Krok 1 Medicine 2003 icon

Krok 1 Medicine 2003

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Krok 1 Medicine 2003

1 Patient with hypersecretion of the gastric juices was recomended to exclude from the diet concentrated bouillons and vegetable decoctions because of their stimulation of gastric secretion. What is dominating mechanism of stimulation of secretion in this case?

A. Irritation of taste receptors

B. Stimulation of excretion of secretin in the duodenum

C. Irritation of mechanoreceptors of the oral cavity

D. Irritation of mechanoreceptors of the stomach

E. Stimulation of gastrin production by G-cells

2 Buffer capacity of blood was decreased in the worker due to exhausting muscular work. Entry of what acid substance to the blood can this state be explained?

A. Lactate

B. α-ketoglutarate

C. Pyruvate

D. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

E. 3-phosphoglycerate

3 Extensive thromboembolic infarction of the left cerebral hemispheres, large septic spleen, immunocomplex glomerulonephritis, ulcers on the edges of the aortic valves, covered with polypous thrombus with colonies of staphylococcus were revealed on autopsy of the young man who died in com

A. What disease caused cerebral thromboemboly?

^ A. Rheumatic thromboendocarditis

B. Acute rheumatic valvulitis

C. Septic bacterial endocarditis

D. Septicopyemia

E. Septicemia

4 On the empty stomach in the patients blood glucose level was 5,65 mmol/L, in an hour after usage of sugar it was 8,55 mmol/L, in a 2 hours - 4,95 mmol/L. Such indicators are typical for:

^ A. Patient with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

B. Patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

C. Patient with tireotoxicosis

D. Patient with hidden diabetes mellitus

E. Healthy person

5 Inhibition of alpha-motoneuron of the extensor muscles was noticed after stimulation of alpha-motoneuron of the flexor muscles during the experiment on the spinal column. What type of inhibition can this process cause?

A. Lateral

B. Recurrent

C. Presynaptic

D. Depolarizational

E. Reciprocal

6 A 68-year-old woman can't move by the upper and lower right extremities due to insult. Muscle tone of these extremities and reflexes are increased. There are pathological reflexes. What form of the paralysis is it?

A. Hemiplegia

B. Tetraplegia

C. Monoplegia

D. Dissociation

E. Paraplegia

7 A 10-year-old child complains of weakness, nausea, irritability. Helminthes of white color and 5-10 mm long were found on the underwear. On microscopy of the scrape from the perianal folds achromic ova of the unsymmetrical form were revealed. Indicate what helminth is parasiting on the child?

^ A. ancylostoma duodenalis

B. Trichuris

C. Enterobins vermicularis

D. Ascaris lumbricoides

E. Trichina

8 Fatty of phospholipids is disordered due to fat infiltration of the liver. Indicate which of the presented substances can enhance the process of methylation during phospholipids synthesis?

A. Glycerin

B. Citrate

C. Glucose

D. Methionine

E. Ascorbic acid

9 Analeptical remedy of reflective type from the H-cholinomimetics group was given to the patient for restoration of breathing after poisoning with carbon monoxide. What medicine was prescribed to the patient?

A. Pentamin

B. Lobeline hydrochloride

C. Adrenalin hydrochloride

D. Mesaton

E. Atropine sulphate

10 Scraps of the mycelium of a fungus, spores, air bubbles and fat drops were discovered on microscopy of the patient's hair excluded from the infected areas. For what fungus disease is this microscopic picture characteristic?

A. Sporotrichosis

B. Trichophytosis

C. Microspory

D. Epidermophytosis

E. Favus

11 Upper neck node of sympathetic trunk was removed from the rabbit on experiment. Reddening and increased temperature of the skin of head is observed. What form of peripheral circulation of the blood developed in the rabbit?

^ A. Venous hyperemia

B. Stasis

C. Neurotonic arterial hyperemia

D. Metabolic arterial hyperemia

E. Neuroparalytic arterial hyperemia

12 The cell of the laboratory animal was overdosed with Roentgen rays. As a result albuminous fragments formed in the cytoplasm. What cell organoid will take part at their utilization?

