Methodological Instructions for Students icon

Methodological Instructions for Students




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НазваMethodological Instructions for Students
Дата28.07.2012
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Methodological Instructions for Students



Theme: Acute renal failure.

Aim: To study symptoms, signs and laboratory findings of acute renal failure and principles of conservative treatment.

Professional Motivation:

Acute renal failure leads to critical disorders of homeostasis, retention of protein metabolism products in blood, changes in water-electrolyte And salt metabolism. In a great number of cases morphological changes in kidney tissue are reversible, and recovering is possible even in serious situations.

Basic Level:

1. Anatomy and physiology of urinary tract.

2. To take history and physical examination.

3. Etiology and pathogenesis-of acute renal failure.

4. X-Ray, instrumental, laboratory, endoscopic methods in acute renal failure diagnosis.

Students' Independent Study Program.

I. Objectives for Students' Independent Studies.

You should prepare for the practical class using the existing textbooks and lectures. Special attention should be paid to the following:

1. General clinical symptoms and syndroms of acute renal failure. In the initial phase are present symptoms of the main pathology that's the reason of acute renal failure; as a result of azotemia appear general weakness, anorexia, vomiting, maliase, disorders of consciousness, symptoms of digestive system violation, respiratory disorders, hypoproteinemia, leucocytosis, anemia, oliguria or anuria. Laboratory findings are: specific gravity of urine – is near 1010 within 48 hours of the onset of shock or poisoning; urine chloride concentration fixed between 30-40 mEq/l; serum. electrolytes – sodium and: chloride concentrations may be low, normal or high depending on salt and water intake; test of retention – serum creatinine and urea nitrogen tend to rise together at a 1:10 ratio; others.

2. Etiologic classification of acute renal failure and its stages.

There are 3 types of acute renal failure: prerenal, renal and postrenal. Causes of prerenal anuria are: hypovolemia {hemorrhage, gastrointestinal losses, pancreatitis, burns, peritonitis, traumatized tissue, diuretic abuse, impaired cardiac function: congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, pericardial tamponade, acute pulmonary embolism, peripheral vasodilatation, bacteriemia, antihypertensive medications, increased renal vascular resistanse: anesthesia, surgical operation, hepatorenal syndrome, renal vascular obstruction, bilateral: emboism, thrombosis. Renal azotemia is a result of diseases lof glomeruli and small blood vessels: acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, serum sickness, and nephrotoxins action -exogenous (heavy metals, carbon tetrachloride. X-ray contrast media) and endogenous (calcium, uric acid, myoglobulin, hemoglobin). The causes of postrenal azotemia are: obstruction of ureters, bilateral (extraureteral – tumors: cervix, prostate, endometriosis, priureteral fibrosis, ligation during pelvic operation, and intraureteral – crystals, blood clots, pyogenic debris, stones, edema, papillary necrosis), bladder’s neck obstruction (prostatic hypertrophy, bladder carcinoma, bladder infection, functional – neuropathy or ganglionic blocking agents, urethral obstruction.

The clinical course of acute renal failure can be divided into 4 stages: 1) initiating or shock phase, 2) oligo-anuria – diuresis less than 300 ml, 3) normalization of diuresis, 4) recovering phase.

3. Medical tactics in patients of acute renal failure according to etiologic features and phase.

The first principle of therapy of acute renal failure is to exlude potentially reversible causes of deteriorating renal function. Once the diagnosis of acute renal failure has been established, little specific therapy is avaible. Dialysis for removal of toxins may occasionally be indicated. Even in the presence of acute renal failure any prercnal factors should be corrected to improve the circulation and maximize chances for early recovery of renal function. In the patients who remains oliguric despite correction of prerenal factors, it has become common clinical practice to administer either mannitol or the potent loop diuretic furosemide. The rationale for this therapy is that the combination of correction of prerenal factors and potent diuretic therapy may induce a nonoliguric state and thus attenuate the natural history of acute renal failure. Medical management of acute rernal failure includes: be sure all specifically treatable causes of deteriorating renal function have been excluded, correct prerenal factors, attempt to establish a urine output, conservative (nondialytic) treatment: decrease intake of nitrogen, water, and electrolytes to match output, after drug therapy, provide adequate source of calories, clinical monitoring (frequency of vital signs determined by patient status; intake and output, body weight, inspection of wounds and intravenous sites, and physical examinations should be performed daily; biochemical monitoring (frequency of blood urea nitrogen,' serum creatinine, electrolytes, and complete blood count determinations will be dictated by patient status; in general, at least daily determination will be needed; calcium, phosphorum, magnesium, and uric acid can often be determined less often; dialytic therapy.


