Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university icon

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university




Скачати 45.51 Kb.
НазваMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university
Дата21.06.2012
Розмір45.51 Kb.
ТипДокументи

MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF UKRAINE

BUKOVINIAN STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY


Approval on methodological meeting

of the department of pathophisiology

Protocol №

Chief of department of the pathophysiology,

professor Yu.Ye.Rohovyy

“___” ___________ 2008 year.


Methodological Instruction

to Practical Lesson



Мodule 1 : GENERAL PATHOLOGY.

Contenting module 2. Typical pathological processes.


Theme7: Cell injury-1


Chernivtsi – 2008

1.Actuality of the theme. Knowledge of the structural and functional reactions of cells and tissues to injurious agents, including genetic defects, is the key for the understanding of disease processes. Currently diseases are defined and interpreted in molecular terms and not just in general descriptions of altered structure. Altered cellular and tissue biology can be the result of adaptation, injury, neoplasia, aging, or death. Adaptation occurs in response to both normal, or physiologic, conditions and adverse, or pathologic, conditions. For example, the uterus adapts to pregnancy – a normal physiologic state – by enlarging. Enlargement occurs because of an increase in the size and number of uterine cells. In an adverse condition, such as high blood pressure, myocardial cells are stimulated to enlarge by the increased work of pumping. Like most of the body’s adaptive mechanisms, however, cellular adaptations to adverse conditions are usually only temporarily successful. Severe or long-term stressors overwhelm adaptive processes, and cellular injury or death ensues.

Cellular injury can be caused by any factor that disrupts cellular structures or deprives the cell of oxygen and nutrients required for survival. Injury may be reversible (sublethal) or irreversible (lethal) and is classified broadly as chemical, hypoxic (lack of sufficient oxygen), free radical, or infectious. Cellular injuries from various causes have different clinical and pathophysiologic manifestations.

Cellular death is confirmed by structural changes seen when cells are stained and examined under a microscope. No biochemical indicators of cellular death are universally applicable because we still do not know precisely what biochemical functions must be compromised before a cell dies.

Cellular aging causes structural and functional changes that eventually lead to cellular death or a decreased capacity to recover from injury. Mechanisms explaining how and why cells age are not known, and distinguishing between pathologic changes and physiologic changes that occur with aging is often difficult. Aging clearly causes alterations in cellular structure and function, yet senescence is both inevitable and normal.

The intact, normally functioning plasma membrane is selectively permeable to substances; it allows some substances to pass and excludes others. Water and small, uncharged substances move through pores of the lipid bilayer by passive transport, which requires no expenditure of energy. This process is driven by the forces of osmosis, hydrostatic pressure, and diffusion. Larger molecules and molecular complexes are moved into the cell by active transport, which requires the expenditure of energy, or adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), by the cell. In active transport, materials move from low concentrations to high concentrations. The largest molecules and fluids are ingested by endocytosis and expulsed by exocytosis after cellular synthesis of smaller building blocks. When the plasma membrane is injured, it becomes permeable to virtually everything and substances move into and out of the cells in an unrestricted manner. Notably, such substances may affect (a) the nucleus and its genetic information or (b) the cytoplasmic organelles and their varied functions; then, there is altered cellular physiology and pathology.

Homeostasis is the concept of a dynamic steady state, turnover of bodily substances that maintains physiologic parameters within narrow limits. Stressors cause reactions that alter this dynamic steady state or homeostasis. Deviations from normal values, or homeostasis, cause disease.

^ 2.Length of the employment – 2 hours.

3.Aim:

To khow the cell responses on injury.

To be able: to analyse of the cellular adaptations occurring in atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia

To perform practical work: describe the cell responces on injury



4. Basic level.

The name of the previous disciplines


The receiving of the skills

  1. histology

  2. biochemistry

  3. physiology

Types and sources of radial energy.

Properties of ionizing rays.

Use of X-rays and radioactive elements in popular equipment and medicine.

