Historical ways of formation of the ukrainian culture. Concept of \"culture\" There is a great number of various concepts of culture, however the most recognized one is the following icon

Historical ways of formation of the ukrainian culture. Concept of "culture" There is a great number of various concepts of culture, however the most recognized one is the following




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HISTORICAL WAYS OF FORMATION OF THE UKRAINIAN CULTURE. CONCEPT OF "CULTURE"

1. There is a great number of various concepts of culture, however the most recognized one is the following:

A. Set of material values created by man

B. Kind of scientific activity of a person

C. Set of material and spiritual values created by man

D. Kind of technical activity of a person

2. Culture is the subject of study of many sciences. One of which includes History of Culture. What is the object of its study?

A. Natural laws of cultural development

B. Practical and transforming activity of all the aspects of life of society since the ancient times

C. Natural laws of development of human society

D. Material values created by man

E. Spiritual values created by man

3. There are two forms of culture. They are material and spiritual. Which one belongs to spiritual culture?

A. Intellectual values

B. Aesthetic values

C. Science

D. Religion

Е. World of things created by people that surrounds us

^ 4. Culture can be systematized according to the state and political principle. Which one is referred to the principle mentioned above?

A. Culture of Ukraine

C. Peasant Culture

B. World Culture

D. Culture of the Ancient World

Е. Elite Culture

^ 5. Culture is classified in relation to its scales. What is referred to the given classification?

A. Culture of the Ancient World

B. Greek Culture

C. Mass Culture

D. World Culture

Е. Soviet Culture

6. From all the variety of social phenomena culture is distinguished by its great complicacy and diversity. What is the subject of its study?

A. Natural laws of cultural development

B. Practical and transforming activity in all the aspects of social life since the ancient times

C. Natural laws of progress of human society

D. Material values created by man

E. Spiritual values created by man

^ 7. The system of values in G. Skovoroda's creative heritage is found to be rather specific one. State the main idea of his philosophical work.

A. Ways of overcoming poverty by means of technical progress

B. Sense of human existence

C. Important role of technical progress

D. Increase in labour productivity

Е. Actuality of material well-being

^ 8. World culture includes all the cultures existing in the world. State one of the factors which influences its formation.

A. Demographic situation

B. Ecological situation

C. Labour productivity

D. Historical way of the nation

Е. Material well-being

^ 9. There are various definitions of the concept "culture". What does it mean in the literal sense of the word?

A. World-view

B. Education

C. Wisdom

D. Elaboration, cultivation

E. Upbringing

10. There are two forms of culture. One of them is material one. State what belongs to this form of culture.

A. Science, education

B. Aesthetic values

C. Intellectual values

D. World of things created by people that surround us

Е. Religious beliefs

^ 11. Three key ethnic uniting self-names are distinguished in the ethnic history of the Ukrainians. State one of them.

A. Hutsuls

B. Lemky

C. Boyky

Д. Polischuky

Е. Russyns

12. Ethnos is the human community historically formed on a certain territory. State its characteristic feature.

A. Stable peculiarities of language and culture

B. Absence of striving to form social and territorial organizations

C. Absence of stable features of mentality

D. Rejection of unity consciousness and difference from others

Е. Negation of ethnonym

^ 13. The ethnos formed is considered to be an integral organism, for its internal unity of great importance is:

A. Geographic location

B. Natural climatic conditions

C. Presence of legal institutions

D. Culture

Е. Level of economical development

^ 14. For the first time the ethnonym «Ukraine» was mentioned in 1187. State the period when it became dominant.

А. The end of the 20th century

В. The beginning of the 20th century

С. 17th century

D. 19th century

Е. Second part of the 19th century


^ CULTURE OF KIEV RUS

15. In the result of consolidation process the group of East Slavic tribes called "Rus" was formed. State the time of its final formation.

A. 2nd century

B. 3rd century

C. 1st century

D. 5th century

Е. 4th century

16. The development of Eastern Slavs resulted in decay of the primitive relations and growth of importance of small family of close relatives. State what was the economic basis of society at that time?

A. Prince's possession of land

B. Family possession of land of neighbour’s community

C. Feudalistic possession of land

D. Capitalistic possession of the means of production

17. In Rus long before Vladimir’s the Great religious reforms were carried out it was already known about Christianity. State when Christianity became Europe’s dominant religion.

