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MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF UKRAINE

BUKOVINIAN STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY


Approval on methodological meeting

of the department of pathophisiology

Protocol №

Chief of department of the pathophysiology,

professor Yu.Ye.Rohovyy

“___” ___________ 2008 year.


Methodological Instruction

to Practical Lesson



Мodule 1 : GENERAL PATHOLOGY.


Contenting module 1. General nosology.


Theme1: Disease


Chernivtsi – 2008

1.Actuality of the theme. In everyday practical activity doctor always takes into account of illness nature and peculiarities of it course. This is important for planning of prophylactic arrangements, diagnosis rising, selection of medical drugs. In illness is distinguished two process: а) damage property illness; b) physiological measure against illness that is complex of protective compensatory-adaptation reactions. The protective reactions perform with nervous, endocrine, immune and other systems. With their help an organism resists to pathogenic factors and restores broken functions. We can train to heighten these reactions, to make them more powerful and firm. For this make use of special loadings, tempering, and physiotherapy procedures. By protective reactions one can be governed also by the medium of medical drugs. Aim of such arrangements is rising of individual organism resistance to effect of harmful agents.

^ 2.Length of the employment – 2 hours.

3.Aim:

To khow such terms as the "health", "norm", "disease", "pathological process", and «pathological condition".

To be able: a) The modeling of various forms of pathologic processes, protective and adaptive reactions of humans; b) Experimental therapy as an important method of studying and introducing the new ways of treatment; c) Clinical studying of various diseases with functional, biochemical, immunological and other tests due to pathophysiology groundation therapy.

^ To perform practical work: To analyse the four stages of disease:

latent period (incubation period of the infectious diseases)

prodromal one

the period of expressed manifestations

the outcome of the disease.

To analyse:

pathologic process

pathologic condition

Pathologic process is a combination of pathologic and protective reactions in the damaged organs or organism. The simplest form of the pathological process is called "pathologic reaction"(hyperemia, ischemia and other).

Pathologic condition is reflected dynamic development of pathologic process. It develops slowly (for example condition after amputation of foot, resection of the stomach).

4. Basic level.

The name of the previous disciplines

The receiving of the skills

  1. histology

  2. biochemistry

  3. physiology

Methods of surrounding sphere phenomena cognition. Definition a notion “health”. Physiological regulation of the organism functions. Neurohumoral regulation of breathing mechanism



^ 5. The advices for students.

1. Term definition - what is pathophysiology?

Pathophysiology — it is the study of the mechanisms underlying disease. The study of pathophysiology is an essential introduction to clinical medicine and serves as a bridge between the basic sciences and disease. This study describes how and why the symptoms and signs of various conditions appear. Pathophysiology learns the general processes for all the diseases or for some groups of diseases.

^ 2. Why is pathophysiology important? Pathophysiology learns the general mechanisms underlying the disease and its clinical manifestations so that rational therapy can be devised.

3. Name the methods and the aims of pathophysiology. Pathophysiology can use the following methods : 1) The modeling of various forms of pathologic processes, protective and adaptive reactions of humans. 2) Experimental therapy as an important method of studying and introducing the new ways of treatment. 3) Clinical studying of various diseases with functional, bioche­mical, immunological and other testes due to pathophysiology groundation therapy.

The main aims of pathophysiology are: 1) To define the external and internal causes of a disease, the effect of pathologic factors of environment upon the human organism. 2) To learn the general laws of the patient resistance, adaptation reactions and mechanisms of reconvalescence. 3) To form the student's conception about the disease, pathologic process, pathologic state and its mechanisms. 4) To learn the typical pathologic processes such as inflammation, tumor, fever, hypoxia, allergy, chock and others. 5) Summarizing all these conceptions will be used to create the modern medical technologies.

4. The connect between the pathophysiology and other disciplines.

^ CLINICAL DISCIPLINES

5. General pathophysiology, special or systemic and clinical pathophysiology. Traditionally, the study of pathophysiology is divided into two general disciplines: The General Pathophysiology and Special or Systemic and Clinical Pathophysiology. The general pathophysiology focuses on injurious stimuli undergoing on the cells, tissues, organs and the whole organism (etiological factor) and also on mechanisms of the development of pathological process, its conditions and diseases (pathogenesis). The role of self-defense mechanisms (heredity, constitution, reactivity, immunity, sex, age). The general studies of disease, the determination of "the disease".

Special and clinical pathophysiology have to learn morphological, biochemical, functional disorders in different organs and systems (pathophysiologic alterations) and underground of therapy.



^ 6. What is general nosology? The general nosology includes such terms as "the health", "norm", "disease", "pathological process", 'pathological reaction", " patho­logical condition".

7. What does the health norm mean? The health — is a condition of total physical, spiritual and social well-doing, but not only the absence of disease and physical defects (World Health Organization, 1946). The health is the life of the human, who is able to work and adapted to the changes of environment (I. Petrov).