^ A. Endoplasmic reticulum

B. Lysosomes

C. Cells centre

D. Golgi complex

E. Ribosome

13 Lung of premature infant is presented on electronic photomicrography of biopsy material. Collapse of the alveolar wall caused by the deficiency of surfactant was revealed. Disfunction of what cells of the alveolar wall caused it?

A. Fibroblasts

B. Alveolar macrophages

C. Secretory cells

D. Alveocytes type II

E. Alveocytes type I

14 In a patient with clinical signs of immunodeficiency the number and functional activity of T and B lymphocytes are not changed. Defect with dysfunction of antigen-presentation to the immunocompetent cells was found during investigation on the molecule level. Defect of what cells is the most probable?

^ A. Т-lymphocytes, В-lymphocytes

B. 0-lymphocytes

C. Fibroblasts, Т-lymphocytes, В-lymphocytes

D. NK-cells

E. Macrophages, monocytes

15 Processes of repolarisation are disturbed in ventricular myocardium in examined person. It will cause amplitude abnormalities of configuration and duration of the wave:

A. R

B. P

C. Q

D. S

E. Т

16 Patient with hypochromic anemia has splitting hair and loss of hair, increased nail brittling and taste alteration. What is the mechanism of the development of these symptoms?

^ A. Decreased production of parathyrin

B. Decreased production of thyroid hormones

C. Deficiency of vitamin В12

D. Deficiency of vitamin А

E. Deficiency of iron-containing enzymes

17 Larvae were detected occasionally on the microscopic examination of the sputum of the patient with pneumonia. Eosinophiles were detected on the blood examination. What helminthiasis can be diagnosed?

A. Ascariasis

B. Enterobiosis

C. Opistorchis

D. Trichocephaliasis

E. Paragonimiasis

18 Patient with bronchial asthma was taking tablets which caused insomnia, headache, increased blood pressure. What medecine can cause such complications?

A. Euphyline

B. Adrenaline

C. Ephedrine

D. Chromolin sodium

E. Izadrine

19 A 2-year-old child experienced convulsions because of lowering calcium ions concentration in the blood plasma. Function of what structure is decreased?

A. Thymus

B. Pineal gland

C. Parathyroid glands

D. Adrenal cortex

E. Hypophysis

20 Tuberculine was injected intracutaneously to the child for tuberculin test. Marked hyperemia, tissue infiltration developed on the place of injection in 24 hours. What mechanism caused these modifications?

^ A. Cells cytotoxity

B. Reagin type cytotoxity

C. Granuloma formation

D. Immunocomplex cytotoxity

E. Antibody cytotoxity

21 During investigation of patient, it was found formation in the white substance of cerebral hemispheres with location in the knee and frontal part of posterior crus of internal capsule. Fibres of what conductive tract of the brain will be disrupted?

^ A. Tr. frontopontinus

B. Tr. pyramidalis

C. Tr. frontothalamicus

D. Tr. parietooccipitopontinus

E. Тr. thalamocorticalis

22 Three separate bones connected with cartilage in the area of pelvis cavity are noticed on the X-ray of the pelvis. What are these bones?

^ A. Iliac, pubic, sciatic

B. Pubic, sciatic, femoral

C. Sacral, pubic, coccyx

D. Iliac, sacral, coccyx

E. Sciatic, femoral, sacral

23 A13-year-old boy complains of general weakness, dizziness, tiredness. He is mentally retarded. Increased level of valine, isoleucine, leucine is in the blood and urine. Urine has specific smell. What is the diagnosis?

^ A. Addison's disease

B. Tyrosinosis

C. Graves' disease

D. Histidinemia

E. Maple syrup urine disease

24 Aspirin has antiinflammatory effect due to inhibition of the cyclooxygenase activity. Level of what biological active acids will decrease?

^ A. Biogenic amines

B. Catecholamines

C. Prostaglandins

D. Leucotriens

E. Iodinethyronyns

25 Child inspired button. Where is it likely to be?

A. In the right main bronchus

B. In the trachea

C. In the gullet

D. In the left main bronchus

E. In the larynx

26 Young man felt sharp pain in the back during active tightening on the horizontal bar. Objectively: pain while moving of upper extremity, limited pronation and adduction functions. Sprain of what muscle is presented?

