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3.0 Гістологія


A patient visited a dentist with complaints of redness and edema of his mouth mucous

membrane in a month after dental prosthesis. The patient was diagnosed with allergic

stomatitis. What type of allergic reaction by Gell and Cumbs underlies this disease?

A Delayed type hypersensitivity

B Cytotoxic

C Immunocomplex

D Anaphylactic

E Stimulating


An electronic microphotograph shows a macrophagic cell with erythrocytes at different

stages of differentiation located along its processes. This is the cell of the following organ:

A Red bone marrow

B Thymus

C Spleen

D Tonsil

E Lymph node


Decreased blood supply to the organs causes hypoxia that activates fibroblasts function.

Volume of what elements is increased in this case?

A Intercellular substance

B Vessels of microcircular stream

C Nerve elements

D Parenchymatous elements of the organ

E Lymphatic vessels


A patient has undergone an amputation of lower extremity. Some time later painful nodules

appeared in a stump. Amputatious neuromas were found out at the microscopic

examination. To what pathological processes do those formations relate?

A Regeneration

B Dystrophy

C Inflammation

D Hyperemia

E Metaplasia


A 22-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of heavy nasal

breathing. During the examination of her nasal cavity the doctors found thickened mucous

membrane, a lot of mucus and nodular infiltrates without erosions in the nose.The nasal

rhinoscleroma was diagnosed. The biopsy was taken. What typical morphological changes

may be found?

A Granulomas with Mikulicz’s cells

B Granulomas with Virchow’s cells

C Granulomas with Langhan’s cells

D Granulomas with foreign body cells

E Interstitial inflammation


Lung of premature infant is presented on electronic photomicrography of biopsy material.

Collapse of the alveolar wall caused by the deficiency of surfactant was revealed.

Disfunction of what cells of the alveolar wall caused it?

A Alveocytes type II

B Alveocytes type I

C Alveolar macrophages

D Secretory cells

E Fibroblasts


During histological examination of the stomach it was found out that glands contain very

small amount of pariental cells or they are totally absent. Mucose membrane of what part

of the stomach was studied?

A Pyloric part

B Fundus of stomach

C Cardiak part

D Body of stomach

E -


Live vaccine is injected into the human body. Increasing activity of what cells of connective

tissue can be expected?

A Plasmocytes and lymphocytes

B Macrophages and fibroblasts

C Pigmentocytes and pericytes

D Adipocytes and adventitious cells

E Fibroblasts and labrocytes


In the blood of a 26-year-old man it was revealed 18% of erythrocytes of the spherical,

ball-shaped, flat and thorn-like shape. Other eritrocytes were in the form of the

concavo-concave disks. How is such phenomenon called?

A Physiological poikilocytosis

B Pathological poikilocytosis

C Physiological anisocytosis

D Pathological anisocytosis

E Erytrocytosis


When the pH level of the stomach lumen decreases to less than 3, the antrum of the

stomach releases peptide that acts in paracrine fashion to inhibit gastrin release. This

peptide is:


B Acetylcholine

C Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)

D Somatostatin

E Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)


A 50-year-old male farm worker has been brought to the emergency room. He was found

confused in the orchard and since then has remained unconscious. His heart rate is 45

and his blood pressure is 80/40 mm Hg. He is sweating and salivating profusely. Which of

the following should be prescribed?

A Atropine

B Norepinephrine

C Proserine

D Physostigmine

E Pentamine


A 13-year-old girl with history of asthma complained of cough, dyspnea and wheezing. Her

symptoms became so severe that her parents brought her to the emergency room.

Physical examination revealed diaphoresis, dyspnea, tachycardia and tachypnea. Her

respiratory rate was 42/min, pulse rate was 110 beats per minute, and blood pressure was

130/70 mm Hg. Choose from the following list the most appropriate drug to reverse the

bronchoconstriction rapidly:

A Salbutamol

B Cromolyn

C Beclomethasone

D Methylprednidsolone

E Ipratropium


A doctor administered Allopurinol to a 26-year-old young man with the symptoms of gout.

What pharmacological action of Allopurinol ensures therapeutical effect?

A By inhibiting uric acid synthesis

B By increasing uric acid excretion

C By inhibiting leucocyte migration into the joint

D By general anti-inflammatory effect

E By general analgetic effect


The pulmonalis embolism has suddenly developed in a 40 year-old patient with opened

fracture of the hip. Choose the possible kind of embolism.

