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6. 0 Патологічна фізіологія

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6.0 Патологічна фізіологія


Patient with hypochromic anemia has splitting hair and loss of hair, increased nail brittling

and taste alteration. What is the mechanism of the development of these symptoms?

A Deficiency of iron-containing enzymes

B Deficiency of vitamin $В_{12}$

C Decreased production of parathyrin

D Deficiency of vitamin А

E Decreased production of thyroid hormones


A 27- year-old woman has dropped penicillin containing eye drops. In few minutes there

appeared feeling of itching, burning of the skin, lips and eyelids edema, whistling cough,

decreasing of BP. What antibodies take part in the development of this allergic reaction?

A IgE and IgG

B IgM and IgG

C IgA and IgM

D IgM and IgD

E IgG and IgD


A patient underwent a surgery for excision of a cyst on pancreas. After this he developed

haemorrhagic syndrome with apparent disorder of blood coagulation. Development of this

complication can be explained by:

A Activation of fibrinolytic system

B Insufficient fibrin production

C Reduced number of thrombocytes

D Activation of anticoagulation system

E Activation of Christmas factor


A 43-year-old patient has thrombopenia, reduction of fibrinogen, products of degradation

of fibrin presented in the blood, petechial haemorrhage along with septic shock. What is

the most likely cause of the changes?

A DIC-syndrom

B Autoimmune thrombocytopenia

C Haemorrhagic diathesis

D Disorder of thrombocytes production

E Exogenous intoxication


Pyruvate concentration in the patient’s urine has increased 10 times from normal amount.

What vitamin deficiency can be the reason of this change:

A Vitamin $B_1$

B Vitamin C

C Vitamin A

D Vitamin E

E Vitamin $B_6$


Person has stable HR, not more than 40 bpm. What is the pacemaker of the heart rhythm

in this person?

A Atrioventricular node

B Sinoatrial node

C His' bundle

D Branches of His' bundle

E Purkinye' fibers


A 32-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with gross bloodloss due to auto

accident trauma. Ps - 110Bpm, RR- 22 pm, BP- 100/60mm Hg. What changes in the blood

will occur in an hour after the bloodloss?

A Hypovolemia

B Erythropenia

C Hypochromia of erythrocytes

D Leukopenia

E Hypoproteinemia


A 70-year-old patient suffers from atherosclerosis complicated by the lower limb thrombosis

that has caused gangrene on his left toes. What is the most likely cause of the thrombosis


A Thrombocyte adhesion

B Prothrombinase activation

C Transformation of prothrombin into thrombin

D Transformation of fibrinogen into fibrin

E Impaired heparin synthesis


ECG of a 44-year-old patient shows signs of hypertrophy of both ventricles and the right

atrium. The patient was diagnosed with the tricuspid valve insufficiency. What pathogenetic

variant of cardiac dysfunction is usually observed in case of such insufficiency?

A Heart overload by volume

B Heart overload by resistance

C Primary myocardial insufficiency

D Coronary insufficiency

E Cardiac tamponade


Shock and signs of acute renal failure (ARF) developed in the patient due to permanent

injury. What is the leading cause of development of ARF in the case?

A Decreased arterial pressure

B Urine excretion violation

C Increased pressure in the nephron capsule

D Increased pressure in the renal arteries

E Decreased oncotic BP


Substitution of the glutamic acid on valine was revealed while examining initial molecular

structure. For what inherited pathology is this typical?

A Sickle-cell anemia

B Thalassemia

C Minkowsky-Shauffard disease

D Favism

E Hemoglobinosis


Inflamation is characterised by increasing penetration of vessels of microcirculation

stream, increasing of their fluid dynamic blood pressure. Increasing of the osmotic

concentration and dispersity of protein structures present in the intercellular fluid. What

kind of edema will appear in this case?

A Mixed

B Hydrodynamic

C Colloid-osmotic

D Lymphogenic

E Membranogenic


Disorder of the airways passage in small and middle bronchi was revealed in the patient.

What disorder of the acid-base equilibrium can be detected in the blood?

A Respiratory acidosis

B Metabolic acidosis

C Respiratory alkalosis

D Metabolic alkalosis

E --


A 62-year-old patient was admitted to the neurological department due to cerebral

haemorrage. Condition is grave. There is observed progression of deepness and

frequency of breath that turnes into reduction to apnoea,and the cycle repeates. What

respiration type has developed in the patient?