^ A. М. latissimus dorsi

B. М. romboideus major

C. М. levator scapulae

D. М. trapezius

E. М. subscapularis

27 An aged patient complains of headache, dizziness, quick tiredness, worsening of memory. Anamnesis: craniocerebral injury. Medicine of what group should be prescribed?

A. Somnific

B. Neuroleptics

C. Nootropics

D. Sedatives

E. Analgetics

28 Patient with diabetes didn't get insulin injection in time that caused hyperglycemic coma (glucose in the blood 50mmol/L). What mechanism is prevalent in the development of the coma?

A. Hypokaliemia

B. Hypoxia

C. Hyperosmia

D. Hyponatremia

E. Acidosis

29 Patient with injured muscles of the lower extremities was admitted to the traumatological department. Due to what cells is reparative regeneration of the muscle fibers and restoration of the muscle function possible?

A. Myofibroblasts

B. Myoblasts

C. Satellite-cells

D. Fibroblasts

E. Myoepithelial cells

30 Spasm of smooth muscle of bronchi developed in the patient. Usage of activators of what membrane cytoreceptors is fisiologically valid to decrease attack?

^ A. М-cholinoreceptors

B. α-аdrenoreceptors

C. β-adrenoreceptors

D. α- and β-аdrenoreceptors

E. Н-cholinoreceptors

31 Patient was admitted to the infection unit with diagnosis of bacterial dysentery. On laboratory studies it was revealed that causative element is sensative to the many antimicrobial medicines, but patient has anemia. What medicine is contra-indicated to the patient?

A. Enteroseptol

B. Phthalazol

C. Levomycetin

D. Ampicillin

E. Furazolidone

32 On autopsy of a still-born infant it is revealed heart development abnormalities: ventricles are not separated, originates from the right part single arterial trunk. For what class of vertebrate is such heart construction characteristic?

A. Birds

B. Amphibian

C. Reptiles

D. Mammals

E. Fishes

33 A 50-year-old patient with typhoid fever was treated with Levomycetin, the next day his condition became worse, temperature rised to 39,60С. What caused worthening?

A. Reinfection

B. Irresponsiveness of an agent to the levomycetin

^ C. Allergic reaction

D. The effect of endotoxin agent

E. Secondary infection addition

34 Inflamation is characterised by increasing penetration of vessels of microcirculation stream, increasing of their fluid dynamic blood pressure. Increasing of the osmotic concentration and dispersity of protein structures present in the intercellular fluid. What kind of edema will appear in this case?

A. Hydrodynamic

B. Lymphogenic

C. Membranogenic

D. Colloid-osmotic

E. Mixed

35 Patient complains of frequent and difficult urination. Imperfection of what formation can cause it?

A. Prostate

B. Bulb-uretic glands

C. Sperm bubbles

D. Testicles

E. Testicle adnexa

36 Live vaccine is injected into the human body. Increasing activity of what cells of connective tissue can be expected?

^ A. Fibroblasts and labrocytes

B. Adipocytes and adventitious cells

C. Macrophages and fibroblasts

D. Plasmocytes and lymphocytes

E. Pigmentocytes and pericytes

37 Methotrexate (structural analogue of the folic acid which is competitive inhibitor of the dihydrofolatreductase) is prescribed for treatment of the malignant tumour.On which level does methotrexate inhibit synthesis of the nucleic acids?

^ A. Mononucleotide synthesis

B. Replication

C. Transcription

D. Processing

E. Reparation

38 Patient was on glucocorticoids for a long time, discontinuation of usage caused exacerbation of the illness, decreased BP, weakness. How can you explain it?

^ A. Adaptation to the medicine

B. Cumulation

C. Hyperproduction of ACTH

D. Sensitization

E. Insufficiency of adrenal glands

39 Arterial hypertention is caused by the stenosis of the renal arteries in the patient. Activation of what system is the main link in the pathogenesys of this form of hypertension?