A Fat

B Thrombus-embolus

C Air

D Tissue

E Foreign body


Hypertrychosis of auricles is caused by a gene that is localized in Y-chromosome. Father

has this feature. What is the probability to give birth to a boy with such anomaly?

A 100\%

B 0\%

C 25\%

D 35\%

E 75\%


On autopsy a 35-year-old man the focus of carnification 5 cm in diametre enclosed in a

thin capsule was revealed in the second segment of the right lung . The focus consists of

a tough dry friable tissue with a dim surface. For what disease are these morphological

changes typical?

A Tuberculoma

B Lung cancer

C Chondroma

D Tumorous form of silicosis

E Postinflammatory pneumosclerosis


In the microspecimen of red bone marrow there were revealed multiple capillares through

the walls of which mature blood cells penetrated. What type of capillares is it?

A Sinusoidal

B Fenestrational

C Somatical

D Visceral

E Lymphatic


M-r S presents all signs of the hepatic coma: loss of consciousness, absence of reflexes,

cramps, convulsion, disorder of heart activity, recurrent (periodical) respiration. What are

cerebrotoxical substances which accumulate in blood under hepar insufficiency?

A Ammonia

B IL-1

C Autoantibody

D Necrosogenic substances

E Ketonic body


Autopsy of a man who died from chronic cardiacvascular collapse revealed "tiger heart".

Sidewards of endocardium a yellowish-white banding can be seen; myocardium is dull,

dark-yellow. What process caused this pathology?

A Fatty parenchymatous degeneration

B Carbohydrate degeneration

C Hyaline degeneration

D Fatty vascular-stromal degeneration

E Amyloidosis


The low specific gravity of the secondary urine (1002) was found out in the sick person.

Wat is the most distant part of nephron where concentration of secondary urine takes


A In the collecting duck

B In the nephron’s glomerulus

C In proximal tubule of nephron

D In ascending part of loop of Henle

E In distal tubule of nephron


Blood sampling for bulk analysis is recommended to be performed on an empty stomack

and in the morning. What changes in blood composition can occur if to perform blood

sampling after food intake?

A Increased contents of leukocytes

B Increased contents of erythrocytes

C Increased plasma proteins

D Reduced contents of thrombocytes

E Reduced contents of erythrocytes


In the ovary specimen colored with hematoxylin-eosin, follicle is determined where

cubic-shaped follicle epithelium cells are placed in 1-2 layers, and scarlet covering is seen

around ovocyte. Name this follicle:

A Primary

B Primordial

C Secondary

D Mature

E Atretic


Most participants of Magellan expedition to America died from avitominosis. This disease

declared itself by general weakness, subcutaneous hemmorhages, falling of teeth, gingival

hemmorhages. What is the name of this avitiminosis?

A Scurvy

B Pellagra

C Rachitis

D Polyneuritis (beriberi)

E Biermer's anemia


A histological specimen presents a receptor zone of a sensoepithelial sense organ. Cells of

this zone are placed upon the basal membrane and include the following types: external

and internal receptor cells, external and internal phalangeal cell, stem cells, external

limiting cells and external supporting cell. The described receptor zone belongs to the

following sense organ:

A Acoustic organ

B Visual organ

C Gustatory organ

D Equilibrium organ

E Olfactory organ


A patient died 3 days after the operation because of perforated colon with manifestations

of diffuse purulent peritonitis. The autopsy revealed: colon mucos membrane was

thickened and covered with a fibrin film, isolated ulcers penetrated at different depth. The

histology result: mucous membrane necrosis, leukocytes infiltration with hemorrhages

focuses. What disease complication caused the patient's death?

A Dysentery

B Typhoid

C Nonspecific ulcerative colitis

D Crohn's disease

E Amebiasis


A patient was admitted to the hospital with an asphyxia attack provoked by a spasm of

smooth muscles of the respiratory tracts. This attack was mainly caused by alterations in

the following parts of the airways:

A Small bronchi

B Median bronchi

C Large bronchi

D Terminal bronchioles

E Respiratory part


The increased intraocular tension is observed in the patient with glaucoma.Secretion of

aqueous humor by the ciliar body is normal. Injury of what structure of the eyeball wall

caused the disorder of flow-out from the anterior chamber?

