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The questions for final knowledge control




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THE QUESTIONS FOR FINAL KNOWLEDGE CONTROL


  1. The contribution of prominent clinicists: M. Mudrov, G. Zacharin, S. Botkin, O. Ostroumov, T. Yankovsky, V. Obraztsov, M. Kyrlov, M. Gubergrits, M. Stragesko, M. Konchalovsky, M. Chernorutsky, G. Lang, O. Myasnikov, B. Shklar to the development of therapeutic school.

  2. The methodological principles of internal diseases diagnostic.

  3. The main methods of patients’ examination in clinic of internal disease.

  4. Case history scheme. Anamneses components.

  5. The subsequent of patient’s general examination.

  6. The types of body-build and main criteria of different constitutional types.

  7. The subsequent of lymph nodes palpation and analysis of obtained results.

  8. The rules for heard and neck inspection.

  9. The subsequent of trunk and extremities inspection.

  10. Static inspection of the chest, diagnostic significance of the chief symptoms.

  11. Dynamic inspection of the chest, diagnostic significance of the chief symptoms.

  12. Inspection of heart region, diagnostic significance of the chief symptoms.

  13. The subsequent of abdomen inspection, determination of the main symptoms.

  14. The main pulse characteristics, the subsequent and rules for their determination.

  15. The rules for blood pressure measurement, analysis of obtained results.

  16. Palpation of the chest: the subsequent, rules and diagnostic significance.

  17. Palpation of the heart region: the subsequent, rules and clinical significance.

  18. Surface tentative palpation of the abdomen: methodological algorithm, analysis of results and diagnostic significance.

  19. Theoretical basis and principles of deep sliding palpation according to Obraztsov and Strazhesko.

  20. Deep sliding systematic palpation of the intestine: sigmoid and caecum, their characteristics in normal and pathology.

  21. Deep sliding systematic palpation of the intestine: ascending and descending colons, their characteristics in normal and pathology.

  22. Deep sliding systematic palpation of transverse colon: its characteristics in normal and pathology.

  23. The methods of the greater curvature of stomach evaluation.

  24. The technique of liver palpation. The normal liver characteristics (liver lower edge, consistency, surface, painfulness) and their possible changers on pathology.

  25. The technique of spleen percussion and the main causes of its size enlargement.

  26. The methods for free fluid in abdominal cavity determination.

  27. The consequent of lung percussion, qualities of sounds and diagnostic significance of obtained results.

  28. The main tasks of topographic percussion of the lung, its technique and consequent. The topographical parameters of the lung in normal and pathological conditions.

  29. Percussion of the heart – relative and absolute cardiac dullness, the borders of the relative cardiac dullness in normal and pathological conditions.

  30. Percussion of the heart – displacement of the heart borders accordantly to cardiac and extracardiac reasons.

  31. The width of the vascular bundle, technique of its evaluation by percussion and diagnostically significance.

  32. Percussion of the liver by Obraztsov: the subsequent, rules, parameters in normal and pathological conditions.

  33. Percussion of the liver by Curlov: the subsequent, rules, parameters in normal and pathological conditions.

  34. Percussion of the spleen. The rules and the main causes of spleen enlargement.

  35. Auscultation of the lung - the main respiratory sounds, their quantitative and qualitative changes, conditions for occurs.

  36. Auscultation of the lung - additional respiratory sounds, conditions for occurs.

  37. Rales, their types and mechanisms of formation and diagnostic significance.

  38. Conditions for crepitation and pleural friction sound formation. Differential signs of adventitious sounds.

  39. Determination of vocal fremitus, its diagnostic significance.

  40. Auscultation of the heart - mechanism of heart sounds formation and their main properties. Changers of the tones by strength and timbre.

  41. Auscultation of the heart - the notion of heart sounds reduplication and splitting, the causes of onset and periodic characteristics.

  42. Additional heart tones.

  43. The causes of heart murmurs and their classification.

  44. The main characteristics of cardiac murmurs description (timing, intensity, pitch, quality, configuration, duration, location and radiation, changers depending from body position and physical load). The notion of functional murmurs and their differences from the organic one.