^ A. Parasympathetic

B. Kallikrein-kinin

C. Renin-angiotensin

D. Sympathoadrenal

E. Hypothalamic-pituitary

40 Patient with complaints of dryness in the mouth, photophobia and vision violation was admitted to the reception-room. Skin is hyperemic, dry, pupils are dilated, tachycardia. Poisoning with belladonna alkaloids was diagnosed on further examination. What medicine should be prescribed?

A. Diazepam

B. Armine

C. Pilocarpine

D. Prozerin

E. Dipyroxim

41 A 27- year-old woman has dropped penicillin containing eye drops. In few minutes there appeared feeling of itching, burning of the skin, lips and eyelids edema, whistling cough, decreasing of BP. What antibodies take part in the development of this allergic reaction?

A. IgA and IgM

B. IgM and IgG

C. IgM and IgD

D. IgG and IgD

E. IgE and IgG

42 Highly injured person gradually died. Please choose the indicator of biological death:

A. Absence of movements

B. Autolysis and decay in the cells

^ C. Absence of palpitation

D. Loss of consciousness

E. Disarray of chemical processes

43 On autopsy of the 58-year-old man it is revealed: mitral valve is deformed, thickened, not totally closed. Microscopically: centers of collagen fibers are eosinophilic, have positive fibrin reaction. The most likely it is:

A. Hyalinosis

B. Mucoid swelling

C. Fibrinoid swelling

D. Amyloidosis

E. Fibrinoid inflammation

44 Child asked you to puff up the balloon as much as possible for a one exhalation.What air volume will you use?

^ A. Functional residual volume

B. Inspiration volume

C. Total volume of the lungs

D. Backup volume of the inspiration

E. Vital volume of the lungs

45 While studing of the family tree with history of hypertrichosis (hyperhirsutism of the ear) this sign was founded only in the men and it was inherited from father to the son. Define the type of hypertrichosis inheritance?

^ A. Autosomal-dominant

B. Autosomal- recessive

C. Connected with Y-chromosome

D. Connected with Х-chromosome dominant

E. Connected with Х-chromosome recessive

46 The person was selling "homemade pork" sausages on the market. State sanitary inspector suspected falcification of the sausages.With help of what serological immune reaction can food substance be identified?

^ A. Immunofluorescence test

B. Indirect hemagglutination test

C. Agglutination test

D. Precipitation test

E. Complement- fixation test

47 Vegetative abnormalities in the sleep, heat regulation, all kinds of metabolism, diabetes insipidus are developing in the patient due to grouth of the tumour in the III ventricle of brain. Irritation of the nucleus of what part of the brain can cause this symptoms?

A. Medulla

B. Cerebral peduncles (cruces cerebri)

C. Pons cerebelli

D. Mesencephalic tegmentum

E. Hypothalamus

48 A 45-year-old man applied to the trauma unit because of domestic shoulder trauma. Objectively: flexibility, reduction and pronation functions of the shoulder are absent. What muscle was injured?

^ A. Teres major muscle

B. Supraspinous muscle

C. Infraspinous muscle

D. Teres minor muscle

E. Subscapular muscle

49 A 60-year-old patient was admitted to the surgical department because of infection caused by blue pus bacillus (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) which is sensative to penicillin antibiotics. Indicate which of the given penicillins has marked activity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

A. Oxacillin

B. Phenoxymethylpenicillin

C. Methicillin

D. Carbenicillin disodium

E. Benzylpenicillin

50 On microscopic examination of the enlarged neck gland of a 14-year-old girl it was revealed destruction of the tissue structure of the node, absence of the lymph follicles, sclerotic and necrosis parts, cell constitution of the node is polymorphous, lymphocites, eosinophiles, atypical cells of the large size with multiple-lobule nuclei (Beresovsky-Shternberg cells) and onenucleus cells of the large size are present. What is the most likely diagnosis?

^ A. Fungous mycosis

B. Chronic lympholeucosis

C. Lymphogranulomatous

D. Berkitt's lymphoma

E. Acute lympholeucosis

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Krok 1 Medicine 2003 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
Krok 1 Medicine 2003 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
Krok 1 Medicine 2003 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
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