Віншуємо наших читачів з Новим роком та Різдвом Христовим!!! icon

Віншуємо наших читачів з Новим роком та Різдвом Христовим!!!




НазваВіншуємо наших читачів з Новим роком та Різдвом Христовим!!!
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^ Tina Turner

The best

I call you when I need you

And my heart `s on fire

You come to me, come to me

Wild and wire

You come to me, give me

Every thing I need


You bring a life time of promises

And a world of dreams

You speak the language of love

Like you know what it means

And can1t be wrong

Take my heart and make it strong


Cause you`re simply the best

Better than all the rest

Better than anyone

Anyone I`ve ever met

I`m stuck on your heart

I hang on every word you say

Tears apart

Baby I would rather be dead


Deep in your heart

I see the star

Of every night and every day

And in your eyes I get lost

I get washed away

Just as long as I1m here in your arms

I could be sn no better place

Cause you`re simply the dest…


Найкращий

Я кличу тебе, коли ти мені потрібен

Бо серце моє тоді у вогні

І ти прийдеш, прийдеш до мене

Бо не зможеш сказати мені ні

І все що потребую даси мені


Ти подаруєш із обіцянок життя

Повне мрій буде наше майбуття

Мова кохання з твоїх уст летить

Ти й розумієш, я запам’ятовую цю мить

Адже так повинно бути все це

То ж візьми і зроби сильнішим моє серце


Тому що ти найкращий

Кращий ніж всі інші

Кращий ніж хто - набудь

Хто б колись зустрічався мені

Тому я закохана в тебе

І ловлю кожне слово твоє

І я боюсь, що ти мене залишиш

Бо моє серце без тебе помре


Глибоко в твоєму серці

Я бачу яскраву зірку

І в день і в ночі в мені озветься

В твоїх очах відіб’ється

Я тону в твоїх обіймах

Так довго, доки ти зі мною поруч

І не може для мене бути кращого місця

Тому, що ти найкращий…

^ Переклад: Людмила Галушко, Ін-16


Poems from "The Lord of the Rings" by J.R. R. Tolkien

Hey! Come merry do!! Derry dol! My darling!

Light goes the weather-wind and the feathered starling.

Down along under Hill, shining in the sunlight,

Waiting on the doorstep for the cold starlight,

There my pretty lady is, River-woman's daughter,

Slender as the willow-wand, clearer than the water.

Old Tom Bombadil water-lilies bringing

Comes hopping home again. Can you hear his singing?

Hey! Come merry dol! Derry dol! And merry-o, Goldberry, Goldberry, merry yellow berry-o!

Poor old Willow-man, you tuck your roots away!

Tom's in a hurry now. Evening will follow day.

Tom's going home again water-lilies bringing.

Hey! Come merry dol! Can you hear his singing?


Ho! Tom Bombadil? Tom Bombadillo!

By water, wood and hill, by the reed and willow,

By fire, sun and moon, harken now and here us!

Come, Tom Bombadil, for our need is near us!


Old Tom Bombadil is a merry fellow,

Bright blue his jaket is, and his boots are yellow.

None has ever caught him yet, for Tom, he is the

master:

His songs are stronger songs, and his feet are faster.


Get out, you old Wight! Vanish in the sunlight!

Shriver like the cold mist, like winds go wailing,

Out into the barren lands far beyond the mountains!

Come never here again! Leave your barrow empty!

Lost and forgotten be, darker than the darkness,

Where gates stand for ever shut, till the world is mended.


Could be hand and heart and bone,

And cold be sleep under stone:

Never more to wake on stony bed,

Never, till the Sun jails and the Moon is dead.

In the black wind the stars shall die,

And still on gold here let them lie,

Till the dark lord lifts his hand

Over dead sea and withered land.

O! Wanders in the shadowed land

Despair not! For though they stand,

All woods there be must end at last,

And see the open sun go past:

The setting sun, the rising sun,

The day's end, or the day begun.


I had an errand there: gathering water-lilies,

Green leaves and lilies white to please my pretty

lady,

The last ere the year's end to keep them from the

winter,

To flower by her pretty feet till the snows are

melted.

Each year at summer's end I go to find them for her,

In a wide pool, deep and clear, far down

Withywindle;

There they open first in spring and there they linger

latest.

By the pool long ago I found the River-daughter,

Fair young Goldberry sitting in the rushes.

Sweet was her singing then, and her heart was

beating!

And that proved well for you - for now I shall no

longer

Go down deep again along the forest-water,

Not while the year is old. Nor shall I be passing

Old Man Willow's house this side of spring time,

Not till the merry spring, when the River-daughter

Dances down the withy-path to bathe in the water.


Стриб-стриб через ліс, скрізь росте рослинка,

Тут кружляє вітерець і свистить пташинка.

За горбом стоїть хатинка. Хто ж там виглядає?

Заховався може хтось? Чи кого чекає?

Це дружинонька моя, річкова цариця,

Як берізонька струнка, краща за водицю.

Том старий іде додому, він припас для неї

Звуки пісні жартівної та букет лілеї.

Чує пісню Рік Дочка, сяє все ясніше

І від зірки в небесах стане яскравіша!

В'яз старий, забіякуватий, геть іди з дороги,

Заховайся у пітьмі і не лізь під ноги.

Лілій Том букет несе, поспіша додому

І своєю піснею розвіває втому.


Пісня-пісенько, знайди Тома Бомбадила,

Здожени у глушині, де б то не бродив він!

Приведи його сюди - ми чекаєм дуже!

Поможи нам у біді, не залиш нас, друже!


Старий Том Бомбадил - пан-хазяїн лісу,

Сяють сонечком чоботи, небом куртка світить,

Не наздоженеш його, навіть не старайся,

Якщо будеш у біді - зразу ж озивайся!


В небі сонце сяє, спить Омани камінь,

Геть лети, мертвий дух, та до Глухомані!