By N. Zaiko — the health is the organism's normal condition, its structure and functions correspond to each other and its regulatory systems are able to support the homeostasis.

The norm — it is the biologic optimum of functioning and developing of the organism.

^ 8. Give the definition of the disease. The disease is a disturbance of normal activity of the human organism under the influence of injurious agents, it is characterized by the limitation of adaptation of the ability to work, the damage of organism's life. The disease is a new complicated process in the organism with the two quite opposite processes: 1) "the measure against the disease" (by I.Pavlov) — it means the compensatory and protective reactions 2) "pathologic process proper". So, the disease is a unity of opposites, which always fight (law of dialectics). The doctor must find out pathologic process the proper and stimulate the protection. There are four stages of disease: 1) latent period (incubation period of the infectious diseases) 2) prodromal one 3) the period of expressed manifestations 4) the outcome of the disease

^ 9. Give the characteristics of the pathologic process and pathologic condition. The disease consist of : a) pathologic process b) pathologic condition Pathologic process is a combination of pathologic and protective reactions in the damaged organs or organism. Pathologic condition is reflected dynamic development of pathologic process. It develops slowly ( for example condition after amputation of foot, resection of the stomach).

^ 5.1. Content of the theme. Term definition – what is pathophisiology? Why is pathophisiology important? Name the methods and the aims of pathophisiology. The connect between the pathophysiology and other disciplines. General pathophisiology, special or systemic and clinical pathophysiology. Term definition – what is health, norm, disease? Pathological process and pathological condition".

^ 5.2. Control questions of the theme:

  1. Term definition – what is pathophysiology?

  2. Why is pathophysiology important?

  3. Name the methods and the aims of pathophysiology.

  4. The connect between the pathophysiology and other disciplines.

  5. General pathophysiology, special or systemic and clinical pathophysiology.

  6. What is general nosology?

  7. What does the health norm mean?

  8. Give the definition of the disease.

  9. Give the characteristics of the pathologic process and pathologic condition.


^ 5.3. Practice Examination.

Find the most correct answer:

A. Pneumoffla B. Inflammation C. Ischemic spasm of arterioles D. State after amputation of foot E. Fever F. Redness G. Diabetes mellitus H.Allergy

I. State after resection of stomach

^ 1. Disease 2. Pathologic process 3. Pathologic condition 4. Pathologic reaction

What is true A. It learns the common processes of all the diseases or for some groups of diseases. The main goal is to learn all the signs of disease, to find the laws of their development C. The aim is the treatment and prophylaxis D. The aim is to study the healthy organism, its regulatory systems, which are supported by homeostasis.

^ 5. Normal physiology 6. Pathophysiology 7. Clinical medicine

Find the most appropriate factor

A. Trauma B. X-ray C. Narcotics D. Streptococcus E. Malnutrition

F. Environment (the pollution of nature, oxygen and clean water deficit)

^ 8. The cause 9. The condition

Find the most appropriate agent of the external and internal groups of etiologic factors:

A. Viruses B. Microorganisms C. Heredity D. Sex E. Medicines F. Alcohol G. Trauma H. Constitution I. Temperature

10. External factors 11. Internal factors

12. The outcomes of the disease may be except A. Recovery (complete, incomplete) B. The turning to the prodromal period C. The turning to the pathologic condition D. The death

^ 13. It is well-known the death is one of the outcomes of the disease. What stages the doctor cannot return the patient to life in?

A. Preagony B. Agony C. Clinical death D. Biological death

Give the most appropriate characteristics

A. Constant interaction of organism with the changeable environmental factor B. The disturbance of life-activity C. Low human ability to work D. The most valuable participation in social life E. Badly adapted to the influence of extreme factors

^ 14. Health 15. Disease 16. There ate all the internal conditions, which favour the disease, except:

A. Congenital predisposing B. Pathological constitution (diathesis) C. Early childhood D. Neuroemo­tional stress E. Older age

17. The external condition, which prevent the disease are the following, except:

A. Good feeding B. Appropriate working conditions C. Physical training

D. Older age E. High nervous tension

18. Practice examination (continuation).

What part of pathogenesis of hyperthermia is necessary for elimination of pathologic process and restoration of homeostasis?




Literature:

1. Gozhenko A.I., Makulkin R.F., Gurcalova I.P. at al. General and clinical pathophysiology/ Workbook for medical students and practitioners.-Odessa, 2001.- P.11-20.

2. Gozhenko A.I., Gurcalova I.P. General and clinical pathophysiology/ Study guide for medical students and practitioners.-Odessa, 2003.- P.5-9.

3. Robbins Pathologic basis of disease.-6th ed./Ramzi S.Cotnar, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins.-Philadelphia, London, Toronto, Montreal, Sydney, Tokyo.-1999.

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