary and secondary immune answer. Autoantibodies.

  16. Immune tolerance. Reasons of originating. Role of Т-suppressors in tolerance.

  17. Immune deficiency conditions: definition of concept, inherent, acquired, their characteristic, reason of originating.

  18. Hypersensivity of immediate type. Anaphylaxis. Serum disease. The pathogenesis of anaphylaxis, deallergisation. Besredka method.

  19. Hypersensivity of delayed type. The pathogenesis. Types of allergic reactions of this type, usage in diagnostic of infectious diseases.

  20. Agglutination test. The mechanism, ingredients, technique, registration, estimation.

  21. Precipitation test. The mechanism, assigning, ingredients, technique, registration, estimation. Versions of reaction.

  22. Reaction of immune lysis: hemolysis, bacteriolysis. Practical usage.

  23. Reaction of complement binding. The mechanism, assigning, ingredients, technique, registration, estimation.

  24. RIA, EIA, ELISA. Principles of methods, rigging, ingredients, registration of outcomes.

  25. Vaccines. History of obtaining. Merits of E. Jenner and L. Paster. Classification, requirements. Methods of vaccine strains obtaining.

  26. Live vaccines: BCG, poliomyelitic, measles. Whom, when, what method were obtained by. Ways of the injection to the organism.

  27. Inactivated vaccines. Methods of inactivation, examples. Chemical vaccines, obtaining, examples.

  28. Anatoxins. Ramon method. Units of antigenic activity. Assigning of anatoxins, examples.

  29. Antitoxic serums. Assigning, method of obtaining, purifying. Merits of E. Bering. Besredka method of injection.

  30. Immunoglobulins: assigning, method and raw for obtaining. Types on protein origin. Advantages before serums, examples.

  31. Diagnostic immune serums. Assigning, obtaining, types on nature of antibodies, applying, examples.

List of practical skills

  1. Register the agglutination test. Studied material – patient’s serum with suspicion on typhoid (1:50). Describe the type of reaction, ingredients, mechanism.

  2. Register the reaction of indirect hemagglutination. Describe the type of reaction, ingredients, mechanism.

  3. Determine the titre and working dose of complement. Give the characteristic of complement.

  4. Register complement binding reaction. Studied material – patient’s serum. Describe the type of reaction, ingredients, mechanism.

  5. Select drugs for creation of active immunity against rabies. Give the characteristic. Who and what method obtained the first vaccine?

  6. Select drugs for creation of active immunity against tuberculosis. Give the characteristic. Describe the method of injection, vaccinating dose. Terms of vaccination.

  7. Select drugs for creation of active immunity against measles. Give the characteristic.

  8. Select drugs for creation of active immunity against poliomyelitis. Give the characteristic, form of issue.

  9. Select drugs for creation of active immunity against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus. Give the characteristic.

  10. Select drugs for active immunity creation against diphtheria, characterise them.

  11. Select drugs for treatment and specific prophylactic of tetanus, characterise them.

  12. Select diagnostic drugs. Give the characteristic. Call ways of their apply.

  13. Select immunoglobulins. Explain way of obtaining, assigning, types, advantages before integral serums.

  14. Select drugs for EIA. Tell the principle of method and its versions.

  15. Solve the situation task. Mister Н. bought at the market the fur coat, in some days after its wearing on neck the anthrax has appeared. The preliminary diagnosis: malignant anthrax. In lab the slice of collar for detection in it of anthrax bacilli was delivered. With the help of what immune reaction is possible to find out the presence of anthrax antigen in studied material? What standard ingredient is necessary and how it is prepared at diagnostic drugs factory?

Practical training # 15.

Topic: Laboratory diagnostic of diseases caused by pyogenic cocci (staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci and meningococci).

Basic questions

  1. Staphylococci, their classification, main properties. The virulence factors. Diseases caused by staphylococci, their pathogenesis.

  2. Problem of nosocomial staphylococcal infections. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures.

  3. Streptococci, their classification, main properties. Role of streptococci in human pathology.

  4. Purulent and non-purulent diseases, their pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures.

  5. Gonococci, main properties. Diseases caused by gonococci (gonorrhoea, blenorrhoea), their pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnostic of acute and chronic gonorrhoea, treatment and preventive measures.

  6. Meningococci, main properties, serologic groups. Diseases caused by meningococci, their pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnostic of the different clinical forms of meningococcal infections. Treatment and preventive measures.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Take the material from faeces and spread it on bile-saline agar.

  2. Prepare swear from pure culture of staphylococci, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw.

  3. Account growth of staphylococci on Giss media, blood agar, bile-saline agar, citrate plasma.

  4. Account antibioticogram of isolated streptococci, make the conclusion.

  5. Microscopy the smears with streptococci, gonococci and meningococci.

  6. Account the growth of Neisseria meningitidis and catarrhal diplococcus on serum and simple agar at different temperatures (37˚C and 22˚С).