За горами Млистими згинь туманом сірим,

Щоб навік очистити давні ці могили,

Там, де ніч чорніш пітьми, назавжди завмри ти

Там ворота у цей світ на віки закриті!


Кістянійте під землею

До пори, коли з зорею

Темрява розправить крила

І не буде небосхилу,

Щоб померли назавжди Сонце, місяць і зірки,

І Володар запанує –

Все у світі він зруйнує.


Мандрівники в нічних краях,

Туман зника - залиште страх:

Ще зникне морок лісовий

І сонце бік покаже свій,

Настане світло, і в свій хід

Прийде захід, а потім схід.


Я прийшов собі туди квітів назбирати,

Білих лілій у квіту їй подарувати,

Захистити від зими, лютого морозу.

Я щороку тут ходжу, лілії збираю

У чудовому ставку - кращих тут немає.

Так колись свою знайшов і дружину любу,

Що співала на ставку темряві на згубу.

Як почув її я спів - ліпшого не треба,

Стали разом мандрувать від землі й до неба!


Пощастило вам, скажу, -

Я тепер не скоро

Знов по лілії піду,

Де панує морок.

Рік старий уже іде,

Юною весною

Ліс одягнеться у квіт,

Вкриється травою.

Лиш тоді під гомін птах

І весняні співи

Піде мила моя знов

До ставків красивих.

^ Переклад: Наталія Кондратенко, Ін-28

Презентація

Допомогти у підготовці цього номеру газети люб’язно зголосилася кафедра англійської філології. Тому саме їй належить левова частка публікацій, які були підготовлені викладачами кафедри та їхніми студентами. Вони підібрали силу-силенну дуже ці-кавої інформації англійською мовою. Тому той, хто знає англійську, має чудову нагоду доповнити вправ-ляння в домашньому читанні ще й читанням цікавих текстів в нашій газеті, а хто не знає мови великого Шекспіра – заздріть і вчить її мерщій, або ж ідіть за допомогою до того, хто цю мову знає .

^ P.S. До речі, запрошуємо всі кафедри до такої співпраці .

Ірина Дєдова, Ін-16

The HISTORY of «McDonald's» and «Coca - Cola»


In 937 the McDonnald brothers, Dick and Mark, opened little restaurant in California. They served hot dogs and milk shakes. In 1945 they have 20 waiters. All the teenagers in town ate hamburgers there. When the 1948 year came they got paper boxes and bags for the hamburgers. They put the price down from 30 to 15 cents. There were no more waiters - it was self-service. So it was cheaper and faster.

In 1960s the McDonald's company opened hundreds of McDonald's restaurants all over the States. In 1971 they opened restaurants in Japan, Germany and Australia.

Now the McDonald's company opens a new restaurant every 8 hours. There are more then 14,000 restaurants in over 70 countries.

The Coca-Cola story began in Atlanta in 1886. John Pemberton invented a new drink. Two of the ingredients were the South American coca leaf and the African cola nut. Pemberton couldn't think fo a good name for the drink. Finally, Dr.Pemberton's partner Frank Robinson suggested the name Coca-Cola.Thirty year later the famous Coca-Cola bottle design first appeared.




For many years only Coca-Cola was made. They only introduced new drinks -Fanta, Sprite in the 1960s.The recipe of Coca-Cola is secret. Today they sell Coca-Cola in 195 countries. Hundreds of millions of people from Boston to Beijing drink it every day. It was the most famous trademark in the word.

^ Людмила Барбара, Ін-16

The death of Diana:

Conspiracy theories that just won’t die

This just in: Diana, Princess of Wales, died in a car accident, said Philip Johnston in the London Daily Telegraph. Lord Stevens of Kirkwhelpington, a former Metropolitan Police chief, has issued a conclusive, 832- page report refuting the accusations of Mohamed al–Fayed. The Egyptian billionaire, who owns Harrods and Ritz, has spent 10 years loudly accusing Prince Philip, husband of the queen, of ordering the murder of his exdaughter- in- law to prevent her remarriage to al- Fayed`s son Dodi. The Stevens report, though, debunks his every claim. Diana was not pregnant or engaged. The driver of the car was speeding and drunk. The crash in a Paris tunnel August 30, 1997, was accidental. “There was no conspiracy.”

There was a conspiracy, all right, said Martyn Gregory in the London Daily Mail. But it wasn’t a royal plot to kill Diana. It was an al-Fayed conspiracy to cover-up his and his son’s culpability in the accident the caused her death. “As she began her last journey, Princess Diana was travelling from an al-Fayed hotel in an al-Fayed Mercedes to an al-Fayed apartment.” Henri Paul, the driver who crashed the car, was an al- Fayed employee, the security chief at the Ritz. At was Dodi`s idea, Diana`s bodyguards said, to send the driver regular car off as a decoy for paparazzi and to leave the Ritz by the back, in a different car, with Paul as the driver. Al- Fayed’s many false accusations amounted to pin the blame for Diana’s death somewhere there that on his drunken employee.

Most people would reason that “if Britain’s top cop was on the case, there must have been something in it, mustn’t there?”

We have one more chance to get answers, said Mark Reynolds in the London Daily Express. The Stevens report is a “whitewash”. But the official inquest has access to a 5,000- page dossier including all the eyewitness statements. If the coroner has the sense to make the evidence public, than may be we will get a “definitive verdict on how and why Diana died”.

^ Смерть Діани:

Змовна теорія, щодо смерті Діани

«Діана, принцеса Уельсу, загинула в автокатастрофі», − писав Філіп Джонсон у Лондонському Щоденному Телеграфі. Лорд Стівен Кірвелпінтон, колишній головний поліцейський Мет-рополітену, видав заключні 832-сторінковий звіт спростовуючи звинувачення Мухамеда Аль Файеда. Єгиптянський мільярдер, власник Херотса і Рітса, виснажився від 10-річних гучних звинувачень принца Філіпа, чоловіка королеви, ніби він замовив смерть своєї невістки, щоб завадити її зарученню з його сином Доді. Стівенс повідомляє, що всі його заявки – нісенітниці. Діана не була вагітною і зарученою. Водій машини поспішав і був у нетверезому стані. Аварія у паризькому тунелі, 30 серпня 1997року, була випадковою.” Це не змова.”

