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Зміст5. Find words in the text that mean
6. Make up sentences
7. Answer the questions
It's interesting to know...
Unit two. building materials
6. Make up sentences
a type of rock, used for making cement.
7. Translate the following word combinations and make up sentences using them
Unit three. building parts
4. Put the following words into the sentences below
6. What are the rooms used for? Match each part of the house with what usually happens in it
7. Which part of the house is different from the other three in each group? Explain, why?
House i. how to start.
House ii . windows and doors
House iii. the roof.
House iv. interior premises.
House v. interior decor.
House vi. modern conveniences.
A house of glass and plastics
UNIT ONE. BUILDING PROFESSIONS
George and Angela had been married for two years. At first they lived with Angela's mother, but they wanted a home of their own very much. So they put down a deposit on a new flat.
The builders had demolished two big, old houses with large gardens and they were building ten small, modern flats on the site. Most weekends George and Angela went to see how much progress the builders had made.
When the workers had cleared the site, they dug deep trenches for the foundations, the drains, the gas and water pipes, and the electricity supply. Then they began to build the brick walls. Unlike so many modern buildings, these flats were not made of concrete.
There was a lot of equipment on the site. A big crane was used to unload the lorries and there were several cement mixers. Neatly stacked in one corner there was a big pile of bricks and thirty or forty bags of cement covered with plastic sheets.
The workers had erected a small wooden hut where they made their tea and ate their sandwiches. There were bricklayers who built the walls, carpenters who were responsible for the woodwork and plumbers who installed the water pipes. There were also gas fitters and electricians
who came and went.
The foreman, responsible for co-ordinating the work of all these people, was a large, red-faced man called Bill. George and Angela got to know him quite well and occasionally he would invite them to sit down in the worker’s hut and have a mug of strong tea.
As the building got higher a scaffold was built around it and the painters arrived and began to paint all the woodwork.
One day George and Angela noticed a tall man, dressed in a dark suit, talking to Bill. Bill told them later that it was the architect, who had designed the flats. He had called at the site to see how things were progressing.
3. Study the italicized words and word combinations.
gaps in the sentences below.
An architect, bricklayers, carpenters, a cement mixer, a crane, drains, an electrician, fitters, a foreman, plumbers, a scaffold, trenches.
a) The build walls.
b) The is in charge of the other worker’s job.
f)The drew the original plans for the building. He
designed the flats.
h) The dirty water from the kitchen will escape down the____
i) Building materials are unloaded from the lorries with a___.
j) The painters don't stand on ladders to paint the upper window. A ______is built to work on.
Find out the meaning of the two words you didn't use.
a)The stone or brick base on which a building stands.
b) The underground pipe that carries dirty water away.
c) The experienced worker in charge of other workers’ job.
d) The place where building will stand,
e) The powder which is mixed with water and used to join bricks together.
1. A man who has been an apprentice for some time in a plasterer. any building trade, he may be a carpenter or a joiner, a a mason . bricklayer, a mason, a slater, a tiller, a plumber, an a bricklayer. electrician, a house painter, a glazier, a plasterer, a paper a carpenter. – hanger, a steeplejack, a hot water fitter is called … a tradesman or
What kind of work does the concrete layer (a bulldozer operator, a steeplejack, a building surveyor, a chief engineer, a work safety engineer, a crane operator, a roofer, a house painter, a glazier, a fitter, a welder, a plumber, a work superintendent (sup't), a slater, a parquet floor layer, a paper hanger, a construction site chief, a foreman) perform?
8. Make up a story about any kind of a building profession.
A bricklayer can lay and joint salt glazed stoneware drains, set, chimney pots, manhole frames and fire places. He renders brick-work, including the insides of manholes. A sewer and tunnel bricklayer is a specialized bricklayer. In some districts of Great Britain, bricklayers also fix wall and flooring tiles, and slating and lay plaster and granolithic floors. But elsewhere these are plasterer's specialties.
The two trades a carpenter and joiner were originally the same, and most men can do both, but specialize in one or the other. In the USA the term “carpenter” includes the joiner. The word is derived from the French word “carpentry” which means a wood or metal frame work.
Engineering is one of the oldest occupations in the history of mankind. Indeed, without the skills that are included in the field of engineering, our present-day civilization could never have evolved. The skilled technicians who devised irrigation system and erected the great buildings of the ancient world were the civil engineers of their time. One of the earliest names that has come down to us in history is that of Imhotep, the designer of the stepped pyramid in Sahara, Egypt about 3,000 B.C.
Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on empirical information, that is, information that depended on observation and experience rather than theoretical knowledge. Many of the structures that have survived from ancient times exist because they were built with greater strength than modern standards require. But at least the ancient engineers were sure that their buildings would last for a long time. Probably the oldest text in engineering is the work of a Roman architect and engineer named Vitruvius Pollio, who wrote a book in the first century B.C. about the engineering practised in his day. Many of the problems were similar to those that modern engineers still must confront.
Answer the following questions:
5.What kind of information were many of the early branches of
engineering based on?
6. How are the buildings that have survived from ancient times
compared with those built by modern standards?
7. What is probably the oldest textbook about engineering?
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