^ II. Tests and Assignments for Self-assessment.

Task 1. Prove and formulate clinical diagnosis.

Student takes complains, disease and life history of the patient, physical examination,

detects main clinical signs of acute renal failure, forms diagnostic programme, formulates

diagnosis.

Questions for the student:

1. What are the clinical symptoms of urolithiasis?

2. What is the classification of acute renal failure?

3. What are the levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium and other electrolyties, uric acid, bilirubin, protein in patients with different phases of acute renal failure and in the blood of normal people?

Task 2. Make differential diagnosis of urolithiasis.

Student make differential diagnosis acute renal failure, using complains, disease and life history, physical examination, laboratory and sonography signs.

Questions for the student:

1. What diseases is it necessary to make differential diagnosis with?

2. What is the medical tactics in the patients with acute renal failure?

3. What are the indications for surgical treatment or acute renal failure?


Multiple Choice.

Choose the correct answer/statement.

1. The cause of prerenal acute renal failure is:

A. Stone of the only kidney.

B. Haemorrhage.

C. Intoxication by heavy metals.

D. Nephrectomy of the only kidney.

E. Obstruction of the both ureters.

2. In ease of the intoxication by the heavy metals the universal antidote is:

A. Natrium tiosulphate.

B. Calcium chloride.

C. Hydrocortisone.

D. Ethylic alcohol.

^ Real life situations to be solved:

A. In a patient on the 2nd: day after extirpation of the uterus is the anuria, pain in the lumbar region. What diagnostic measures are necessary to be held in this situation to form the diagnosis? What are the surgical tactics?

B. The patient L., 62 years old, complains of the pain in the right lumbar region, nausea, vomitting, general weakness,-absence of the urine for a 2 days. Biochemistry blood analysis: urea – 41,6 mmol/1, creatinine – 0,46 mmol/1. On general urogram – shadow : of the stone 0,8x0,7 at the proection of the lower part of the right ureter. From the case. history -has the urolithiasis of right kidney. What is the primary diagnosis? What are therapeutic tactics in this case?

^ III. Answers to the Self-assessment:

The correct answers to the tests:

1- B;

2- A.

The correct answers to the real life situations:

A- Yatrogenic defect of the ureters, postrenal anuria, it is necessary to find the organic reason of the obstruction by catheterization of the ureters, if it is impossible the ureterocystoneostomy is indicated;

B-stone of lower part of the right ureter, postrenal anuria, acute renal failure, is indicated the catheterization of the right kidney, to take out the stone is necessary.

Visual aids and material tools:

1. Slides:

1. 1 Renal angiography – granular kidney (cirrhosis of the kidney).

1. 2 Retrograde ureteropyelography – granular kidney.

2. Medical cards of ambulant patients

Students Practical Activities:

Student must know:

1. Classification (etiologic and on phases) of acute renal failure.

2. Symptoms and clinical signs of acute renal failure in initiating phase.

3. Symptoms and clinical signs of acute renal failure in oligoanuric phase.

4. Differential diagnosis of acufe-'renal, failure and acute anuria.

5. Treatment of prerenal acute renal failure.

6. Treatment of renal acute renal failure.

7. Treatment ofpostrenal adute renal failure.

Students should be able to:;

1. Detect main clinical signs of acute renal failure using complains and case history.

2. Define necessary quantity and sequence of patients examination: physical, laboratory roentgenological, endovesical.

3. Prove and formulate clinical diagnosis.

4. Make differential diagnosis,

5. Prove conservative treatment and indications for the surgical treatment treatment.

6. To estimate the levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium and other electrolytes, uric acid, bilirubin protein in patients with different phases of acute renal failure and in the blood of normal people.

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