Main measures safety due to deal with X rays and radioactive particles.

Ecological catastrophes with radioactive environment pollution.

Blood cells and methods of their count.

Bioelectrical activity of central nervous system and its registration.



^ 5. The advices for students.

Describe the cellular adaptations occurring in atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia. Identify conditions under which each can occur. When confronted with stresses that disrupt normal structure and function, the cell undergoes adaptive changes that permit survival and maintain function. An adapted cell is neither normal nor injured – it is somewhere between these two states. These changes may lead to atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, or dysplasia. These adaptive responses occur in response to need and an appropriate stimulus. Once the need is no longer present, the adaptive response ceases.

^ 1. Cellular atrophy decreases the cell substance and results in cell shrinkage. The size of all the structural components of the cell usually decreases as the cell atrophies. Causes of atrophy include disuse, denervation, lack of endocrine stimulation, decreased nutrition, or ischemia. Disuse atrophy is seen in muscles that are not used. Denervation atrophy occurs in the muscles of paralyzed limbs. Lack of endocrine stimulation causes changes that may occur in reproductive structures during menopause. During prolonged periods of malnutrition, the body may undergo a generalized wasting of tissue mass. Ischemia reduces blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues.

2. Hypertrophy increases the amount of functioning mass by increasing cell size. This allows the cell to achieve an equilibrium between demand and function. Hypertrophy usually is seen in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. These tissues cannot adapt to increased workload by mitosis to form more cells. The increase in cell components is related to limitations in blood flow. Hypertrophy may be either physiologic or pathologic. In myocardial hypertrophy, initial enlargement is caused by dilation of the cardiac chambers in response to valvular disease or hypertension. This adaptation is short-lived and is followed by increased synthesis of cardiac muscle proteins that allows cardiac muscle fibers to do more work. Ultimately, advanced hypertrophy becomes pathologic and can lead to heart failure.

3. Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells of a tissue or organ. It occurs in tissues where cells are capable of mitotic division. Hyperplasia is a controlled response to an appopriate stimulus and ceases once the stimulus has been removed. Breast and uterine enlargement during pregnancy are examples of a physiologic hyperplasia that is hormonally regulated. A pathologic hyperplasia occurs when the endometrium enlarges because of excessive estrogen production. Then, the abnormally thickened uterine layer may bleed excessively and frequently. Compensatory hyperplasia enables certain organs, like the liver, to regenerate after loss of substance.

4. Dysplasia is deranged cell growth that results in cells that vary in size, shape, and appearance of mature cells and is related to hyperplasia. Minor degrees of dysplasia occur in association with chronic irritation or inflammation in the uterine cervix, oral cavity, gallbladder, and respiratory passages. Dysplasia is potentially reversible once the irritating cause has been removed. Dysplastic changes may progress to neoplastic disease. This makes dysplasia a phenomenon of importance.

5. Metaplasia is a reversible conversion from one adult cell type to another adult cell type. It allows for replacement with cells that are better able to tolerate environmental stresses. In metaplasia, one type of cell may be converted to another type of cell within its tissue class (i. e., an epithelial cell cannot change to a connective tissue cell). An example of metaplasia is the substitution of stratified squamous epithelial cells for ciliated columnar epithelial cells in the airways of the person who is a habitual cigarette smoker.

6. Identify the mechanism of cellular injury for the following causes:hypoxia, chemicals; infectious agents, immunological and inflammatory responses, genetic factors, nutritional imbalances, ionizing radiation, and physical trauma.

Hypoxia deprives the cell of oxygen and interrupts oxidative metabolism and the generation of ATP. As oxygen tension within the cell reverts to anaerobic metabolism. One of the earliest effects of reduced ATP is acute cellular swelling caused by failure of the sodium-potassium membrane pump, intracellular potassium levels decrease and sodium and water accumulate within the cell. As fluid and ions move into the cell, there is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum, increased membrane permeability, and decreased mitochondrial function as extracellular calcium accumulates in the mitochondria. If the oxygen supply is not restored, there is continued loss of essential enzymes, proteins, and ribonucleic acid through the very permeable membrane of the cell. Hypoxia can result from inadequate oxygen in the air, respiratory disease, decreased blood flow due to circulatory disease, anemia, or inability of the cell to use oxygen.