A Venous sinus

B Ciliar body

C Choroid

D Ciliary muscle

E Back epithelium of cornea


Examination of a 43 y.o. patient revealed that his stomach has difficulties with digestion of

protein food. Gastric juice analysis revealed low acidity. Function of which gastric cells is

disturbed in this case?

A Parietal exocrinocytes

B Main exocrinocytes

C Mucous cells (mucocytes)

D Endocrinous cells

E Cervical mucocytes


A patient has been given high doses of hydrocortisone for a long time. This caused

atrophy of one of the adrenal cortex zones. Which zone is it?

A Fascial

B Glomerular

C Reticular

D Glomerular and reticular

E -


Low level of albumins and fibrinogen was detected in the patient's blood. Decreased

activity of what organelle of the liver hepatocytes can cause it?

A Granular endoplasmatic net

B Agranular endoplasmatic net

C Mitochondrions

D Golgi complex

E Lysosomes


In a histological specimen parenchyma of an organ is represented by lymphoid tissue that

forms lymph nodes; the latter are arranged in a diffuse manner and enclose a central

artery. What anatomic formation has such morphological structure?

A Spleen

B Tonsil

C Lymph node

D Thymus

E Red bone marrow


A histological specimen of a kidney shows a part of the distal tubule going between the

afferent and efferent arteriole. The cells building the tubule wall have dense nuclei; basal

membrane is absent. Such structural formation is called:

A Macula densa

B Juxtaglomerular cells

C Mesangial cells

D Juxtavascular cells

E -


Patient with injured muscles of the lower extremities was admitted to the traumatological

department. Due to what cells is reparative regeneration of the muscle fibers and

restoration of the muscle function possible?

A Satellite-cells

B Myoblasts

C Myofibroblasts

D Fibroblasts

E Myoepithelial cells


An ovary specimen stained by hematoxylin-eosin presents a follicle, where cells of follicular

epithelium are placed in 1-2 layers and have cubic form, there is a bright-red membrane

around the ovocyte. What follicle is it?

A Primary

B Primordial

C Secondary

D Mature

E Atretic


In course of an experiment a big number of stem cells of red bone marrow was in some way

destructed. Regeneration of which cell populations in the loose connective tissue will be


A Of macrophags

B Of fibroblasts

C Of pigment cells

D Of lipocytes

E Of pericytes


Histological examination of a 40 y.o. man's thymus revealed decreased share of

parenchymatous gland elements, increased share of adipose and loose connective tissue,

its enrichment with thymus bodies. The organ's mass was unchanged. What phenomenon

is it?

A Age involution

B Accidental involution

C Hypotrophy

D Dystrophy

E Atrophy


A histological specimen shows a blood vessel. Its inner coat is composed by endothelium,

subendothelium and internal elastic membrane. The middle coat is enriched with smooth

myocytes. Such morphological characteristics are typical for the following vessel:

A Muscular-type artery

B Elastic-type artery

C Capillary

D Non-muscular vein

E Muscular-type vein


In course of indirect histogenesis of tubular bone tissue a plate is formed between

epiphyseal and diaphyseal ossification centres that provides further lengthwise growth of

bones. What structure is it?

A Metaphyseal plate

B Osseous cuff

C Osseous plate

D Osteon

E Layer of interior general plates


A 2-year-old child has got intestinal dysbacteriosis, which results in hemorrhagic syndrome.

What is the most likely cause of hemorrhage of the child?

A Vitamin K insufficiency

B Activation of tissue thromboplastin

C PP hypovitaminosis

D Fibrinogen deficiency

E Hypocalcemia


Histological specimen presents a vessel the wall of which consists of endothelium, basal

membrane and loose connective tissue. What type of vessel is it?

A Vein of non-muscular type

B Artery

C Vein of muscular type

D Hemocapillary

E Lymphocapillary


A patient died from acute cardiac insufficiency. The histological examination of his heart

revealed the necrotized section in myocardium of the left ventricle, which was separated

from undamaged tissue by the zone of hyperimic vessels, small hemorrhages and

leukocytic infiltration. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A Myocardial infarction

B Myocardial ischemic dystrophy

C Focal exudate myocarditis

D Diffuse exudate myocarditis

E Productive myocarditis


Vitamin $A$ deficit results in the impairment of twilight vision. Name the cells that have the

above-mentioned photoreceptor function:

A Rod receptor cell

B Horizontal neurocytes

C Cone receptor cells

D Bipolar neurons

E Ganglion neurocytes


Kidneys of a man under examination show increased resorbtion of calcium ions and

decreased resorbtion of phosphate ions. What hormone causes this phenomenon?