A. 9th century

B. 10th century

C. 1st century

D. 5th century

Е. 11th century

^ 18. One of the genres of arts in Kiev Rus was icon painting. Specify its characteristic features.

A. Canonical painting with water colours on raw plaster

B. Canonical painting on wooden board with paints grinned on egg yolk

C. Painting with oil paints on dry plaster

D. Painting with water colours on dry plaster

Е. Drawing in style of Realism

^ 19. Cyrillic script favoured the development of literacy in Rus. In what century was it introduced?

A. 9-10th century

B. 9-11th century

C. 10- 11th century

D. 11 -12th century

Е. 11-14th century

^ 20. In the 9th century in Rus crafts were developing. State which one remained within the family in most cases.

A. Metal-working

B. Forging

C. Pottery

D. Elaboration of skin, stone, wood

Е. Weaving

21 It was Christianity that met the most interests of the feudal class. Give the date of its introduction as state religion.

A. 899-900 years

B. 936-940

C. 988-990

D. 870-899

Е. 798 – 899

22. In Rus Christianity played an important role in the spread of literacy with the alphabet ordered and "Gospel" translated into the Slavonic language. State the author of the translation.

A. Nestor

B. Cyril and Methodius

C. Illarion

D. Ivan Fedorov

E. Juriy Drogobych

^ 23. Those were libraries that partly met people’s needs in books. Where was one of the biggest libraries founded?

A. Saint Sophia Cathedral

B. Kyiv - Pechersk Monastery (Kyiv Cave Monastery)

C. The Church of the Dime

D. The Dormition Cathedral

E. Kiev University

24. In the 11th century in Kiev Rus there appeared a number of original literary works, which favoured the development of a new independent literary genre. Name this genre.

A. Chronicles

B. Poetry

C. Drama

D. Bylinas

E. Treatises

^ 25. Paganism played an important role in the formation of spiritual culture of East Slavs. Name its distinctive feature.

A. Anthropocentrism of gods was strongly marked

B. Anthropocentrism of gods was slightly marked

C. A great number of gods, which personified people’s work and interests

D. Predominance of female deities

^ 26. Christianity was penetrating gradually into all spheres of human life forcing out pagan beliefs. What happened to these beliefs in the period of Christianization?

A. Pagan beliefs disappeared

B. Remained invariable

C. Integrated into Christianity

D. Remained socially passive

^ 27. With Christianity introduced the first state schools in Rus were opened. Which prince is associated with this process?

A. Vladimir the Great

B. Yaroslav the Wise

C. Vladimir Monomakh

D. Andriy Bogolyubskyi

E. Danylo Galitskyi


HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN CULTURE IN the SECOND HALF OF the 13 -15th centuries

^ 28. Having been weakened by feudal disintegration Rus became the object of expansion for Mongol-Tatars. What were the most tragic years in this period of history?

A. 1223-1233

B. 1323-1350

C. 1225-1450

D. 1235-1245

Е. 1237-1240

29. In the 13th century Kiev Rus being under the dominion of steppe hordes kept on having connections with other states. Which state did the archdiocese of Kiev Rus belong to?

A. The Crimean Khanate

B. Turkey

C. Byzantium

D. France

Е. Bulgaria

^ 30. There were various genres in the literature of the 13th century. Which genre was the most important?

A. Torzhestvenniks

B. Helmsmen

C. Books of Needs

D. Chronicles

Е. Canonical collections of works

^ 31. In the 13-14th centuries there were primary schools. What books were used in these schools?

A. The Bible

B. Gospel

C. Book of Hours and Psalmbook

D. Russian Truth

E. Christian Topography

32. The culture of Kiev Rus suffered a lot during the Tatar-Mongolian invasion. Which sphere of culture suffered most after the invasion?

A. Science

B. Education

C. Architecture

D. Literature

Е. Book publishing

^ 33. With the Tatar-Mongolian yoke set in Kiev Rus the places of concentration of the cultural life were formed. What were they?

A. Prince's lands

B. Monasteries and churches

C. Village communities

D. Trade settlements

E. Fortresses

^ 34. In the second half of the 13th century building of stone castles began with its architecture acquiring features of new style. Name this new style.

A. Russian style

B. Byzantium style

C. Classicism

D. Gothic style

E. Baroque

^ 35. In the second half of the 14th century part of the Ukrainian territory belonged to Great Lithuanian Principality. How did it influence the cultural processes in Ukraine?