An important mechanism of membrane damage is caused by free radicals, especially by activated oxygen species. A free radical is an atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron. The unpaired electron makes the atom or group unstable. To gain stability, the radical gives up an electron to another molecule or steals an electron. These radicals can bond with protein, lipids, and carbohydrates, which are key molecules in membranes and nucleic acids. These reactive species cause injury by (1) lipid peroxidation, which destroys unsaturated fatty acids, (2) fragmentation of polypeptide chains within proteins, and (3) alteration of DNA by breakage of single strands. Free radicals are difficult to control, and they initiated within cells by the absorption of ultraviolet light or x-rays, oxidative reactions that occur during normal metabolism, and enzymatic metabolism of exogenous chemicals or drugs.

Toxic chemical agents can injury the cell membrane and cell structures, block enzymatic pathways, coagulate cell proteins, and disrupt the osmotic and ionic balance of any cell. Chemicals may injure cells during the process of metabolism or elimination. Carbon tetrachloride, for example, causes little damage until it is metabolized by liver enzymes to a highly reactive free radical and then it is extremely toxic to liver cells. Carbon monoxide has a special affinity for the hemoglobin molecule and reduces its ability to carry oxygen.

Alcohol (ethanol) is the favorite mood-altering drug in the United States and other countries. Liver and nutritional disorders are serious consequences of alcohol abuse. The hepatic changes, initiated by ethanol conversion to acetaldehyde, include deposition of fat, enlargement of the liver, interruption of transport of proteins and their secretion, increase in intracellular water, depression of fatty acid oxidation, increased membrane rigidity, and acute cell necrosis. In the CNS, alcohol is a depressing agent initially affecting subcortical structures. Consequently, motor and intellectual activity become disoriented. At high blood alcohol levels, respiratory medullary centers become depressed.

Lead likely acts on the CNS by interference with neurotransmitters; this may cause hyperactive behavior. Manifestations of brain involvement include convulsions and delirium. Peripheral nerve involvement may cause wrist, finger, and foot paralysis. Lead inhibits enzymes involved in hemoglobin synthesis; anemia is seen in lead toxicity.

Infectious agents produce injury by invading and destroying cells, producing toxins, or inducing hypersensitivity reactions.

Immunologic and inflammatory injury is an important cause of cellular injury. Cellular membranes are injured by direct contact with cellular and chemical components of the immune and inflammatory responses. Such mediators are lymphocytes and macrophages and chemicals such as histamine, antibodies, lymphokines, complement, and proteases. Complement, a serum protein, is responsible for many of the membrane alterations that occur during immunologic injury. Membrane alterations are associated with rapid leakage of potassium out of the cell and rapid influx of water. Antibodies can interfere with membrane function by binding to and occupying receptor molecules on the plasma membrane.

  1. Identification the mechanism of cellular injury for the following causes: genetic factors, nutritional imbalances, ionizing radiation and physical trauma.

Genetic disorders may alter the cell nucleus and the plasma membrane structure, shape, receptors, or transport mechanisms.

Nutritional imbalances are important because cells require adequate amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and mineral substances normally. If inadequate or excessive amounts of nutrients are consumed and transported, pathophysiologic cellular effects can develop.

Proteins are the major structural units of the cell and participate in many enzymatic and hormonal functions. With lowered plasma proteins, particularly albumin, fluids move into the interstitium and produce edema. Children suffering from protein malnutrition are very susceptible to and often die from infectious diseases.

