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Size of the paper

Maximum 25 pages (excluding references, annexes and plagiarism statement)


Structure of the paper:

  • Title page

  • Table of Contents

  • Introduction

  • Parts (presenting methodology, theory, arguments, analysis)

  • Conclusions

  • References

  • Annexes (if applicable)

  • Statement on Plagiarism


Page Format

1. Standard A4;

2. Margins – left –3, right - 1,5 cm, top/bottom - 2cm;

3. Format – 1.5 spacing;

4. Font – 12 pt Times New Roman;

5. Text alignment – justify;

6. Paragraphs – no blank lines between paragraphs;

7. Footnotes 10 pt Times New Roman;

8. Graphics – included in the body of the paper;

9. Page Numbers – at bottom right.


Examples in italic, headings of sections in bold.


^ FORMAT (SAMPLE)


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction .............................................................................2


1. PART 1. TITLE..................................................................3

1.1. Subtitle...............................................................................3

1.1.1. Subtitle............................................................................5

1.1.2. Subtitle............................................................................6

etc.


2. PART 2. TITLE ................................................................12

2.1. Subtitle...............................................................................12

2.1.1. Subtitle............................................................................14

2.1.2. Subtitle............................................................................16

etc.


Next parts (Optional)

Conclusions ............................................................................20


References...............................................................................21


Annexes ....................................................................................22


Introduction

The length of Introduction is 1-2 pages. It should comprise the following points:

  • a brief explanation of the problem

  • research question including sub-questions

  • objective of the paper


Part 1 should include

  • Literature review

  • Data and methodology describing the data and their sources as well as the methodology used in the paper.


The next parts should include

  • Problem analysis

  • Data analysis

  • Findings including a comparison with other authors’ findings

  • What does the paper add to existing knowledge?

  • Does the research lead to recommendations or predictions?


Conclusion

The length of last chapter with Conclusions is 1-2 pages.


^ LIST OF REFERENCES


The List of References should include a list of works cited in the text, arranged alphabetically by author's last names. The title of the book or journal should be italicized. Journal articles and book chapters should be put in quotation marks. Non-academic references should be avoided unless they are absolutely necessary.


^ Book, single author:

Author's last name, Initials. (Year) Title italic. Place of publication: Publishing company.

Example: Agar, M. (1994). Language shock: Understanding the culture of conversation. New York: William Morrow.

Book, multiple authors

Author's last name, Initials. and second Author's last name, Initials. (Year) ^ Title italic Place of publication: Publishing company.

Example: Koole, Tom and Jan D. ten Thije (1994) The Construction of Intercultural Discourse. Team discussions of educational advisers. Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi.

Book with an Editor

Editor's last name, Initials. (Ed.). (Year) ^ Title italic. Place of publication: Publishing company.

Example: O'Riordan, T. (Ed.). (2001) Globalism, Localism and Identity. London: Earthscan.


Chapter in an Edited Book

Author's last name, Initials. (Year) 'Chapter title'. In: Editor's(s) name and initials. ed(s). Book title. Place of publication: Publishing company.

Example: Rose, H. (2000) 'Risk, Trust and Sceptism in the Age of the New Genetics'. In: Adam, B. et al. eds. Risk Society and Beyond. London: Sage.


^ Journal Article - Print

Author's last name, First and Second Initial. (Year) 'Article title'. Journal title, Volume number(Issue number):page numbers.

Example: Nickolson, B.F. (2006) 'Why cheating is prohibited'. International Academic Journal, 23(1):23-24.


^ Journal Article - Electronic

Electronic article Author's last name, First and Second Initial. (Year) Article title. Journal title [Internet], Date of publication, Volume(issue), page numbers. Available from: internet address [Accessed date].

Example Nickolson, B.F. (2006) 'Why cheating is prohibited'. International Academic Journal. [Internet]. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112098736/PDFSTART [Accessed 10 February 2009].

^ Newspaper Article

Author's last name, First and Second Initial. (Year) Article title. Newspaper title, date, page numbers.

Example: O'Dea, W. (2006) Irish role in battlegroup concept will help to bolster UN. Irish Times, 10 January, p. 16.


^ Conference proceedings

Author (Year) ‘Title of paper’, Title of conference: subtitle. Location and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Page reference for paper.

Example: O’Connor (2009) ‘Towards a greener Ireland’, Conference ‘Discovering our natural sustainable resources: future proofing’. University College Dublin, 15–16 March. Dublin: Irish Environmental Institute, pp. 65 – 69.

^ Unpublished theses

Author (Year of submission) Title of thesis. Degree statement. Degree-awarding body.