  45. Diastolic cardiac murmurs: the causes for onset and diagnostic significance.

  46. The rules for ECG interpretation. Determination of heart rate end electrical axis of the heart.

  47. ECG signs of altered automaticy function.

  48. ECG signs of altered excitability function. The main types of premature heart contraction.

  49. ECG signs of altered conductivity. classification

  50. Clinical and ECG signs of atrial and ventricular flutter and fibrillation. The mechanisms of their onset.

  51. The syndrome of pulmonary tissue consolidation: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  52. The syndrome of increased airiness of lung tissue: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  53. The syndrome of fluid accumulation in pleural cavity: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  54. The syndrome of air accumulation in pleural cavity: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  55. The syndrome of bronchial obstruction: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  56. The syndrome of the pain in the heart: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  57. The syndrome of cardiovascular incompetence: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  58. Left ventricular heart failure syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  59. Right ventricular heart failure syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  60. Vascular failure syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  61. The syndrome of arterial hypertension: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  62. The syndrome of dyspepsia: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  63. The syndrome of dysphagia: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  64. The types of bile tract dyskinesia: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  65. The syndrome of portal hypertension: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  66. The syndrome of jaundice: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  67. The syndrome of gastro-intestinal haemorrhage: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  68. Nephritic syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  69. The urinate syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  70. The syndrome of acute renal failure: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  71. The syndrome of chronic renal failure: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  72. The syndrome of anemia: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  73. Hyperplasic syndrome on blood system diseases: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  74. Hemorrhagic syndromes: classification, pathogenesis, clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  75. The syndrome of hyperthyroidism: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  76. The syndrome of hypothyroidism: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.

  77. Bronchitis: classification, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  78. Bronchiectatic disease: classification, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  79. Bronchial asthma: classification, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  80. Emphysema of the lung: the main factors for development, symptoms and diagnosis.

  81. Hospital and extrahospital pneumonia: classification, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  82. Dry and exudative pleurisies: chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  83. Cancer of the lung: main clinical forms, clinical features and diagnosis.

  84. Mitral valve defects: etiology, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  85. Aortic valve defects: etiology, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  86. Coronary heart disease: etiology, chief clinical features and diagnosis of angina pectoris.

  87. Coronary heart disease: etiology, chief clinical features and diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

  88. Essential hypertension: modern classification, etiology, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  89. Symptomatic arterial hypertension: etiology, classification, chief clinical features, diagnosis, objective and instrumental examination data that give opportunity to suspect the secondary character of hypertension.

  90. Chronic gastritis: modern classification, etiology, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  91. Peptic ulcer disease: classification, etiology, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  92. Chronic cholecystites, cholangities: classification, etiology, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  93. Gall-stone disease: etiology, the stage of development, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  94. Hepatitis: etiology, modern classification, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  95. Liver cirrhosis: etiology, modern classification, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  96. Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis: etiology, modern classification, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  97. Acute and chronic pyelonephritis: etiology, modern classification, chief clinical features and diagnosis.

  98. Anemia: classification and chief syndromes.

  99. Iron deficiency anemia: etiology, pathogenesis, chief clinical features and laboratory criteria.

  100. B12- foliate deficiency anemia: etiology, pathogenesis, chief clinical features and laboratory criteria.

  101. Hemolytic anemia: classification, chief syndromes and laboratory criteria.

  102. Chronic leukemia: main syndromes, laboratory criteria.

  103. Diabetes mellitus: classification, main symptoms and syndromes, laboratory diagnostic.


THE LIST OF PRACTICAL SKILLS for final knowledge control


  1. To conduct inquiring of the patient. To make conclusion according to the obtained anamnestic data.

  2. To conduct inquiring of the patient with respiratory organs disease. To define the chief symptoms.

  3. To conduct inquiring of the patient with cardiovascular pathology. To define the chief symptoms.

  4. To conduct inquiring of the patient with digestive system’s damage. To define the chief symptoms.

  5. To conduct general examination of the patient. To define the chief symptoms.

  6. To carry out examination of the head and neck. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  7. To carry out examination of the trunk and extremities. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  8. To conduct inspection of the chest in patient with respiratory organs disease. To evaluate the static signs.

  9. To conduct inspection of the chest in patient with respiratory organs disease. To evaluate the dynamic signs.

  10. To carry out inspection of the heart region. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  11. To carry out inspection of the abdomen. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  12. To carry out palpation of the lymphatic nodes, to evaluate obtained results.

  13. To make palpation of the thyroid gland, to evaluate obtained results.

  14. To carry out examination of the trunk and extremities. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  15. To conduct examination of the pulse. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  16. To carry out palpation of the heart region. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  17. To carry out superficial palpation of the abdomen. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  18. To make palpation of the sigmoid colon. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  19. To make palpation of the caecum. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  20. To conduct palpation of the ascending colon. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  21. To make palpation of the descending colon. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  22. To conduct palpation of the transverse colon. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  23. To make palpation of the liver. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  24. To carry out palpation of the spleen. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  25. To conduct palpation of the kidneys. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  26. To determine the greater curvature of stomach, to analyze obtained results.

