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Procedure for writing a bachelor paper




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PROCEDURE FOR WRITING A BACHELOR PAPER


A term paper is primarily a record of intelligent reading in several sources on a particular subject. The task of writing such is not as formidable as it seems if it is thought out in advance as a definite procedure with systematic perpetration.


The procedure for writing such a report consists of the following steps:

  1. Choosing a subject

  2. Finding sources of materials

  3. Gathering the notes

  4. Outlining the paper

  5. Writing the first draft

  6. Editing the paper

Now let's look at each of them.


CHOOSING A SUBJECT


Most good papers are built around questions. You can find subjects in any textbook. Simply take some part of the text that interest you and examine it carefully. Ask yourself the following things about it to see if you can locate a question to answer in your paper. Does it tell you all you might wish to learn about the subject? Are you sure it is accurate? Does the author make any assumptions that need examining? Can two of the more interesting sections in the text be shown to be interrelated in some useful way?


Your paper is an attempt to write a well-organized answer to whatever question you decide upon, using facts for the purpose of proving (or at least supporting) your contention. The most common error made by students in choosing a subject for a term paper is to choose one that is too general. (The most specific subject will always have enough aspects to furnish a long paper, if you think about it for a while.)


^ FINDING SOURCES OF MATERIALS


  1. Limitations. Tradition suggests that you limit your sources to those available on the campus and to those materials, which are not more than 20 years old, unless the nature of the paper is such that you are examining older writings from a historical point of view.




  1. Guides to sources.

  1. Begin by making a list of subject-headings under which you might expect the subject to be listed.

  2. Start a card file using the following forms.

  1. Book and magazine article:

  1. Subject

  2. Author

  3. Title

  4. Facts of publication

  5. Library call number

  1. News story:

  1. Subject

  2. Facts of publication

  3. Headline

  1. Periodicals:

  1. Author

  2. Title

  3. Name of periodical

  4. Volume and page number

  5. Month and year.

  1. Sort these cards into (a) books and (b) each volume of periodicals. Then look up call numbers other periodicals and sort out those for each branch library. This sorting save library time.




  1. Consult the card catalog in the library to locate books - record author, title, publisher, date of publication, and call number.




  1. Consult guides to periodicals, such as:

  1. Education Index

  2. Readers Guide

  3. International Index to Periodicals

  4. Abstracts

These are aids to finding articles on any subject. They list subject heading, with various titles of articles under them, together with the location of each article.

^ GATHERING THE NOTES


  1. Examine the books and articles - several volumes at a time will save steps.

Skim through your sources, locating the useful material, then make good notes of it, including quotes and information for footnotes. You do not want to have to go back to these sources again. Make these notes on separate cards for each author - identifying them by author.


  1. Take care in note-taking; be accurate and honest. Be sure that you do not distort the author's meanings. Remember that you do not want to collect only those things that will support your thesis, ignoring other facts or opinions. The reader wants to know other sides of the question.




  1. Get the right kind of material:

  1. Get facts, not just opinions. Compare the facts with author's conclusion.

  2. In research studies, notice the methods and procedures, and do not be afraid to criticize them. If the information is not quantitative, in a study, point out the need for objective, quantified, well-controlled research.


^ OUTLINING THE PAPER


  1. Do not hurry into writing. Think over again what your subject and purpose are, and what kind of material you have found.




  1. Review notes to find main sub-divisions of your subject. Sort the cards into natural groups then try to name each group. Use these names for main divisions in your outline. You will have more cards than in the example above, and at this point you can possibly narrow own you subject further by taking out one of the piles of cards.


C. Sort the cards again under each main division to find sub-sections for your outline.


D. By this time it should begin to look more coherent and to take on a definite structure. If it does not, try going back and sorting again for main divisions, to see if another general pattern is possible.


E. You may want to indicate the parts of your outline in traditional form as follows:

1. Example

a) Example

i. Example

i.) Example

2. Example

3. Example

a) Example

Use these designations only in the outline and not in the paper itself, or it will look more like an extended outline that a paper.


^ WRITING THE FIRST DRAFT


You are now ready to write.


A. Write the paper around the outline, being sure that you indicate in the first part of the paper what its purpose is. Follow the old formula:

  1. Tell the reader what you are going to say (statement of purpose)

  2. Say it (main body of the paper)

  3. Tell the reader what you've said (statement of summary and conclusion)


B. A word about composition:

  1. Traditionally, any headings or sub-headings included are nouns, not verbs or phrases.

  2. Keep things together that belong together. Your outline will help you do this if it is well organized. Be sure you don't change the subject in the middle of a paragraph, and be sure that everything under one heading in your outline is about the same general topic.

  3. Avoid short, bumpy sentences and long straggling sentences with more than one maid ideas.


^ EDITING THE PAPER


You are now ready to polish up the first draft.


  1. Try to read it as if it were cold and unfamiliar to you. It is a good idea to do this a day or two after having written the first draft.




  1. Reading the paper aloud is a good way to be sure that the language is not awkward, and that it "flows" properly.




  1. Check for proper spelling, phrasing and sentence construction. Be sure that pronouns clearly refer to nouns.




  1. Check for proper form on footnotes, quotes, and punctuation.




  1. Check to see that quotations serve one of the following purposes:

  1. Show evidence of what an author has said.

  2. Avoid misrepresentation through restatement.

  3. Save unnecessary writing when ideas have been well expressed by the original author.




  1. Check for proper form on tables and graphs. Be certain that any table or graph is self-explanatory.


College Conundrum: "You Mean I Gotta Write a Paper?"