A. It changed the course of cultural processes

B. It did not influence much the development of the Ukrainian culture

C. It contributed to spreading of the Lithuanian language

D. It led to the change of religious beliefs

E. It contributed much to great progress in science

36. Despite the objective difficulties in the 13-15th centuries the tradition of book writing was kept. The most expensive books of that period were decorated with illustrations. What type of making illustrations was the most difficult one to perform?

A. Miniature

B. Fresco

C. Ornamental painting

D. Arabesque

^ 37. In the 40s of the 13th century most Kiev Rus princedoms were conquered by foreign invaders. Which basis the culture of Slavs was developing on?

A. Byzantium

B. Inner

C. Mongol-Tatar

D. European

E. Polish

^ 38. The architectural constructions of the 15th century had definite tendencies. What were they?

A. Byzantium tendencies

B. Return to Kiev Rus tendencies

C. Tendency to constructivism

D. Formation of rationalism

E. Ukrainian baroque

^ 39. A number of manuscripts and fragments written at the end of the 12-14th centuries have survived. What was the material they were written on?

A. Papyrus

B. Parchment

C. Paper

D. Clay tables

40. In literature of the 13-15th centuries there appeared oratorical, everyday and pilgrim prose characterized by the certain tendencies. What were these tendencies? Name the most common one.

A. Particular attention to religious matters

B. Great interest in personal problems

C. Attention to religious and aesthetic matters and absence of interest in personal problems

D. Interest in the personal problems only

E. Attention to the religious, aesthetic and personal matters

^ 41. One of the genres of arts in the 13th century was icon-painting. What was the most popular theme of this genre?

A. Historical plots

B. Everyday scenes

C. Protection and intercession

D. Military theme

E. Landscape


^ CULTURE OF THE COSSACK PERIOD

42. In 1586 the first Brotherhood school was opened. Which city was it opened in?

A. Kiev

B. Chernigiv

C. Lviv

D. Pereyasliv

Е. Kharkiv

43. The invention of printing press in the 15th century contributed much to the development of literature and book printing. Who was its inventor?

A. Y. Kotermak

B. I. Guttenberg

C. F. Skorina

D. Sh. Fiol

E.I. Fedorov

^ 44. In the 16-17th centuries printing houses were established throughout the country. Where was the largest printing house of Ukraine situated?

A. St. Sofia Cathedral

B. Kiev-Pechersk (Cave) Monastery

C. St. Andrew's Church

D. Assumption Cathedral

Е. Kiev-Mogila Academy

^ 45. In the 16th century the Ukrainian epos flourished. Which works of literature belong to this genre?

  1. Chronicles

  2. Madrigals

C. Мorality plays

Д. Dumas (Ballads)

46. In the 16-18th centuries monastery and church schools were opened. What was the main type of educational institutions at that time?

A. Primary school

B. Secondary school

C. Jesuit collegiums

D. Orthodox collegiums

^ 47. In Ukraine at the beginning of the 18th century there were hundreds of schools. Children of what social levels were admitted to these schools?

A. Children of Polish feudal lords

B. Children of all the levels of society

C. Children of the Cossacks

D. Children of the Clergy

Е. Children of the Merchants

^ 48. In Ukraine in 1578 the first higher educational institution was opened. Who was its founder?

A. Peter Mogyla

B. Konstantin Ostrozhskyi

C. Ivan Mazepa

D. Andrey Kurbskyi

Е. Ivan Vyshnskyi

49. In the 18th century poetry was a new genre of literature. Name one of the most famous poets of that time?

A. T. Shevchenko

B. G. Skovoroda

C. V. Sosjura

D. A. Mitura

Е. K. Sakovich


^ TRADITIONAL CULTURE OF THE UKRAINIAN PEOPLE

50. The specific feature of the development of the Ukrainian culture was predetermined by the rapid progress in agriculture. Name this feature.

A. Unformed traditions

B. Development of scientific views

C. Backward material culture

D. Formation of spiritual values

^ 51. Up to the end of the 19th century the life of the Ukrainian village people was characterized by certain type of relations. Name this type of relations.

A. Matriarchate

B. Patriarchal relations

C. Family traditions

D. Unlimited power of elders

Е. Limited power of the monarch

^ 52. At all the stages of its existence the Ukrainian village community performed certain functions. Name its main function.