A Cheyne-Stockes respiration

B Kussmaul respiration

C Biot's respiration

D Gasping respiration

E Apneustic respiration


In a 45-year-old patient on ECG it was revealed: sinus rhythm, the number of auricular

complexesexceeds number of ventricular complexes; progressing extension of the P-Q

interval from complex to complex; fallout of some ventricular complexes; Р waves and

QRST complexes are without changes. Name the type of heart rhythm disfunction.

A Atrioventricular block of the II degree

B Synoauricular block

C Atrioventricular blockade of the I degree

D Intraatrial block

E Complete atrioventricular block


A 57-year-old patient was admitted to the gastroenterological department with suspicion on

Zollinger-Ellison syndrom because of rapid increase of gastrin level in the blood serum.

What disorder of the secretory function of the stomach is the most likely?

A Hyperacid hypersecretion

B Hyperacid hyposecretion

C Achylia

D Hypoacid hyposecretion

E Hypoacid hypersecretion


A healthy woman has three sons affected by color blindness who were born after her two

marriages. Children both of her husbands are healthy. What is the most possible pattern of

inheritance of this disease?

A X-linked recessive

B Y-linked

C Autosomal recessive

D Autosomal dominant

E X-linked dominant


Upper neck node of sympathetic trunk was removed from the rabbit on experiment.

Reddening and increased temperature of the skin of head is observed. What form of

peripheral circulation of the blood developed in the rabbit?

A Neuroparalytic arterial hyperemia

B Neurotonic arterial hyperemia

C Metabolic arterial hyperemia

D Venous hyperemia

E Stasis


A couple came for medical genetic counseling. The man has hemophilia, the woman is

healthy and there were no cases of hemophilia in her family. What is the risk of having a

sick child in this family?

A 0

B 100\%

C 75\%

D 50\%

E 25\%


Oval and round organelles with double wall are seen at the electron micrograph. The outer

membrane is smooth, the inner membrane folded into cristae contain enzyme ATPase

synthetase. These are:

A Mitochondria

B Golgi complex

C Lysosomes

D Centrioles

E Ribosomes


A tissue sample of benign tumor was studied under the electron microscope. A lot of small

(15-20 nm) spherical bodies, consisting of 2 unequal subunits were detected. These are:

A Ribosomes

B Golgi complex

C Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

D Microtubules

E Mitochondria


A woman who was sick with rubella during the pregnancy gave birth to a deaf child with

hare lip and cleft palate. This congenital defect is an example of:

A Phenocopy

B Edward’s syndrome

C Genocopy

D Patau’s syndrome

E Down’s syndrome


A woman who was infected with toxoplasmosis during the pregnancy has a child with

multiple congenital defects.This is a result of:

A Teratogenesis

B Cancerogenesis

C Biological mutogenesis

D Chemical mutogenesis

E Recombination


A patient with tissue trauma was taken a blood sample for the determination of blood

clotting parameters. Specify the right sequence of extrinsic pathway activation.

A III – VIIa – Xa

B III – IV – Xa

C IV – VIII: TF – Xa

D IV – VIIa – Xa



In result of the damage of one of the Atomic Power Plant reacttor the run-out of

radioelements happened. People in the increased radiation zone were radiated with

approximately 250-300 r. They were immediately hospitalized. What changes in the blood

count would be typical?

A Lymphopenia

B Leukopenia

C Anemia

D Thrombopenia

E Neutropenia


Dystrophic changes of the heart muscle are accompanied with cardiac cavity enlargement,

decrease of the strength of heart contraction, increased amount of blood, which remains in

the heart during systolic phase, overfilled veins. For what state of heart is it characteristic?

A Myogenic dilatation

B Tonogenic dilatation

C Emergency stage of hyperfunction and hypertrophy

D Cardiosclerosis

E Tamponage of the heart


Transmural myocardial infarction in the patient was complicated with progressive acute left

ventricle insufficiency. What is the most typical for this state?

A Edema of the lungs

B Edema of the extremities

C Cyanosis

D Ascites

E Arterial hypertension


Arterial hypertention is caused by the stenosis of the renal arteries in the patient. Activation

of what system is the main link in the pathogenesys of this form of hypertension?

A Renin-angiotensin

B Sympathoadrenal

C Parasympathetic

D Kallikrein-kinin

E Hypothalamic-pituitary


A 12-year-old boy often suffers from virus and bacterial infections and eczematous skin

lesions. Enlargement of T-lymphocytes and IgM with normal IgA and IgG was revealed on

examination. What type of immune system pathology is presented in the patient?