«Звичайно, це була змова, − писав Мартін Грегорі в Лондонській Щоденній Пошті. − Але це не було королівською змовою, щоб вбити Діану. Це змова Аль Файєда, щоб приховати себе та його обвинуваченого сина у випадку, причиною якого є смерть Діани.” Коли вона вирушила в свою останню подорож , принцеса Діана їхала від готелю Аль Фаєда у його ж “ Мерседесі” і до його ж квартири”. Генрі Поль, водій, який розбив машину був робітником Аль Файєда, головною охороною в Рітсі. За ідеєю Доді, охоронець Діани сказав, залишити Рітс через чорний хід у різних машинах, з водієм Полом, щоб не привернути увагу папараці. Багато хибних звинувачень Аль Файєда в смерті Діани зводились до нетверезого стану водія.

Більшість людей розмірковують так: «Якби британська поліція була на місці, то в цьому щось би знайшли».

«Ми маємо більше одного випадку, щоб дістати відповідь», − говорив Марк Рейнольдс у Лондонському Щоденному Кур’єрі. Докази Стівенса є «побілкою», але офіційне слідство мало доступ до 5000 сторінкового матеріалу вкладаючи всі твердження. Якщо королівство вважає зробити свідчення публічними, то, можливо, ми отримаємо «остаточний вердикт, як і чому померла Діана».


^ Юлія Власенко, Ін-16

World's Oldest Person Turns 115

Edna Parker Enters her 116th Year as Oldest Living Human



^ American Woman recognised by Guinness book of Records as the oldest Person In the world at 115 years of Age.

Edna Parker of Indiana, USA was born on April 20th in the year 1893, and is celebrating her 115th birthday as the oldest living Human being on Earth, according to the Guinness Book of Records and the Gerontology Research Group who study and verify the ages of the World’s oldest people.

^ The Oldest Person on Earth

There are just two people alive whose birth date in 1893 can be verified. Mrs Parker is the oldest, and Portugal's Maria de Jesus follows, having been born in the September of that year. These two ladies are the oldest known Human beings alive. Mrs Parker was awarded the title of World’s oldest person by Guinness last year after the passing of Japanese woman Yone Minagawa who died at the age of 114 in August 2007.

The oldest man is recorded as being Tomoji Tanabe of Japan who was born in 1895, and is already 112 years old. Mr Tanabe is among the top fifteen oldest living people in the world.

^ One of the Oldest People Ever to have Lived

Mrs Parker is recognised by the Gerontology Research Group as one of the twenty-five oldest people whose age has ever been verified. The oldest person ever to have lived is recorded as Jeanne Calment of France, who lived from 1875 to 1997, a total of 122 years and 164 days. The oldest man whose age can be verified beyond doubt is Christian Mortensen who was born in Denmark but moved to the USA as a child, and lived from 1882 to 1998, a total of 115 years and 252 days.

^ An Amazing Life

Mrs Parker was born 115 years ago in Morgan County, Indiana, the state where she still resides today. She was raised on a farm, and went on to become a school teacher. In 1911 she married Earl Parker, who had been her next-door neighbour, and the couple had two sons, Clifford and Junior. Sadly Earl passed away in 1939, and Mrs Parker never remarried. Her two sons have also passed away, but she has a large family remaining, including five grand-children, and many great-grandchildren, and great-great grandchildren. She now resides in a retirement home in the town of Shelbyville, where she moved when she was 102 years old.

Mrs Parker has received recognition internationally for her incredible longevity, and even has a letter of congratulations from American President George W. Bush, thanking her for “sharing her wisdom and experiences” with younger generations. Last year, in honour of her 114th birthday she was given the key to the city of Shelbyville from the Mayor, and has been visited by the state Governor and Senator.

For her 115th birthday, two parties were held in honour of this incredible lady, and her family released 115 balloons into the sky, one for each of the years she has spent in the world.


^ Purple tomato with snapdragon gene could fight cancer

By Elizabeth Weise, USA TODAY



British researchers have used genes from the snapdragon flower to increase tomatoes' cancer-fighting powers.

When the genes were added, the tomatoes ripened to an almost eggplant purple. They contain very high levels of antioxidant pigments called anthocyanins. Cancer-prone mice fed the altered tomatoes lived significantly longer than those that didn't get them.

The genetic engineering was minimal, says Cathie Martin, the plant geneticist who led the work. Tomatoes already make their own anthocyanins. The genes from the snapdragon flowers acted as a switch to turn that production on full blast, says Martin, who is based at the John Innes Centre, an independent plant research center in Norwich, England.

The tomatoes produce levels of anthocyanins about on par with blackberries, blueberries and currants, which recent research has touted as miracle fruits. But because of the high cost and infrequent availability of such berries, tomatoes might be a better source, says Martin.

The researchers fed 20 mice bred to be cancer-prone a diet that consisted of 10% powder from the genetically engineered tomatoes, with other groups getting no tomatoes and red tomatoes. The mice who got the tomato powder lived on average 30% longer than those that didn't.

The researchers acknowledge the findings are very preliminary.

The tomatoes would have to go through years of regulatory processes to end up in supermarkets, says biotechnology project manager Greg Jaffe of the Center for Science in the Public Interest. Jeffrey Blumberg, director of the Antioxidants Research Laboratory at Tufts University in Medford, Mass., cautions that it would be a "big leap" to say that anthocyanins would definitely benefit people.