A. State control

B. Protection and transfer of traditions

C. Protection of state borders

D. Observance of state laws

53. The interior of the Ukrainian dwelling included the elements, which were of one and the same type. State one of them that is considered to be the pagan centre of the house?

A. Benches

B. Table

C. Plank beds

D. Oven

E. Wall cupboard

^ 54. The Christian centre of the Ukrainian house was the Red Corner. What was in it?

A. Chairs

B. Books

C. Icons

D. Wall cupboard

Е. Plank beds

55. The national clothes play an important role in the Ukrainian culture. What can prove this?

A. It influences the formation of scientific views

B. It defines fashion trends

C. It influences the development of painting

D. It appears to be the source of ethnic history of study

^ 56. Over the years the national Ukrainian clothes have been improving. Specify their characteristic feature.

A. Absence of decoration

B. Absence of ornaments

C. Rejection of embroidery and ornaments

D. Absence of accessories

E. Decorativity

^ 57. Female Ukrainian shirt was decorated by ornament. What function did it perform?

A. Economic

B. Magic

C. Protective

D. Political

58. Over the years, national Ukrainian male clothes have been improving. Specify their characteristic feature.

А. Necktie

В. Belt

С. Shoes

D. Pullover

Е. Coat

^ 59. During each year there are the periods when religious people are forbidden to eat meat, milk, fish and eggs. How is this custom called?

A. Vegetarianism

B. Starvation

C. Diet

D. Fasting

E. Nutritional care

60. The spiritual culture of Ukrainians formed under the influence of a range of factors. State its main factor.

A. Peculiarities of the life style

B. Nutrition regimen

C. Religious beliefs

D. Natural geographic conditions

E. Development of self-governing systems

^ 61. Religion played a great role in formation of the Ukrainian ethnos worldview. State what is characteristic of it at everyday life level.

A. Adherence to pagan beliefs

B. Acceptance of Christian ideas only

C. Belonging to Greek and Catholic confession

D. Combination of Christian ideas with pagan beliefs

E. Adherence to atheistic world-view

^ 62. The ancient rituals are calendar holidays and ceremonies, many of which were influenced by Christianity. What is this holiday?

A. Pancake week

B. Ivana-Kupala holiday

C. Easter

D. Holy Trinity

63. Wedding ritual consists of a set of ceremonies. What belongs to these ceremonies?

A. Making «Spas beard»

B. Making a reap wreath

C. Fortune-telling

D. Caroling

E. «Getting engaged»


Revival of Ukrainian cultural in the 19th century

^ 64. In the 18th century the territory of Ukraine was divided between Austrian and Russian Empires. What situation the culture of Ukraine was found to be in?

A. Stagnation

B. Revival

C. Temporary raising

D. Crisis

E. Stable development

65. In the 19th century a new social layer that played an important role in the revival of the Ukrainian culture appeared. Who were the representatives of this layer?

A. Cossacks

B. Petty bourgeois

C. National ”intelligentsiya” (the intellectuals)

D. Merchant class

E. Handicraftsmen

66. By the end of the 18th century the process of liquidation of the Ukrainian Statehood was completed. This led to the reduction of the Ukrainian language use. State the medium it preserved in.

A. Intelligentsia (the intellectuals)

B. Common people environment

C. Cossacks

D. Officials

E. Higher feudal layers

^ 67. During the reign of Alexander І a new four-stage educational system was introduced. How was the educational institution called at that time?

A. Church - parish schools

B. Secondary schools

C. Lyceums

D. Collegiums

E. Four-form colleges

^ 68. The Austrian-Hungarian government imposed the colonialist policy upon the Western part of Ukraine. What language was teaching in primary schools held in?

A. The Hungarian language

B. The German language

C. The Polish language

D. The Romanian language

E. The Ukrainian language

69. The progress of natural sciences in Ukraine was closely related to Russian science and its scientists. Who was the founder of field surgery that lived and worked in Ukraine for a long period of time?

A. D. Zabolotnyj

B. M. Pirogov

C. I. Mechnikov

D. M. Gamaleya

E. V. Vysokovych

^ 70. In 1818 the first Grammar of the Ukrainian language «Grammar of Little Russian Dialect» was published. Name its author.