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 16.

Topic: Laboratory diagnostic of zoonoses.

Basic questions

  1. Brucella. Species, main properties.

  2. Pathogenesis of brucellosis, laboratory diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures.

  3. Causative agent of malignant anthrax: the main properties.

  4. Clinical forms of malignant anthrax, pathogenesis of illness, laboratory diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures.

  5. Defeats of face and neck caused by malignant anthrax.

  6. Yersinia. Causative agents of plague, main properties.

  7. Clinical forms of plague, main properties.

  8. Sources of infection, way of contamination, laboratory diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures.

  9. Exciter of tularaemia: the main biological properties.

  10. Clinical forms of tularaemia, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Prepare the smear from brucella culture, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw.

  2. Perform and conclude the reaction of Heddleson.

  3. Perform and conclude the reaction of Wright.

  4. Prepare the smear from anthracoid, stain by Gram, microscopy and draw.

  5. Perform and conclude the reaction of thermoprecipitation by Ascoli.

  6. Acquaint with preventive and diagnostic drugs.

  7. Microscopy and to draw the smaer with exciters of plague.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 17.

Topic: Laboratory diagnostic of diphtheria and gas gangrene.

Basic questions

  1. Causative agent of diphtheria: biovars, main properties.

  2. Source of infection, mechanism of contamination, pathogenesis, clinical forms of diphtheria. Immunity: the type, definition of tension.

  3. Laboratory diagnostic of diphtheria: material for research, rules of scooping, method and course of research.

  4. Corynebacterium differentiation.

  5. Diphtheria treatment. Serotherapy: obtaining of drug, titrating, method of the injection.

  6. Preventive measures against diphtheria. Drugs, their obtaining, terms and technique of an immunisation (calendar of vaccinations).

  7. Causative agent of tetanus, main biological properties.

  8. Sources of infection, mechanism of contamination, pathogenesis, clinic of tetanus, laboratory diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures.

  9. Exciters of botulism: biovars, main properties.

  10. Sources of infection, mechanism of contamination, pathogenesis, clinic of botulism, laboratory diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures.

  11. Exciters of wound gas gangrene, sources of infection, mechanism of contamination, pathogenesis. Treatment and preventive measures of gas gangrene.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Take material from faeces and spread it on Buchin media.

  2. Swears with an exciter of diphtheria, stain by Gram and Loeffler, microscopy and to draw.

  3. Account growth of diphtheria causative agents’ cultures on Ru and Buchin media.

  4. Account and draw outcomes of definition toxygenicity of cultures of diphtheria exciters.

  5. Account reaction of non-direct hemagglutination, make the conclusion about condition of immunity.

  6. Account growth of anaerobic bacteria on Kitt-Tarocci media.

  7. Microscopy and draw swears with exciters of botulism and gas gangrene.

  8. Learn diagnostic, medical and preventive drugs.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.

  2. Lectures.

Practical training # 18.

Topic: Laboratory diagnostic of a tuberculosis and leper.

Basic questions

  1. Characteristic of Mycobacteria species, pathogenic ones.

  2. Exciters of tuberculosis: species, main properties.

  3. Sources of infection, mechanisms of contamination.

  4. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis, clinical developments of disease.

  5. Features of anti-tuberculosis immunity.

  6. Laboratory diagnostic of tuberculosis: a) bacteriological research: taking of material, methods of enrichment and colouring, light and fluorescence microscopy); b) bacteriological research: media, obtaining of culture, identification, definition of sensitivity to medicines; c) biological method; d) allergology Mantoux reaction; tuberculin, methods of its obtaining (R. Koch and Linnikova); e) serology diagnostic of tuberculosis.

  7. Treatment and preventive measures of tuberculosis: common and special. BCG vaccine, terms, technique of vaccination and revaccination.

  8. Micobacterium of leper, characteristic of exciter.

  9. Source of infection, mechanism of contamination, pathogenesis, clinic of leper.

  10. Laboratory diagnostic of leper, treatment and preventive measures.

Laboratory practice of the students

  1. Make the smears from vaccine strain of BCG, stain by Ziehl-Neelsen, microscopy and draw.

  2. Microscopy and draw the smear from sputum of patient with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  3. Microscopy the tissue specimen from tissue of patient with leper.

  4. Learn diagnostic and preventive drugs.

Literature

  1. Борисов Л.Б. Медицинская микробиология, вирусология, иммунология, 2002.



Practical training # 20.

Topic: LABORATORY DIAGNOSTIC OF INFECTIONS, CAUSED BY RICKETTSIA.
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