Аня Бала, Ін-16

Brighton — the UK's most exciting seaside city



^ Brighton's atmosphere

Brighton is famous for its unique atmosphere —- there is simply no other city in the UK quite like it. Brighton is a friendly, welcoming place. It is modern and forward looking yet also classically English. Architecture ranges from the strikingly new to the fascinatingly old. In summer the city really comes alive, with the annual arts festival, beachside concerts and outdoor cinema screenings.

^ Brighton's entertainment

Brighton has cinemas ranging from large multiplexes to small independents. There are numerous theatres and venues for live music. Classical music lovers are well catered for at the Dome, one of Brighton's concert venues. Home to the Brighton Philharmonic Orchestra, the 1,800-capacity Dome also plays host to blues, pop, rock, jazz, dub, world and club. The Brighton Centre and Concorde 2 are Brighton's major rock and pop venues.

^ Brighton's restaurants

Brighton has some of the best restaurants outside London. "Whatever your taste, you are sure to find it catered for. The centre of Brighton is full of restau­rants offering a range of cuisine: French, Italian, Spanish, Mexican, Thai, Chinese, Indian and vegetarian. Brighton also has perhaps some of the best traditional fish and chips in England.

^ Brighton's shopping

"With die best shopping south of London, Brighton's shops are all within walking distance of one another. There are large department stores and many smaller specialist shops catering for every need. For more up-market merchandise, The Lanes area in central Brighton offers expensive antiques, exclusive fashions and jewellery.

^ Brighton's events

The highlight of the cultural year is the annual Brighton Festival. Held in-May, it is England's biggest arts festival, attracting hundreds of performers over a three-week period. Other Brighton events include the London to Brighton Bike Ride, Party in the Park, Pride, the Veteran Car Run and the Brighton Comedy Festival. In fact, there is something going on nearly every weekend.

^ Brighton and beyond

Brighton is ideally placed to explore other parts of the UK. If you want all the attractions of a world-class city, London is only an hour away by train. Just outside the city is some of the most beautiful countryside in England. The nearby South Downs provide breaditaking views, great walks and plenty of opportunities for paragliding, mountain biking, hiking or picnics. Nearby, are the historic towns of Lewes, Arundel, Chichester and many picturesque villages.

^ БРАЙТОН – НАЙБІЛЬШ ВРАЖАЮЧЕ МІСТО НА УЗБЕРЕЖЖІ ВЕЛИКОЇ БРИТАНІЇ.



БРАЙТОНСЬКА АТМОСФЕРА

Брайтон відомий своєю атмосферою – просто в Об’єднаному Королівстві немає такого ж міста. Брайтон – товариське, гостинне місто. Воно сучасне й поки що прогресує як класичне в Англії. Сфера архітектури там коливається від нової до старої. Влітку місто оживає через свої щорічні мистецькі фестивалі, концерти на пляжі та покази фільмів просто неба.

^ ГОСТИННІСТЬ У БРАЙТОНІ

У Брайтоні є кінотеатри як величезні та численні, так і маленькі незалежні. Там багато театрів та приміщень для прослуховування живої музики. Любителі класичної музики добре почуваються у Dome, один із брайтонських концертних залів. Дім Брайтонського філармонічного оркестру, вміщає 1,800 людей . Там також грають блюз, поп, рок, джаз. Brighton Center та Concorde 2 – головні рок та поп зали.

^ БРАЙТОНСЬКІ РЕСТОРАНИ

У Брайтоні є найкращі ресторани за винятком Лондона. Який би ви не мали смак, можете бути впевнені, що знайдете щось, щоб собі догодити. Ценр Брайтона повний ресторанів з різноманітною кухнею: французькою, італійською, іспанською, мексикан-ською, китайською, індійською та вегетаріанською. Також у Брайтон є можливо один з найкращих ресторанів традиційного приготування риби та смаженої картоплі в Англії.

^ ПОКУПКИ У БРАЙТОНІ

З найкращими магазинами на півдні від Лондона, Брайтонські магазини усі мають відстань один до одного. Там є величезні відділи та маленькі спеціалізовані магазини, які можуть задовольняти будь-які потреби. Товари призначені для більш багатих, The Lanes- територія у центрі Брайтона, де пропонують дорогий антикваріат, ексклюзивну моду та ювелірні вироби.

Пригоди у Брайтоні

Основний момент у культурному житті Брайтона—щорічний Брайтонський фестиваль. Він проходить у травні, це найбільший у Англії мистецький фестиваль, який приваблює сотні виконавців у тритижневий період. Інші події в Брайтоні включають байкарський заїзд Лондон – Брайтон, Вечірку в парку, Pride, гонки машин-ветеранів, гумористичних брайтонський фести-валь. Як правило, там кожні вихідні щось відбувається.

БРАЙТОН

Брайтон – ідеальне місце, щоб досліджувати інші частини Об’єднаного Королівства. Якщо ви бажаєте всіх принад міста світового класу, то Лондон лише за годину мандрівки потягом. За межами міста найкраща сільська місцевість у Англії. Близький South Downs розгортає захоплюючі подих картини, великі прогулянки та достатньо можливостей для планетарного спорту, їзди по горах на велосипеді, подорожування пішки чи пікніків. Поряд історичні міста: Левіс, Арундель, Кікестер та багато мальовничих сіл.

Ірина Дробітько, Ін-14

Master Your Memory

Europe's oldest universities are in Paris and Oxford. Hundreds of years ago the students studying there knew that the scent of rosemary had the power to im­prove their learning. Something in the smell of rosemary helps trigger the mem­ory. So if you want to remember some­thing you are studying, simply rub rose­mary onto your finger tips and sniff very time you turn a page or work through a problem or formula.




However, if you do not like rosemary, try eating strawberries, raspberries or blue-berries every morning for breakfast. Studies show that elements in the pigmentation of these highly coloured fruits help boost your memory significantly over time. This is particularly true for older people where the benefits of a bright berry breakfast can boost long term memory by anything from 10% to 30% or so.