A. M. Grushevskyj

B. A. Pavlovskyj

C. M. Maksimovich

D. V. Antonovich

E. D. Javornitskyj

^ 71. In architecture of the 19th century the Ukrainian baroque was followed by a new style. What was this style?

A. Monumentalism

B. Classicism

C. Doric style

D. Ionic style

72. The great Russian artist-realist devoted a lot of his works to the Ukrainian subject matter. One of his paintings is called «Zaporozhian Cossacks are writing a letter to the Turkish Sultan». What is the name of this painter?

A. I. Soshenko

B. M. Samokish

C. S. Vasilkovskyj

D. M. Pimonenko

E. I. Repin

^ 73. The whole epoch of musical life of Ukraine is associated with the works of the great composer, founder of the Ukrainian classical music. State his name.

A. S. Gulak-Artemovsky

B. N. Arkas

C. N. Lysenko

D. S. Ljudkevich

E. K. Stytsenko

74. In the 70s of the 19th century in the Ukrainian literature there appeared a talented poet and prose writer, dramatist, publicist and literary critic. State his name.

A. M. Kotsjubinskyj

B. I. Franko

C. P. Grabovskyj

D. I. Nechuj-Levitskyj

E. P. Mirnyj

75. The works of the outstanding poet, writer and painter played a key role in formation of the Ukrainian literary language. This man became the symbol of the Ukrainian culture. What is his name?

A. I.Nechuj-Levitskyj

B. M.Vovchok

C. L.Glebov

D. T.Shevchenko

E. P. Mirnyj

^ 76. In the 19th century the general work on history of Ukraine – «History of the Zaporozhian Cossacks» - was written. Who was its author?

A. D. Bantysh-Kamenskyj

B. N. Kostomarov

C. V. Antonovich

D. D. Javornitskyj

E. M. Grushevsky

^ 77. In early 80s of the 19th century the first professional Ukrainian theatrical company was organized. Who was its founder and dramatist?

A. P. Grabovskyj

B. P. Saksaganskyj

C. I. Karpenko-Karyj

D. N. Sadovskyj

E. M. Staritskij


^ Culture of Ukraine in the 20th century.

78. In the 20th century culture of Ukraine faced a lot of difficult processes that influenced much its development. What was characteristic of the given process?

A. Non-acceptance of globalization processes

B. The course directed at independent existence of separate states

C. Strengthening of international collaboration

D. Low level of economic development

^ 79. The culture of the 20th century is characterized by some peculiar features. What is referred to these features?

A. Decrease in the development of the spiritual culture

B. Decrease in number of the intellectuals

C. Decrease in the development of the material culture

D. Increase in the number of educational institutions of various types

80. From the beginning of the 20th century and up to 1917 Russia carried out the specific policy in terms of the Ukrainian culture. What was it characterized by?

A. Ukrainization

B. Russification

C. Setting up schools with education in Ukrainian

D. Support of the Ukrainian intelligentsia (intellectuals)

Е. Assistance in publishing books in the Ukrainian language

^ 81. The overthrow of tsardom favoured the rise of new tendencies in national culture. What proves it?

A. Teaching at schools started being held in the Ukrainian language

B. It was only planned to carry out teaching at schools in Ukrainian

C. Schools with the Russian language of education were opened

D. Opening of the Ukrainian university in Kamyanets - Podilsk was planned

Е. Opening the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

^ 82. The Ukrainian culture of the 20th century is characterized by definite tendencies of its development. Which is one of them?

  1. Non-acceptance of the Western European tendencies in the sphere of art culture

  2. Negation of Romanticism

C. Rejection of Neorealism

D. Preservation of national and cultural traditions

Е. Negation of Futurism and Symbolism

^ 83. National theatre of the prerevolutionary period brought-up a range of talented and outstanding actors. Name the talented actress of this period.

A. S .Krushelnitska

B. A. Efymenko

C. O. Pchilka

D. M. Zankovetska

Е. O. Kobyljanska

84. One of the sciences developing in Ukraine at the beginning of the 20th century was history. State the name of the most outstanding historian of the given period.

A. V. Vinnichenko

B. V. Kljuchevsky

B. M. Grushevskyj

D. M. Dragomanov

Е. P. Chubinskyj

85. The beginning of the 20th century was characterized by the development of medicine, achievements in microbiology, general pathology, and treatment of infectious diseases. Name the scientist who worked in the above mentioned branches of medicine.