  27. To determine the free fluid in abdominal cavity, to evaluate obtained results.

  28. To conduct blood pressure measurement on upper extremities, to analyze obtained results.

  29. To conduct blood pressure measurement on low extremities, to analyze obtained results.

  30. To carry out comparative percussion of the lung. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  31. To carry out topographic of the lung. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  32. To determine the respiratory excursion of the lower border of the lung. To define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  33. To determine the borders of the relative cardiac dullness by percussion. To make the clinical evaluation.

  34. To determine the borders of the absolute cardiac dullness by percussion. To make the clinical evaluation.

  35. To evaluate the width of the vascular bundle, to assess the obtained results.

  36. To conduct percussion of the liver, to define the clinical significance of obtained data.

  37. To conduct percussion of the spleen, to define the clinical significance of obtained data.

  38. To conduct auscultation of the lung – to determine the main respiratory sounds their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, clinical evaluation of obtained results.

  39. To conduct auscultation of the lung – to determine the additional respiratory sounds, to define the clinical significance of obtained data.

  40. To carry out bronchographia, to make clinical evaluation of obtained results.

  41. To conduct auscultation of arteries, to define the clinical significance of obtained symptoms.

  42. To conduct auscultation of the heart – to determine the main characteristics of the heart sounds with clinical evaluation of obtained results.

  43. To conduct auscultation of the heart – to determine the presence of cardiac murmurs with clinical evaluation of obtained results.

  44. To analyze results of ECG recording in patient with altered conductivity.

  45. To analyze results of ECG recording in patient with altered excitability function. To differentiate the types of premature heart contractions.

  46. To analyze results of ECG recording in patient with altered automaticy function.

  47. To analyze results of ECG recording in patient with combinative arrhythmias.

  48. To analyze results of PCG in patient with heart valve defects.

  49. To carry out examination of the patient with mitral valve disease. To define the major symptoms and syndromes.

  50. To conduct examination of the patient with aortic valve disease. To identify the major symptoms and syndromes.

  51. To carry out examination of the patient with arterial hypertension. To define the major symptoms and syndromes.

  52. To make inquiring of the patient with coronary heart disease (stable angina pectoris), to detail the complain pain in the heart, to define the functional class of the patient.

  53. To conduct general inspection and objective examination of the patient with acute myocardial infarction. To identify the major symptoms and syndromes.

  54. To evaluate the ECG of the patient with acute myocardial infarction. To define the character and localization of myocardial damage.

  55. To carry out examination of the patient with heart failure. To define the major symptoms, syndromes and functional class of the patient.

  56. To carry out inquiring of the patient with obstructive lung disease. To define the major symptoms, syndromes, with taking into consideration spirographia results determine the stage of the disease.

  57. To conduct palpation, percussion of the chest and auscultation of the lung in the patient with obstructive lung disease. To define the major symptoms and syndromes.

  58. To conduct inquiring and objective examination of the patient with pneumonia. To identify the major symptoms and syndromes.

  59. To carry out inquiring and objective examination of the patient with pleurisies. To identify the character of pleurisies and chief symptoms and syndromes on this.

  60. To conduct inquiring, inspection and palpation of the abdomen in patient with gastritis. To recognize the major syndromes.

  61. To analyze the results of phibrogastroduodenoscopia in patient with chronic gastritis. To define the state of gastric secretion.

  62. To carry out inquiring, inspection and palpation of the abdomen in patient with peptic ulcer disease. To identify the chief syndromes and try to recognize the localization of ulcer.

  63. To conduct inquiring, inspection and palpation of the abdomen in patient with chronic cholecystitis. To check the prominent symptoms specific for biliary system damage. To define the major syndromes.

  64. To conduct inquiring, inspection and palpation of the abdomen in patient with chronic cholangities. To define the major syndromes.

  65. To evaluate the results of duodenal sound examination in patient with biliary system damage. To identify the major symptoms and syndromes.

  66. To carry out inquiring and objective examination in patient with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. To define the major symptoms and syndromes.

  67. To carry out inquiring and objective examination in patient with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. To define the major syndromes based on biochemical blood and urinary tests.

  68. To conduct inquiring and objective examination in patient with chronic renal disease (glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis). To classify the major syndromes.

  69. To analyze the results of laboratory examination: general urine test, urine analysis by Nechiporenko and Zemnitsky. To define the major symptoms and syndromes. To make conclusion on the subject of the character of renal damage.

  70. To conduct inquiring and objective examination in patient with anemia. To identify the chief symptoms and syndromes, with taking into consideration results of clinical blood test determine the type of anemia.

  71. To analyze the results of clinical blood test in patient with leukemia. To determine the chief laboratory symptoms and type of chronic leukemia.

  72. To carry out inquiring and objective examination in patient with diabetes mellitus. To assess the pulse on the arteries of upper and low extremities and blood pressure. To define the major symptoms and syndromes.

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