A Composite immunedefficiency

B Hypoplasia of thymus

C Bruton's hypogammaglobulinemia

D Turner's syndrome

E Hereditary immundeficiency of the complement system


Patient with diabetes didn't get insulin injection in time that caused hyperglycemic coma

(glucose in the blood 50mmol/L). What mechanism is prevalent in the development of the


A Hyperosmia

B Hypokaliemia

C Hypoxia

D Hyponatremia

E Acidosis


Necrosis focus appeared in the area of hyperemia and skin edema in few hours after burn.

What mechanism strengthens destructive events in the inflammation area?

A Secondary alteration

B Primary alteration

C Emigration of lymphocytes

D Diapedesis of erythrocytes

E Proliferation of fibroblasts


Processes of repolarisation are disturbed in ventricular myocardium in examined person. It

will cause amplitude abnormalities of configuration and duration of the wave:







On simulation of inflammation of the lower extremity the animal exrerienced raise of the

temperature, increase of amount of antibodies and leucocytes in the blood. What

substances caused this general reaction of the organism on inflammation?

A Interleukin

B Glucocorticoid

C Mineralcorticoid

D Leucotriens

E Somatomedins


A 68-year-old woman can't move by the upper and lower right extremities due to insult.

Muscle tone of these extremities and reflexes are increased. There are pathological

reflexes. What form of the paralysis is it?

A Hemiplegia

B Paraplegia

C Tetraplegia

D Monoplegia

E Dissociation


After a serious psycho-emotional stress a 45-year-old patient suddenly felt constricting

heart pain irradiating to the left arm, neck and left scapula. His face turned pale, the cold

sweat stood out on it. The pain attack was stopped with nitroglycerine. What process has

developed in this patient?

A Stenocardia

B Myocardial infarction

C Stroke

D Psychogenic shock

E Stomach ulcer perforation


Periodic renal colics attackes are observed in the woman with primery hyperparathyroidizm.

Ultrasonic examination revealed small stones in the kidneys. What is the cause of the

formation of the stones?

A Hypercalcemia

B Hyperphosphatemia

C Hypercholesterinemia

D Hyperuricemia

E Hyperkalemia


While having the dinner the child choked and aspirated the food. Meavy cough has started,

skin and mucose are cyanotic, rapid pulse, rear breathing, expiration is prolonged. What

disorder of the external breathing developed in the child?

A Stage of expiratory dyspnea on asphyxia

B Stage of inspiratory dyspnea on asphyxia

C Stenotic breathing

D Alternating breathing

E Biot's breathing


Chronic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed in a 34-year-old patient 3 years ago. Edema

has developed in the last 6 monthes. What caused it?

A Proteinuria

B Hyperproduction of vasopressin

C Disorder of albuminous kidneys function

D Hyperosmolarity of plasma

E Hyperaldosteronism


While playing volleyball a sportsman made a jump and landed on the outside edge of his

foot. He felt acute pain in the talocrural joint, active movements are limited, passive

movements are unlimited but painful. A bit later there appeared a swelling in the area of

external ankle, the skin became red and warm. What type of peripheral circulation

disturbance is the case?

A Arterial hyperemia

B Stasis

C Embolism

D Venous hyperemia

E Thrombosis


Having helped to eliminate consequences of a failure at a nuclear power plant, a worker

got an irradiation doze of 500 roentgen. He complains of headache, nausea, dizziness.

What changes in leukocytes quantity can be expected 10 hours after irradiation?

A Neutrophilic leukocytosis

B Lymphocytosis

C Leukopenia

D Agranulocytosis

E Leukemia


A 12 y.o. boy who suffers from bronchial asthma has an acute attack of asthma: evident

expiratory dyspnea, skin pallor. What type of alveolar ventilation disturbance is it?

A Obstructive

B Restrictive

C Throracodiaphragmatic

D Central

E Neuromuscular


A 46-year-old patient suffering from the diffuse toxic goiter underwent resection of the

thyroid gland. After the surgery the patient presents with appetite loss, dyspepsia,

increased neuromuscular excitement. The body weight remained unchanged. Body

temperature is normal. Which of the following has caused such a condition in this patient?

A Reduced production of parathormone

B Increased production of thyroxin

C Increased production of calcitonin

D Increased production of thyroliberin

E Reduced production of thyroxin


To prevent the transplant rejection after organ transplantation it is required to administer

hormonotherapy for the purpose of immunosuppression. What hormones are used for this


A Glucocorticoids

B Mineralocorticoids

C Sexual hormones

D Catecholamines

E Thyroid


A patient caught a cold after which there appeared facial expression disorder. He cannot

close his eyes, raise his eyebrows, bare his teeth. What nerve is damaged?

A Facial

B Vagus

C Trigeminus

D Glossopharyngeal

E Infraorbital

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