A. N. Sklifosovsky

B. V. Filatov

C. I. Pavlov

D. I. Mechnikov

Е. I. Setchenov

86. The intellectuals of the former tsar period did not meet the requirements of the Soviet power any more, which resulted in setting up the new government’s goal. What was it?

A. Re-education of the intellectuals of the former tsar period (the “old intelligentsia”)

B. Education and training of the intellectuals of worker and peasant origin (the “new intelligentsia”)

C. Expulsion of the intellectuals of the former tsar period beyond the U.S.S.R. borders

D. Carrying out the policy of the complete elimination of the intellectuals of the former tsar period (the “old intelligentsia”)

87. The formation of the U.S.S.R. influenced much the development of the Ukrainian culture with one of its spheres making good progress in the 20-30s. Name this sphere.

A. Education

B. Architecture

C. Art

D. Music

E. Ballet

^ 88. In Ukraine in the 30s of the 20th century higher educational establishments started being founded. What educational establishment was founded in Donetsk?

A. Institute of Law

B. Institute of Artificial Intellect

C. Medical institute

D. State university

E. Conservatoire

89. In Ukraine in the 30s of the 20th century the development of applied and fundamental sciences was in progress. Ophthalmological school received recognition. State its founder.

A. V. Vernadskyi

B. V. Filatov

C. Е. Paton

D. I. Pavlov

E. А. Bogomolets

^ 90. During World War II the Ukrainian writers wrote a number of highly artistic literary works with film-novel «Ukraine in Flames» included. State its author.

A. V. Pachovskyi

B. O. Dovzhenko

C. М. Rylskyi

D. I. Kocherga

E. P. Tychyna

^ 91. In 1991 after disintegration of the U.S.S.R. some tendencies in the development of the Ukrainian culture began to be well defined. State one of these tendencies.

A. Strengthening of atheistic propaganda

B. Oppression of ethnic minorities

C. Prohibition of setting up private educational establishments

D. Ban on the literary works written by emigrant writers

E. High interest in the past of the Ukrainian nation

^ 92. In the post-revolutionary painting period there was the conflict of the schools of painting with one of the genres prevailing. State this genre.

A. Still life

B. Landscape

C. Portrait

D. Historical and revolutionary subject area

E. Monumental landscape


Theme No. 4. Culture of the Cossack Period

^ 93. Invention of printing press in the 15th century favoured the printing of books. State the language they were printed in.

А. The Old Slavonic language

В. Latin

С. The Church Slavonic language

D. Russian

Е. Ukrainian

^ 94. Rector and professor of Kyiv-Mogyla Academy, philosopher F. Prokopovych kept on advancing the ideas of the Enlightenment. State his main philosophical idea.

A. Man can have happiness due to freedom, self-cognition and creative work

В. State power is of divine origin

С. Democracy is necessary for progress in all the spheres of life

D. Life is the suffering and its purpose lies in suppressing all the human passions

Е. Salvation of man lies in his/her self-perfectioning.

^ 95. In the 16-18th centuries one of the towns in Ukraine became its music capital. Name this town.

А. Оdesa

В. Mykolaiv

С. Glukhiv

D. Маriupol

Е. Мyrgorod

96. In the 16th century polemic literature developed. Name the author who worked in the above mentioned genre of literature.

А. К. Sakovych

В. М. Smotrytskyi

С. К. Smolyatych

D. А. Мiture

97. In the 16-18th centuries the ideas of the Enlightenment spread all over Ukraine resulting in quite high percentage of educated people. What was this percentage?

А. 100%

В. 95%

С. 90%

D. 85%

Е. 80%

^ 98. Kyiv-Mogyla Academy was founded in 1632. In which century was academy’s faculty of medicine opened?

А. First half of the 17th century

В. First half of the 18th century

С. 19th century

D. Second half of the 18th century

Е. Second half of the 17th century


Theme No. 2. Kiev Rus

99. Part of books of the 11-12th centuries has been kept to nowadays. State their number.

А. 1000

В. 150

С. 250

D. 800

Е. 80

100. The board of the Elders was one of the legal institutions (power organs) of Kiev Rus. What function did it perform?

А. Carried out suppression control over foreign aggression

В. Dealt with collecting taxes

С. Governed the city and the village, coping with all its main issues

D. Performed functions of compulsion and suppression

Е. It was subordinate to the prince power

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