Interestingly, the most effective way to boost your memory seems to have nothing to do with your sense of taste or smell. Recent research at Manches­ter Metropolitan University in the UK suggests that sight may be the sense that most directly stimulates your memory on a day to day basis. Moving your eyes from left to right for 30 seconds or so a day helps improve your memory by at least 10%. And the effect appears to be instant. The researchers believe that this exercise helps make connections between the right and left parts of your brain. The left brain is the centre of creativity while the right brain is the centre of logic and reason. Tests show that stimulating these two areas of the brain together is good for inspiration and higher level thinking. An increasing number of experts believe that the richness of connections between the left and right parts of the brain may be the starting point for human genius. If this is so, the thirty second eye exercise could also help boost brain power as well as memory.

Studies at Colombia University in New "York show that a good general workout helps boost memory power as well, but in a more diffuse way. The key to this ap­pears to be the way exercise helps improve the flow of blood into the part of the brain responsible for recalling facts and past events. However, the impact of this approach appears to be generally less intense and less instant than the stimuli on sight, taste or smell listed above.

Research at the University of Newcastle in the UK suggests that a cup of tea is truly the best drink of the day. This will come as no surprise to millions of Britons who swear by the calming and restorative effects of the nation's favourite drink. But the Newcastle research found that tea very specifically helps restore the power of re­call in long lasting ways.

Finally, there is a body of research that suggests that the Omega 3 acids found in fatty fish oil have a positive impact on our ability to remember things. Again, this comes as no surprise to those who follow folk traditions. The benefits of eat­ing fish are found in stories from the time of Homer in ancient Greece through the thousand year old sagas of Iceland and

Scandinavia to the tales and legends of Korea and Japan.

So while there may be nothing es­sentially new in what the research tells us about improving our memory, it may just help to move your eyes from side to side for a half minute warm up next time you are preparing for an exam or to make a speech or presentation. But re­member, the trick is to exercise your eyes in private and not in public. If others see you flicking your eyes wildly from side to side they are sure to think you have lost your cool and are simply a bundle of pre-exam or pre-presentation nerves! Remember that creating an impression of calm, considered purpose is just as important for your impact as being able to recall precisely what it is you need to know or say!

^ From "Modern English Reader"

scent /sent/ запах

smell /smel/ запах

sniff /snif/: вдихати носом

boost /bu:st/ підвищувати, підсилювати

significantly /sig'nifikantli/ значно

benefit /'benefit/ користь

taste /teist/ смак

sight/sait/зір

instant /instant/ негайний

reason/'ri:zn/розум

workout /'wз:kavt/ тренування

diffuse /di'fiu:s/ розсіяний

racall /ri'ko:l/ згадувати

impact /'impackt/ вплив

безмежно вірити

restorative /ristorativ/ такий, що укріпляє

a body of research /'bodi/ велика кіль­кість досліджень

acid /'æsid/ кислота

flick /flik/ різко рухати

cool витримка

bundle/'bАndl/ пучок


Ірина Дробітько, Ін-14

Sleep – Tonic for a Busy Life

Every culture recognises how im-portant sleep is to wellbeing. Sleep is mankind's original, ol-dest and kindest medicine ever. Ancient medical texts around the world show time and again how critical sleep is to healing and health. Sleep is the one sure cure for the wear and tear of everyday living on our minds and bodies. A good night's sleep brings us the energy and stamina to face the challenges of a new day. Or, as Shakespeare so wonderfully puts it, sleep "knits up the ravelled sleeve of care" by repairing many of the hurts that our minds and bodies suffer.

Sleep is a natural good that most of us enjoy without thinking. However, this is not true for everybody. A growing number of people find that they cannot get to sleep easily, or that they sleep very poorly during the night. This condition is called insomnia. The number of insomniacs, or people suf­fering from sleep deprivation, seems to be growing rapidly in urbanised societies in particular. However, there is good news. Insomnia is related in part to how people lead their lives. Insomniacs can help themselves find more restful sleep by changing some of the ways they approach taking a night's rest. If you find it hard to get a good night's sleep, try following these simple guidelines to improving the way you find your rest.

• Make your bedroom a place of calm and peace. Take out any computers, televisions, radios or music equipment. Never do work-related tasks in bed. Never bring your briefcase into the bedroom. Get rid of clutter. Keep the room as clear and tidy as you can. This way there is nothing to distract you or set you to wor­rying as you rest and start to find sleep. And, no matter what, keep your alarm clock out of sight. There is nothing worse than watching the minutes tick slowly by as you try to fall asleep!

• Train your body clock to regu­lar rest and activity rhythms. Always get up around the same time, even when you sleep badly. Always go to bed around the same time, even when you do not feel tired. This helps train your mind and body to welcome sleep on a regular cycle, even when your life is demanding, hectic or stressful.

• Respect your natural sleep rhythms. If you go to bed at 10:30 at night but do not fall asleep until 1:00 in the morning, try going to bed just before 1:00 instead.

• Do not use the weekends for catching up on your sleep. This will throw your body clock out and make it harder for you to find regular sleep during the week.

• Napping during the day can be a great way to find energy and inspiration. However, try to limit your naps to ten minutes and never go beyond twenty. Longer naps actually drain your energy and make it harder for you to sleep at night.

• Take your exercise in the morn­ing. Exercise is good for sleep in general. But exercise also stimulates the brain. The later you exercise in the afternoon or evening, the harder it is to sleep. Gentle exercise before breakfast is best of all. The ancient art of Tai Chi is probably the most famous example of this. If you do not know Tai Chi, now may be a good time to find out more.

• Drink a cup of chamomile tea before you go to bed. Herbal teas help you relax and can do you more good than a sleeping pill or sedative. If you take herbal tea regularly, the smell alone can act as a signal to your body that it is time to start winding down for sleep!