Every university student knows that writing papers isn't easy. Not only are you worried about including all the information necessary to make a strong argument, but you're also expected to present it in a way that your professor will be impressed with.


Every professor is different, and each one has a different set of standards when it comes to papers. Your Marketing professor will have different expectations than your English professor will, and your current Management instructor may have different expectations than the last one. However, there are a few general guidelines you can follow that will help you organize your paper so that it's clear and easy to read, presenting your argument in a way it can be understood.


First of all, you might think your professor would be impressed with long, flowy words and complicated sentences. This is not the case with most professors. They have a lot of papers to grade, and they don't want to spend an hour on yours. A longer sentence is OK, but be careful that you don't switch tenses in the middle, and that each sentence stays on task.


The last part of your sentence should provide support to the first part, whether for clarification, addition, or even contradiction to prove a point. Break up your sentence with commas. Don't know where to put them? Read your paper aloud, taking breaks only when you hit a comma. If it sounds funny without a break, it needs a comma. You know where to take breaks because you wrote the paper, but your professor needs commas.


The problem many of us have with too few (or too many) commas is perhaps upstaged only by using too many big words, or words with unclear or convoluted meanings Your vocabulary is impressive, sure, but your professor is less likely to give you an A if he has to look up a word every 90 seconds. Say what you have to say, but say it simply and precisely, leaving no room for your reader to wonder what you're getting at.


Now, let's talk paragraphs. When writing a paper, you can't just go from one topic to another, jumping around. The paper should have a flow to it. The flow of the paper will be greatly impacted by the way you end and begin paragraphs. Make sure that the last point of your previous paragraph is somehow related to the beginning point of your next paragraph. This can be done simply by repeating a few words, or by eluding to a comparison between the ending and beginning points.


Paying attention to paragraph transitions will make more of an impression on most instructors than big words ever will. You don't have to write a transition like that in every paragraph, as long as you make sure that each paragraph follows logically after the previous one, so your paper doesn't jump around.


Just as important as your paragraph structure (and even more so) is your thesis. You've probably heard professors talk about theses until they're blue in the face and you're sick of hearing the word. Well, the reason they talk about theses so much is because they're important. If your thesis is weak, your entire paper will suffer from the get-go.


The get-go is exactly where you should present your thesis to the reader. Your thesis gives your readers a legitimate reason to read your paper. Right from the start, your professor wants to know what you're going to prove in your paper, and that's just what your thesis is supposed to do. This can be done in one sentence. The longer your thesis, the harder it will be to understand and explain clearly.


Start your paper with a very brief introduction of your topic, so people know right from the start what you're talking about. Then, lead to the thesis. The thesis is usually stated at the end of your opening paragraph, after the introduction. Some people state their thesis right at the beginning for dramatic emphasis, but if you do that, make sure you backtrack in the following sentences to introduce your topic.


The closing paragraph of your paper is just as important as the opening paragraph. It doesn't need to be long, and it shouldn't attempt to make any further arguments. All your closing paragraph needs to do is clearly and precisely state what you have just proven to the reader, giving them a sense of closure. A couple of sentences will most likely do the trick.


Now, here's a little-known trick you can use to make sure your paper is organized well and flows properly. Write down the opening and closing sentences of each of your paragraphs, then read what you've got. If it makes sense, flows in a logical order, and you feel you have a pretty good summary of what your paper is supposed to say, you have most likely done a pretty good job. Oh, and did I mention that writing the paper at 2am the day it's due probably isn't your most efficient route to a decent grade? You get the point.


Now that you're armed with a few important paper-writing pointers, sit down and get to work. Writing papers can be a difficult task, but once you know what you're doing, it can be extremely rewarding, both personally and academically.

^

CONTENT AND STRUCTURE OF TERM PAPER



You term paper should be 10-20 pages, 12 font size, 1,5 space.


It must be of the following structure:

Content. Must include the titles of each part, and page numbers on which each part begins.

Introduction. This part of your term paper should explain why the problem you research is important to consider. You must also describe the task for solving the problem researched, and the object of the research.

Part I. In this part you should define the problem and explain it in terms of theory of international economics. This part is highly theoretical.

Part II. The analytical part of the term paper. It must show the problem of your research in the real economic environment. Statistical data on the subject of your research must be presented and analyzed.

Part III. Practical part of the term paper. The most important part of the term paper, as it should contain the ways of solving the problem researched, and practical implementation of proposed solutions.

Conclusions. It is last, but not the least part of your term paper. The final conclusion should be made for the whole term paper in total. Most of the attention will be paid to this tart of your work.

Bibliography. All sources of literature used in writing the term paper should be presented in alphabetical order.


While writing your term paper you should be very attentive to keep this structure.


The deadline for the term paper is January 17, 2005. All papers should be in good order delivered to the Deans Office of Ukrainian-Dutch Faculty of Economics and Management no later the deadline. After January 17 no paper will be accepted. Students whose papers won’t be at the Deans Office at that day won’t get any certificate at all.


Good luck!


In the case of any questions concerning the term papers please contack


Viktoriya Kramar,

9 Shevchenko Street, Office 24-25

Ternopil, 46000

Tel. +38 0352 43 52 41

Fax. +38 0352 43 52 41

e-mail: zvictoria@tane.edu.ua




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