A Parathormone

B Thyrocalcitonin

C Hormonal form $D_3$

D Aldosterone

E Vasopressin


During pubescence the cells of male sexual glands begin to produce male sex hormon

testosterone that calls forth secondary sexual characters. What cells of male sexual glands

produce this hormone?

A Leidig cells

B Sustentocytes

C Sertoli's cells

D Supporting cells

E Spermatozoa


The specimens present sections of haemopoetic and immunogenetic organs. Organ has

lymph tissue forming different structures (lymph nodes,lobules, bars). In what organ does

antigen-independent proliferation and differantiation take place?

A Thymus

B Lymphatic nodes

C Spleen

D Hemolymph nodes

E Tonsil


A patient with thrombophlebitis of lower extremities had got chest pains, blood spitting,

growing respiratory failure that caused his death. Autopsy revealed multiple pulmonary

infarctions. What is the most probable reason of their development?

A Pulmonary artery embolism

B Pulmonary artery thrombosis

C Bronchial artery thrombosis

D Bronchial artery embolism

E Pulmonary venous thrombosis


A patient complains of dryness of head skin, itching, fragility and loss of hair. After

examination he was diagnosed with seborrhea. Disturbed activity of which cells caused this


A Cells of sebaceous glands

B Cells of sudoriferous glands

C Epithelial cells

D Adipocytes

E Melanocytes


A sensitive neural ganglion consists of roundish neurocytes with one extension that divides

into axon and dendrite at some distance from the perikaryon. What are these cells called?

A Pseudounipolar

B Unipolar

C Bipolar

D Multipolar

E Apolar


An embryo displays disturbed process of dorsal mesoderm segmentation and somite

formation. What part of skin will have developmental abnormalities?

A Derma

B Hair

C Sebaceous glands

D Epidermis

E Sudoriferous glands


A scheme presents an exocrinous gland that has unbranched excretory duct with a terminal

part in form of a saccule openining into the duct. How is this gland called according to the

morphological classification of exocrinous glands?

A Simple unbranched alveolar

B Compound branched alveolar

C Simple branched tubular

D Compound unbranched alveolar

E Compound unbranched alveolar tubular


Roentgenological examination of skull base bones revealed enlargement of sellar cavity,

thinning of anterior clinoid processes, destruction of different parts, destruction of different

parts of sella turcica. Such bone destruction might be caused by a tumour of the following

wndocrinous gland:

A Hypophysis

B Epiphysis

C Thymus gland

D Adrenal glands

E Thyroid gland


Electronic microphotography of pulmonary alveole's wall presents a big cell. Its cytoplasm

has a lot of mitochondria, developed Golgi apparatus, osmiophil lamellated corpuscles.

What is the main function of this cell?

A It produces surfactant

B It is a component of blood-air barrier

C It warms the air

D It purifies the air

E It absorbs microorganisms


A pathological process in bronchi resulted in epithelium desquamation. What cells will

regenerate bronchial epithelium?

A Basal

B Intercalary

C Ciliate

D Endocrinal

E Goblet


A viral infection has damaged cells that form walls of bile capillaries. This stimulated

conditions for inflow of bile into the blood of sinusoidal capillaries. What cells are


A Hepatocytes

B Kupffer's cells

C Ito cells

D Pit-cells

E Endotheliocytes


A histological specimen of spleen shows a vessel with a wall consisting of endothelium and

subendothelial layer, median membrane is absent, exterior membrane inosculates with the

layers of spleen connective tissue. What vessel is it?

A Vein of non-muscular type

B Vein of muscular type

C Artery of muscular type

D Arteriole

E Capillary


In course of a conditional experiment the development of mesenchyma cells was completely

inhibited. Development of the following muscular tissue will be disturbed:

A Smooth muscular tissue

B Neural muscular tissue

C Epidermal muscular tissue

D Cardiac muscular tissue

E Skeletal muscular tissue


A patient ill with chronic gastritis went for endogastric pH-metry that allowed to reveal

decreased acidity of gastric juice. It is indicative of diminished function of the following cells:

A Parietal exocrinocytes

B Chief exocrinocytes

C Endocrinocytes

D Cervical cells

E Accessory cells


Ultramicroscopical examination of "dark" hepatocyte population in the cell cytoplasm

detected a developed granular endoplasmic reticulum. What function has this organella in

these cells?