• Respect what your insomnia tells you about yourself Sleeping poorly and waking up full of worries can be sign of depression or stress. In such cases lack of sleep is a symptom of a much deeper problem that needs attention. Continue to follow the guidelines above to help you sleep as well as you can, but think about ways to identify and resolve any other issues that are affecting you.

^ From "Modern English Reader"

healing /'hi:liŋ/ лікування

sure /so:/ надійний

wear and tear /wear and 'tea/ знос; виснаження

stamina /'stemina/ запас життєвих сил

knit /hit/ скріпляти

ravelled /'nevoid/ заплутаний

hurt /h3:t/рана, біль

good /gud/ благо

deprivation /,depri'veisn/ втрата

clutter /'klAktik/ xaoc, безладдя

demanding /di'ma:ndiŋ)/ напружений

hectic /'hektik/ неспокійний

nар /næр/ дрімати

drain /drein/ виснажувати

sedative /'sedativ/ снодійний засіб

wind down /waind/ припиняти (роботу)

affect впливати


^ Олександр Некрут, Ін-14

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor, best known as the author of the high fantasy classic works The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. Tolkien was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford from 1925 to 1945, and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature from 1945 to 1959. He was a close friend of C. S. Lewis – they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972.After his death, Tolkien's son, Christopher, published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, poems, fictional histories, invented languages, and literary essays about an imagined world called Arda, and Middle-earth within it. Between 1951 and 1955 Tolkien applied the word legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings when they were published in paperback in the United States led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre. This has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or more precisely, high fantasy. Tolkien's writings have inspired many other works of fantasy and have had a lasting effect on the entire field. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of 'The 50 greatest British writers since 1945'.


^ Tolkien family origins

Most of Tolkien's paternal ancestors were craft

smen. The Tolkien family had its roots in the German Kingdom of Saxony, but had been living in England since the 18th century, becoming "quickly and intensely English". The surname Tolkien is Anglicized from Tollkiehn (i.e. German tollkühn, "foolhardy", etymologically corresponding to English dull-keen, literally oxymoron), and the surname Rashbold, given to two characters in Tolkien's The Notion Club Papers, is a pun on this.Tolkien's maternal grandparents, John and Edith Jane Suffield, were Baptists who lived in Birmingham and owned a shop in the city centre. The Suffield family had run various businesses out of the same building, called Lamb House, since the early 1800s. Beginning in 1812 Tolkien's great-great grandfather William Suffield owned and operated a book and stationery shop there; Tolkien's great-grandfather, also John Suffield, was there from 1826 with a drapery and hosiery business.


^ Academic and writing career

Tolkien's first civilian job after World War I was at the Oxford English Dictionary, where he worked mainly on the history and etymology of words of Germanic origin beginning with the letter W. In 1920 he took up a post as Reader in English language at the University of Leeds, and in 1924 was made a professor there. While at Leeds he produced A Middle English Vocabulary and, (with E. V. Gordon), a definitive edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, both becoming academic standard works for many decades. In 1925 he returned to Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College. Northmoor Road, the former home of J.R.R. Tolkien in North OxfordDuring his time at Pembroke, Tolkien wrote The Hobbit and the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings, largely at 20 Northmoor Road in North Oxford, where a blue plaque was placed in 2002. He also published a philological essay in 1932 on the name 'Nodens', following Sir Mortimer Wheeler's unearthing of a Roman Asclepieion at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, in 1928.Of Tolkien's academic publications, the 1936 lecture "Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics" had a lasting influence on Beowulf research. Lewis E. Nicholson said that the article Tolkien wrote about Beowulf is "widely recognized as a turning point in Beowulfian criticism", noting that Tolkien established the primacy of the poetic nature of the work as opposed to the purely linguistic elements. At the time, the consensus of scholarship deprecated Beowulf for dealing with childish battles with monsters rather than realistic tribal warfare; Tolkien argued that the author of Beowulf was addressing human destiny in general, not as limited by particular tribal politics, and therefore the monsters were essential to the poem. Where Beowulf does deal with specific tribal struggles, as at Finnsburg, Tolkien argued firmly against reading in fantastic elements. In the essay, Tolkien also revealed how highly he regarded Beowulf: "Beowulf is among my most valued sources," and this influence can be seen in The Lord of the Rings.

In 1945, Tolkien moved to Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, in which post he remained until his retirement in 1959. Tolkien completed The Lord of the Rings in 1948, close to a decade after the first sketches. Tolkien also helped to translate the Jerusalem Bible, which was published in 1966.

^ Retirement and old age

During his life in retirement, from 1959 up to his death in 1973, Tolkien received steadily increasing public attention and literary fame. The sale of his books was so profitable that he regretted he had not chosen early retirement. While at first he wrote enthusiastic answers to readers' enquiries, he became more and more suspicious of emerging Tolkien fandom, especially among the hippie movement in the United States. In a 1972 letter he deplores having become a cult-figure, but admits that:

... even the nose of a very modest idol... cannot remain entirely untickled by the sweet smell of incense


^ Олександр Гедзюк, Ін-14

Life of Shakespeare

The great poet and dramatist Wiliiam Shakespeare is often called by his people "Our National Bard", "The Immortal. Poet of nature" and "The Great Unknown". More than two hundred contemporary references to Shakespeare have been located amoung church records, legal records, documents in the Public Record Office, and miscellaneous repositories. When these owe assembled, we have at least the sceleton out line of his life, begining with his baptist on April 26, 1564, in Trinity Churche, Stratford-on-Avon, and ending with his burial there on April 25,1616. Shakespeare native place was Sratford-on-Avon, a little town in Warwickshive, which is generally described as beign in the middle of England.

Shakespeare's father, John, was a prosperious glove maker of Stratford who, after holding minor municipal offices, was elected high bailiff of Stratford. Shakespeare's mother Mary Arden, came from an affluent family of landowners.