Example: Allen, S. J. (2009) Educating for the Future: a Critical Discourse Analysis of the Academic Field of Intercultural Business Communication. Unpublished PhD thesis. University College Dublin.

Page on a Website

Webpage author's last name, First and Second Initial. (Year) Article title [Internet], edition if available eg. update or version 4.1.Place of publication, Publisher if ascertainable. Available from: [Accessed Date]

Example: Kelly, M. et al (2004) Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours: Ireland in Comparative European Perspective [Internet] Dublin Social Science Research Centre, University College Dublin Available from: http://www.ucd.ie/environ/home.htm [Accessed 8 February 2009]

Website

Website name. (Year) Website [Internet] .Place of publication, Publisher if ascertainable. Available from: [Accessed Date]

Example: International Tourism Partnership (2004) International Tourism Partnership (ITP) [Internet] London, ITP Available from: [Accessed 8 February 2009]


^ CITING AND REFERENCING THE SOURCES

Give the surname of the author, followed by the year of publication, and the page number if appropriate, e.g.

Smith (2006) outlined that….

In a recent report (Smith, 2006, p. 554) it has been shown…


If the author's surname is part of the sentence, you only need to put the date in brackets, e.g.

Smith (2006) says that…..


If you have two authors you format them as follows:

In a recent report (Smith & Jones, 2009) it has been shown…


In case of more than 3 authors you just need to give the first author and the other authors can be indicated by et al., e.g.

Ryan et al. (2007) outlined that…


If you refer to more than one paper by the same author in one year, they should be distinguished by adding a letter to the year of publication, e.g.

In the first study (Murphy, 2006a) it was reported that the recession was slowing. Later reports confirmed the recession had reversed (Murphy, 2006b).


If you refer to more than one author to make a point you should refer to them in chronological order, e.g.

Various authors have shown how the recession was bound to global market shifts (Smith, 2006, Ryan et al., 2007).


For citations that have no year available you simply note this in the in-text citation, e.g.

Global warming report (Smith & Jones, no year, p. 22) stated …


For citations with no author or date simply use the title, e.g.

The first report (Global warming trends, no date) stated …


To cite a website , cite by author if this is possible. If no author is available cite by Title, if there is no title cite the URL, e.g.

The world wide Global Warming survey (www.globalwarmingsurvey.org, 2010) showed that…


If numerical data is presented visually, label it as a figure or table. If the figure is from a printed source you must give the page number in your in-text citation. Give the figure a title and an in-text citation with the author of the source in brackets.


^ Citing a Figure:

Tracking has shown the materials to be widely appreciated, as shown by Author's Name and Surname analysis in figure 2:




Figure 2. Usage data for the WAC web site (WAC 2006).


^ HELPFUL VOCABULARY


Part 1 Linking words and phrases

Sequence

First, firstly, second, secondly, third, thirdly

next, last, finally

in addition, moreover

furthermore

also

In conclusion, to summarise

The first …

The/a second….

One…..

Another …..

An additional….

Addition

In addition

Furthermore

Also

and

as well as

^ Cause

For

because

since

as

because of

to cause

Effect

So

as a result

as a consequence

therefore

thus

consequently

hence

to result from

due to

as a result/consequence of

to result in

to affect

Emphasis

Undoubtedly

Indeed

Obviously

Generally

Admittedly

In theory/fact

Particularly

Especially

Clearly

Comparison

Similarly

Likewise

Also

Too

as

just as

and

like

just like

similar to

be similar to/ the same as

be alike

not only…but also

to compare to/with

Contrast

However

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

Still

Although, Even though, though

but

yet

Despite , In spite of

In contrast, In comparison

While, whereas

On the other hand

On the contrary

But

Example

For example

For instance

That is

Such as

Including

Namely

^ Part 2 Phrases by Topics


Establishing the importance of the topic:


One of the most significant current discussions in ……. is ......

It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the .....

……. is the leading cause of ……..

……. is a common ……. characterised by ......

……. is an important component in the ……., and plays a key role in ……..

In the new global economy, ……. has become a central issue for ......

In the history of development economics, ……. has been thought of as a key factor in .......

……. are one of the most widely used groups of......

……. is a major …….problem, and the cause of about 4% of the ……..

……. is an increasingly important area in ……..

Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of .......

……. is at the heart of our understanding of ......


Recent developments in ……. have heightened the need for ......

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in ......

Recent developments in the field of ……. have led to a renewed interest in ......

Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in ......

The past decade has seen the rapid development of ……. in many .......

The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of......

Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in ......

One of the most important events of the 1990s was ......

Traditionally, ……. have subscribed to the belief that ......

……. proved an important …….in ……..

The changes experienced by ……. over the past decade remain unprecedented.

……. are one of the most widely used groups of …….and have been extensively used for decades to .......


^ Highlighting a problem in the field of study:


However, these rapid changes are having a serious effect ......

However, a major problem with this kind of application is ......

Lack of ……. has existed as a ……. problem for many years.

However, research has consistently shown that …….

There is increasing concern that …….

Despite its ……., …….has a number of problems in use.

Questions have been raised about the …….


^ Highlighting a controversy in the field of study:

To date there has been little agreement on what ......

More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about .....

One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ......

In many …..s a debate is taking place between ……. and…….concerning ......

The controversy about scientific evidence for…….has raged unabated for over a century.

Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of ……

This concept has recently been challenged by ……. studies demonstrating …….

One of the most significant current discussions in …….is ......

One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ......

In many …….a debate is taking place between ……. and ……. concerning ......

The controversy about scientific evidence for ……. has raged unabated for over a century.

Questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of ......

The issue of …….has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of .......

The issue has grown in importance in light of recent ......

One major theoretical issue that has dominated the field for many years concerns ......

One major issue in early ……. research concerned.......

Author (2002, p.123) fails to address the issue when he says ‘…’ because ……

When Author (2002, p.123) argues that …. His reasoning is questionable because….

One of the main arguments against Author1 (2004, p. 2) and Author2 (2002, p. 1) is that …

Author’s (2000) approach/position/methods is/are somewhat inadequate/inaccurate/insufficient because…


^ Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of study (for research):

So far, however, there has been little discussion about ......

However, far too little attention has been paid to ......

Most studies in ……. have only been carried out in a small number of areas.

The research to date has tended to focus on ……. rather than ……..

In addition, no research has been found that surveyed .......

So far this method has only been applied to ......

Several studies have produced estimates of ……. (Author, 2002; Author, 2003), but there is still insufficient data for .....

However, there have been no controlled studies which compare differences in ......

The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreement about ......

However, there is no reliable evidence that ......

……'s analysis does not take account of ..... nor does he examine ......

Although the research has tended to focus on…..rather less attention has been paid to…

Although most studies, such as J Author1 (2004, p. 2) and Author2 (2002, p. 1), have emphasised/concentrated on/focussed on….. inadequate /insufficient…..


^ Focus, aim, argument:

This paper will focus on/examine/give an account of ......

This paper seeks to remedy these problems by analyisng the literature of ......

The objectives of this research are to determine whether ......

This paper seeks to address the following questions:

This paper critically examines/discusses/traces ......

The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the ......

This paper will review the research conducted on ......

This chapter reviews the literature concerning the usefulness of using ......

The aim of this paper is to determine/examine ......

The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate .....

The aim of this paper is to…

The point of this paper is to…

It shall be argued in this paper /review that…

The view presented in this paper is that..


In this paper it will be argued that .....

In the pages that follow, it will be argued that ……

This paper attempts to show that ......

In this paper, I attempt to defend the view that ......

There are many reasons why….

It is important/necessary to point out that…

The first thing to be considered is…

It is a fact that…

There is some doubt that…

The first/second reason why….is… or Firstly/Secondly

The most important…

In addition, …

Furthermore, …

What is more, …

Another reason is …

A further point is …

^ Outline of structure:

The main questions/issues addressed in this paper are: a), b and c).

This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with ......

The work has been organised in the following way.

This paper first gives a brief overview of the recent history of X.

This paper begins by ...... It will then go on to ......

The first section of this paper will examine ......

Finally, .......


Chapter 1 begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and looks at how ......

Chapter 2 describes the design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of ......

The last chapter assesses the ......


^ Stating and Agreeing with the view of Another Person on a Subject or Topic

Author (1999, p. 333) maintains/ argues/ asserts / claims/points out that…

In a study of …, Author (1999, p. 333) maintains/ argues/ asserts / claims/points out that…

Author (2002, p.123) is certainly/may be correct/accurate in saying that … because….

As Author (2002, p.123) says/states …

Like Author (2002, p.123), it can be agreed that …. because …


Drawing a Conclusion Using the Work of Others

….Based on these authors, a connection can be made between…

It can be concluded from what Author1 (2004, p. 2) and Author2 (2002, p. 1) have stated that….. is …

When Author’s (2001, p.52) work/paper is looked at closely, it is seen that…

One outcome of Author’s (2001, p.52) work/paper/research is …






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