A Synthesis of blood plasma proteins

B Carbohydrate synthesis

C Deintoxicative function

D Bile production

E Calcium ion depositing


An endocrinal gland with parenchyma consisting of epithelium and neural tissue is under

morphological examination. Epithelial trabecules have two types of cells: chromophilic and

chromophobic. Identify this organ:

A Hypophysis

B Adrenal glands

C Hypothalamus

D Thyroid gland

E Parathyroid gland


A histological specimen presents an artery. One of the membranes of its wall has flat cells

lying on the basal membrane. What type of cells is it?

A Endothelium

B Mesothelium

C Smooth myocytes

D Fibroblasts

E Macrophages


One of sections of central nervous system has layerwise arrangement of neurocytes.

Among them there are cells of the following forms: stellate, fusiform, horizontal, pyramidal.

What section of central nervous system is this structure typical for?

A Cortex of cerebrum

B Spinal cord

C Cerebellum

D Medulla oblongata

E Hypothalamus


Study of fingerprints (dactylography) is used by criminalists for personal identification as

well as for diagnostics of genetic abnormalities, particularly Dawn's disease. What layer of

skin determines individuality of fingerprints?

A Dermopapillary

B Horny

C Reticular

D Clear (stratum lucidum epidermidis)

E Basal


A microspecimen of the submandibular salivary gland shows some basket-shaped cells

concentrated around the acines and excretory ducts. These cells surround bases of the

serous cells and are called myoepitheliocytes. These cells relate to the following tissue:

A Muscular tissue

B Epithelial tissue

C Neural tissue

D Special connective tissue

E Loose fibrous connective tissue


An infectious disease caused contractive activity of muscles that contract and dilate eye

pupil (paralytic state). What functional eye system was damaged?

A Accomodative

B Dioptric

C Ancillary

D Photosensory

E Lacrimal apparatus


3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconТеоретичні питання до головного модуля "цитологія. Ембріологія. Загальна гістологія. Спеціальна гістологія"
Морфофункціональна характеристика будови плазмолеми (елементарна біологічна мембрана, глікокалікс, підмембранній шар)
3. 0 Гістологія 1 icon3. 0 Гістологія 1

3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconПерелік питань до змістового модуля №3 " загальна гістологія. "
Морфофункціональна характеристика перехідного та багатошарового зроговілого епітеліїв
3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconРобоча програма навчальної дисципліни Гістологія з основами цитології та ембріології для студентів за напрямом підготовки 040102-Біологія. 2011. 13 с
Робоча програма навчальної дисципліни Гістологія з основами цитології та ембріології для студентів за напрямом підготовки 040102–Біологія....
3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconПерелік навчально-методичної літератури
Луцик О. Д., Іванова А. Й., Кабак К. С., Чайковський Ю. Б., Гістологія людини. Підручник. Київ „Книга-плюс”, 2010. –с. 592
3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconПерелік навчально-методичної літератури
Луцик О. Д., Іванова А. Й., Кабак К. С., Чайковський Ю. Б., Гістологія людини. Підручник. Київ „Книга-плюс”, 2010. –с. 592
3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconПрограма магістерського спецкурсу
Спецкурс розрахований на студентів, які вже ознайомлені з такими курсами, як гематологія, цитологія, гістологія, біохімія, біофізика,...
3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconКиєво-Могилянська академія”
Спецкурс розрахований на студентів, які вже ознайомлені з такими курсами, як гематологія, цитологія, гістологія, біохімія, біофізика,...
3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconГістологія При електронній мікроскопії нирки виявлені канальці, які вистелені кубічним епітелієм. В епітелії розрізняють світлі та темні клітини.
Епітелії розрізняють світлі та темні клітини. В світлих клітинах мало органел. Цитоплазма
3. 0 Гістологія 1 iconПротокол № від р навчальна програма гістологія з основами ембріології для студентів галузі знань: 0401. Природничі науки напряму підготовки: 040102. Біологія*
Основою будови, функціонування, розвитку І відтворення всього живого є клітина – крихітна грудочка організованої живої речовини,...
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