Shakespeare probably recieved his early education at the exellent Stratford Grammar School, supervised by an Oxford graduate, where he would have learned Latin smattering of Greek.

In 1582 Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, who lived in a neighboring hamlet. The first child bom to Ann and William was their daughter Susanna, in about two years Ann bore him twins a boy and a girl, Hamlet and Jidith.

Then life in Stratford became intolerable for William Shakespeare and he dicided to go to London and began a theatrical career. Shakespeare major activity lay in the field of drama. He became a full shaveholder in his acting company, he was partowner of "the Globe" theatre and later of "the Blackfriars" theatre, and in 1597 he purchased property in Strarford. Including new place, one of the largest houses in the town. He probably retired there about 1610, travelling of London when necessary to take cave of his theatrical business. In all, 154 sonnets seguence. The sonnets were probably written in the 1590 but were first published in 1609.

^ Shakespeare Biography

William Shakespeare Biography describes the life of William Shakespeare From birth to death, Shakespeare's Biography describes all that is known about Shakespeare's life from available documentation including court and church records, marriage certificates and criticisms by Shakespeare's rivals.

^ Shakespeare (1564-1616): Who was he?

Though William Shakespeare is recognized as one of literature's greatest influences, very little is actually known about him. What we do know about his life comes from registrar records, court records, wills, marriage certificates and his tombstone. Anecdotes and criticisms by his rivals also speak of the famous playwright and suggest that he was indeed a playwright, poet and an actor.

Date of Birth? (1564)

William was born in 1564. We know this from the earliest record we have of his life; his baptism which happened on Wednesday, April the 26th, 1564. We don't actually know his birthday but from this record we assume he was born in 1564. Similarly by knowing the famous Bard's baptism date, we can guess that he was bom three days earlier on St. George's day, though we have no conclusive proof of this.

Brothers and Sisters.

William was the third child of John and Mary Shakespeare. The first two were daughters and William was himself followed by Gilbert who died in 1612 and Richard who died in 1613. Edmund (1580-1607), sixth in the line was baptized on May the third, 1580 and William's oldest living sister was Joan who outlived her famous playwright brother. Of William's seven siblings, only Judith and four of his brothers survived to adulthood.

^ William's Father

From baptism records, we know William's father was a John Shakespeare, said to be a town official of Stratford and a local businessman who dabbled in tanning, leatherwork and whittawermg which is working with white leather to make items like purses and gloves. John also dealt in grain and sometimes was described as a glover by trade.

John was also a prominent man in Stratford. By 1560, he was one of fourteen burgesses which formed the town council. Interestingly, William himself is often described as a keen businessman so we can assume he got his business acumen from his father. In the Bard's case, the apple didn't fall far from the tree at all...

^ William's mother: Mary Arden.

William's mother was Mary Arden who married John Shakespeare in 1557. The youngest daughter in her family, she inherited much of her father's landowning and farming estate when he died.

Early Days on Henley Street...

Since we know Stratford's famous Bard lived with his father, John Shakespeare, we can presume that he grew up in Henley Street, some one hundred miles northwest of London.

^ The Bard's Education.

Very little is known about literature's most famous playwright. We know that the King's New Grammar School taught boys basic reading and writing. We assume William attended this school since it existed to educate the sons of Stratford but we have no definite proof. Likewise a lack of evidence suggests that William, whose works are studied universally at Universities, never attended one himself.

^ William marries an older woman. (1582)

A bond certificate dated November the 28th, 1582, reveals that an eighteen year old William married the twenty-six and pregnant Anne Hathaway. Barely seven months later, they had his first daughter, Susanna. Anne never left Stratford, living there her entire life.

^ The Bard's children. (1583 & 1592)

Baptism records show that William's first child, Susanna was baptized in Stratford sometime in May, 1583. Baptism records again reveal that twins Hamnet and Judith were born in February 1592. Hamnet, William's only son died in 1596, just eleven years old. Hamnet and Judith were named after William's close friends, Judith and Hamnet Sadler. William's family was unusually small in a time when families had many children to ensure parents were cared for in later years despite the very high mortality rates of children and also their life expectancy in the 1500s.

The Bard as a poet.

Evidence that the great Bard was also a poet comes from his entering his first poem Venus and Adonis in the Stationers'Registrar on the 18th of April, 1593. The playwright registered his second poem The Rape of Lucrece by name on the 9th of May, 1594.

The Bard suffers breech of copyright. (1609)

In 1609, the Bard's sonnets were published without the Bard's permission. It is considered unlikely that William wanted many of his deeply personal poems to be revealed to the outside world. It was not however the first time; in 1599, in a collection entitled "The Passionate Pilgrim", two of his poems had been printed without William's permission.

^ The Bard's lost years?

Looking for work in London, just four days ride way from Stratford, William is believed to have left his family back home for some twenty years whilst he pursued his craft. He only returned back to his family in 1609, having visited only during the forty day period of Lent when theatres though open well into the start of Lent would later close in accordance with the traditional banning of all forms of diversionary entertainment around this important Easter event

^ William applies for a Coat of Arms. (1596)

Records with the College of Heralds, reveal William applied for a coat of arms. Despite a lack of proof, he was granted his request. Later in 1599 he applied for his mother's coat of arms to be added to his own.

William buys major residential property. (1597)

At age 15, William purchased the New Place. This was one of the most prominent and desired properties in all of Stratford being the second largest house in town. Given his father's known financial hardship from 1576, William must either have used his own money to buy this expensive property or his father had placed money in his son's name. It is possible William might have bought this prominent property with money from his plays. It is estimated that roughly fifteen of his 37 plays would have been written and performed by 1597!

^ Will flats in London. (Circa 1601-1604)

Court records of a dispute between William's landlord Christopher Mountjoy and his son-in-law Stephen Belott confirm that William was living in London around 1601. The playwright's name is recorded in the court records when he gave testimony in 1612 concerning Mountjoy and Belott's dispute. Interestingly, in 1601, he bought roughly 107 acres of arable land with twenty acres of pasturage for 20 pounds in Old Stratford.