Glucose is the major carbohydrate obtained from the breakdown of starch. Hyperglycemia, excessive glucose in the blood, if caused by excessive carbohydrate intake may lead to obesity. Deficiencies of glucose result from starvation or from inadequate use, as in diabetes. In both of these conditions, the body compensates by metabolizing lipids to obtain cellular energy. In lipid deficiency, the body compensates by mobilizing fatty acids from adipose tissue. This causes an increase in the production and circulation of acidic ketone bodies. Severe increases in ketone bodies can cause coma or death. Hyperlipidemia, or an increase in lipoproteins in the blood, results in deposits of fat in the heart, liver, and muscle.

Vitamins are involved in many reactions including metabolism of visual pigments (vitamin A), calcium and phosphate metabolism (vitamin D), prothrombin synthesis (vitamin K), and antioxidation reactions (vitamin E). Vitamin B affects amino acid transfer reactions; FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), FMN (flavin mononucleotide), and NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) help transfer electrons. Deficiencies in vitamin C cause poor wound healing and scurvy. Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets and problems with healing of fractures. Folate deficiency is associated with plasma and membrane changes of the red blood cell and is particularly a problem in individuals with severe liver dysfunction. Vitamin deficiencies are associated with several other disease states including cancer.

Injurious physical agents include temperature extremes, changes in atmospheric pressure, radiation, illumination, mechanical factors, noise, and prolonged vibration. Physical injury is often environmental.

The temperature extremes of chilling or freezing of cells cause hypothermic injury directly by creating high intracellular sodium concentration. This results from the formation and dissolution of ice crystals. Indirect forms of injury like vasoconstriction paralyze vasomotor control and vasodilation follows with increased membrane permeability.

This causes cellular and tissue swelling. Hyperthermic injury, from excessive heat, varies depending on the nature, intensity, and duration of the heat. Burns cause extensive loss of fluids and plasma proteins. Also, intense heat damages temperature-sensitive enzymes and the vascular endothelium and causes coagulation of the blood vessels.

Sudden increases or decreases in atmospheric pressure cause blast injury. In air blast or explosive injuries, tissue injury is due to compressed waves of air against the body. The pressure changes may collapse the thorax, rupture solid internal organs, or cause widespread hemorrhage. In increased pressure caused by immersion blast, water pressure is applied suddenly to the body, and the body is forced up out the water. The positive pressure compresses the abdomen and ruptures hollow internal organs such as the spleen, kidneys, and liver. With sudden decreases in pressure, carbon dioxide and nitrogen normally dissolved in the blood leave solution and form tiny bubbles, gas emboli, which obstruct blood vessels. This is seen in rapidly ascending deep sea divers and underwater workers. At low atmospheric pressure, such as occurs at altitudes above 15,000 feet, there is a decrease in available oxygen; this causes hypoxic injury. The compensatory vasoconstriction shunts the blood from the peripheral circulation to the visceral organs including the lungs. The combination of increases in pulmonary blood flow and systemic hypoxic cause pulmonary edema, interstitial water excess.

Ionizing radiation is any form of radiation capable of removing orbital electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation is emitted by x-rays, gamma rays, and the process of radioactive decay. Radiant energy from sunlight can also injury cells. DNA is the most vulnerable target of radiation, particularly the bonds within the DNA molecule. Irradiation during mitosis produces chromosome abberation and other cell injury and enzymes are also damaged by radiation. Radiosensitivity depends on the rate of mitosis and cellular maturity. The more numerous the mitotic figures, the greater the sensitivity; more maturity, less sensitivity. Particularly vulnerable cells of the bone marrow, intestinal, and ovarian follicles are susceptible to injury because they are always undergoing mitosis.

^ 5.1. Content of the theme. Cellular atrophy.Hypertrophy. Hyperplasia.

Dysplasia. Metaplasia. Identification the mechanism of cellular injury for the following causes: hypoxia, chemicals; infectious agents, immunological and inflammatory responses. Identification the mechanism of cellular injury for the following causes:genetic factors, nutritional imbalances, ionizing radiation and physical trauma.