^ The Bard strikes it rich.

William made his greatest financial gain in 1605 when he purchased leases of real estate near Stratford. This investment of some four hundred and forty pounds doubled in value and earned him 60 pounds income each year. Some academics speculate that this investment gave the Bard the time he needed to write plays uninterrupted and we know that he was indeed thought of as a businessman in the Stratford area...

^ A friend passes away.

Yet another record confirming the Bard's existence was John Comb's will which bequeathed to the Bard the princely sum of just five pounds.

The Bard's will and death.

Records reveal that the great Bard revised his will on March the 25th, 1616. Less than a month later, he died on April the 23rd, 1616. Literature's famous Bard is buried at the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford. He infamously left his second-best bed to his wife Anne Hathaway and little else, giving most of his estate to his eldest daughter Susanna who has married a prominent and distinguished physician named John Hall in June 1607. This was not as callous as it seems; the Bard's best bed was for guests; his second-best bed was his marriage bed... His will also named actors Richard Burbage, Henry Condeli and John Hemminges, providing proof to academics today that William was involved in theatre. The Bard's direct line of descendants ended some 54 years later until Susanna's daughter Elizabeth died in 1670.

^ Did Shakespeare write the 37 plays and 154 sonnets credited to him?

The evidence above proves William existed but not that he was a playwright nor an actor nor a poet. In fact recently sortie academics who call themselves the Oxfords argue that Stratford's celebrated playwright did not write any of the plays attributed to him. They suggest that he was merely a businessman and propose several contenders for authorship, namely an Edward de Vere.

^ Evidence that the great Bard wrote his plays.

The earliest proof that William did indeed write 37 plays was Robert Greene's criticism of the Bard in his Groatsworth of Wit, Bought with a Million of Repentance which attacked Shakespeare for having the nerve to compete with him and other playwrights in 1592 . Robert Greene made this quite clear by calling him "an upstart crow". This criticism was placed with the Stationers' Registrar on the 20th of September, 1592.

Proof that William was an actor comes from his own performances before Queen Elizabeth herself in 1594 and evidence of William's interest in theatre comes from the Bard's name being listed in 1594 and 1595 as a shareholder (part owner) of the Lord Chamberlain's Company, a theatre company.

The Bard's reputation as a poet is again confirmed in 1598, when Francis Meres attacked him as being "mellifluous" and described his work as honey-tongued, "sugared sonnets among his private friends" in his own Palladis Tamia of 1598.

William's theatre presence is again confirmed by his name being recorded as one of the owners of the Globe theatre in 1599 and on May the 19th, 1603, he received a patent, titling him as one of the King's Men (previously called the Chamberlain's men) and a Groom of the Chamber by James I, the then King of England. This honour made William a favorite for all court performances, earned each King's man extra money (30 pounds each for a performance in 1603 alone) and made the Bard's name one rather above reproach. Macbeth which celebrates King James I ancestor Malcolm, is considered to have been written in part as appreciation for the King's patronage. And as a potent form of royalist propaganda (it warned of the dangers of killing a King appointed like James, by God).

The First Folio (1623): Conclusive proof that Shakespeare authored his plays.

The proof most often cited that Shakespeare authored his plays however, was the First Folio (1623) where Henry Condell and John Hemminges who were actors in the Bard's theatre company, claim in a dedicatory verse within the Folio that they recorded and collected his plays as a memorial to the late actor and playwright. In terms of value, the First Folio originally was sold for just 1 Pound in 1623. Today as one of just 250 still in existence, it would fetch nearly 3 million dollars (US).

^ Ben Jonson criticizes and then praises William by name.

Further proof of authorship comes in the form of a poem by Ben Jonson, one of the Bard's more friendly rivals, which criticizes the playwrights dramatic plays. It is contained within a work entitled Discoveries (also known as Timber) dated 1641. Despite his criticism, Ben Johnson paradoxically also said that Stratford's famous Bard's works were timeless, describing them as "not of an age, but for all time".

^ Яна Жалдун, Ін-14

Agatha Christie

Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, (née Miller; 15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), commonly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime writer of novels, short stories and plays. She also wrote romances under the name Mary Westmacott, but is best remembered for her 80 detective novels and her successful West End theatre plays. Her works, particularly featuring detectives Hercule Poirot or Miss Jane Marple, have given her the title the 'Queen of Crime' and made her one of the most important and innovative writers in the development of the genre.

Christie has been called—by the Guinness Book of World Records, among others — the best-selling writer of books of all time and the best-selling writer of any kind, along with William Shakespeare. Only the Bible is known to have outsold her collected sales of roughly four billion copies of novels. UNESCO states that she is currently the most translated individual author in the world with only the collective corporate works of Walt Disney Productions surpassing her. Christie's books have been translated into (at least) 56 languages.

Her stage play, The Mousetrap, holds the record for the longest initial run in the world, opening at the Ambassadors Theatre in London on 25 November 1952, and as of 2008 is still running after more than 23,000 performances. In 1955, Christie was the first recipient of the Mystery Writers of America's highest honor, the Grand Master Award, and in the same year, Witness for the Prosecution was given an Edgar Award by the MWA, for Best Play. Most of her books and short stories have been filmed, some many times over (Murder on the Orient Express, Death on the Nile and 4.50 From Paddington for instance), and many have been adapted for television, radio, video games and comics.

In 1968, Booker Books, a subsidiary of the agri-industrial conglomerate Booker-McConnell, bought a 51% stake in Agatha Christie Limited, the private company that Christie had set up for tax reasons. Booker later increased its stake to 64%. In 1998, Booker sold its shares to Chorion, a company whose portfolio also includes the literary estates of Enid Blyton and Dennis Wheatley.
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