^ 5.2. Control questions of the theme:

1. Cellular atrophy.

2. Hypertrophy.

3. Hyperplasia.

4. Dysplasia.

5. Metaplasia.

  1. Identification the mechanism of cellular injury for the following causes:

hypoxia, chemicals; infectious agents, immunological and inflammatory responses.

  1. Identification the mechanism of cellular injury for the following causes:

genetic factors, nutritional imbalances, ionizing radiation and physical trauma.

^ 5.3. Practice Examination.

I. Circle the correct answer or answers for each question.

1. What are the consequences when a cell is forced into anaerobic glycolysis?

A. Insufficient glucose production B. Excessive pyruvic acid retention C.Increased lactic acid D. Inadequate ATP production E. Excessive CO2 production.

2. What is the probable cause of cellular swelling in the early stages of cell injury? A. Fat inclusion B. Loss of genetic integrity C. Hydrolytic enzyme activation D. Na-K pump fails to remove intracellular Na+ E. None of the above is correct.

3. Calcification:

A. Alters memebrane permeability B. Is the result of many enzymes in the blood C. Is observed in chronic lesions D. Both A and C are correct E. A, B, and C are correct.

4. Cellular swelling is: A. Irreversible B. Evident early in all types of cellular injury C. Manifested by decreased intracellular sodium D. None of the above is correct E. Both B and C are correct.

5. Which is irreversible? A. Karyolysis B. Fatty infiltration C. Hydropic degeneration D. All of the above are reversible.

6. Aging:

A. Likely involves autoantibodies B. Does not have a genetic relationship C. Is more advanced in primitive societies D. None of the above is correct E. A, B, and C are correct.

7. In the theories of aging, cross-linking implies that: A. The life span and number of times a cell can replicate are programmed B. The number of cell doublings is limited C. There is oxygen toxicity D. Cell permeability decreases E. Both A and B are correct.

II. Match the descriptor with its appropriate condition.

A. Liquefactive B. Rigor mortis C. Caseous D. Hyperplasia E. Metaplasia F.Cellular swelling G. Coagulation

8. Increased tissue mass because of increased cell numbers

9. Necrosis resulting from lysosomal release

10. Replacement of one cell type with another, more suitable

III. Match the condition with the circumstance.

A. Fatty necrosis B. Gangrene C. Atrophy D. Caseous necrosis E. Apoptosis

F. Algor mortis G. Hypertrophy

11. Decreased cell size

12. Normal and pathologic cellular self-destruction

IV. Match the cause with its consequence.

A. Carbon monoxide B. Oxygen-deprived free radicals C. Ethanol D. Lead

E. Detached ribosomes F. Increased lactate G. Lysosomal edema

13. Lipid peroxidation

14. Asphyxiation

15. Depressed fatty acid oxidation

16. Depressed protein synthesis

V. Match the following.

A. Anoxia B. Melanin C. Lipids D. Hypoxia E. Calcium

17. Reduced oxygen tension

18. Accumulates in mitochondria


Literature:

1. Gozhenko A.I., Makulkin R.F., Gurcalova I.P. at al. General and clinical pathophysiology/ Workbook for medical students and practitioners.-Odessa, 2001.- P.35-44.

2. Gozhenko A.I., Gurcalova I.P. General and clinical pathophysiology/ Study guide for medical students and practitioners.-Odessa, 2003.- P. 27-39.

3. Robbins Pathologic basis of disease.-6th ed./Ramzi S.Cotnar, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins.-Philadelphia, London, Toronto, Montreal, Sydney, Tokyo.-1999.

Схожі:

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine Bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine Bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine Bukovinian state medical university

Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:
Документи


База даних захищена авторським правом ©zavantag.com 2000-2013
При копіюванні матеріалу обов'язкове зазначення активного посилання відкритою для індексації.
звернутися до адміністрації
Документи