Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University icon

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University




Скачати 36.78 Kb.
НазваMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University
Дата03.07.2012
Розмір36.78 Kb.
ТипДокументи




Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Bukovynian State Medical University


“Approved”

on the methodical meeting

of the Department of neurology, psychiatry

and medical psychology nm. S.M.Savenko

“____” ___________ 2009 (Report № __).

Chief of the Department

_______________________

Professor V.M. Pashkovsky


Methodical INSTRUCTION

for 4-th year students of medical faculty №2

(the speciality “medical affair”)

for independent work during preparing to practical class


Theme 5: Memory disorders


MODULE 1. GENERAL QUESTIONS OF PSYCHIATRY AND NARCOLOGY. GENERAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY


Topical module 2. General psychopathology


Сhernivtsi, 2009


1. Actuality Aim

Memory is the ability of an organism to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. Reflection of separate properties of objects and phenomena of the outer world and internal state of organism, that directly influence on analyzers (feeling) is difficult psychical activity in the process of which a man cognizes surrounding the world and internal state of organism. The result of operating on the analyzers of objective reality is synthesized with the pas practical experience in one whole.

Knowledge of the state of memory of the patients are important for a doctor on all stages of diagnosis process and treatment.


^ 2. Educational purpose

2.1. A student must know:

  1. Classification of disorders of memory.

  2. Determination and clinical displays of amnesia.

  3. Determination and clinical displays of paramnesias.

  4. Objective signs of memory disorders.

  5. Psychopathological syndrome of memory disorders.

  6. Diagnostic value of disorders of memory.

  7. Peculiarities of the investigation of memory.

^ 2.2. A student must be able:

  1. To determine the rightness of orientation of patients in an own person and in an environment.

  2. To present memory disorders.

  3. To investigate the state of memory.

  4. To find out the objective signs of memory disorders.

  5. To diagnose psychopathological syndrome of memory disorders.

^ 2.3. To seize practical skills:

  1. Asked the anamnesis at patient with memory disorders.

  2. Diagnosing memory disorders.

  3. Conducting of differential diagnosis between different type of amnesias and paramnesias.

  4. Diagnosing pathopsychological syndrom of memory disorders.



^ 3. Educate purpose.

On practical employment attention of students is concentrated on knowledge of pathology of bases of conformity to the law of cognitive activity of patient, that allows a doctor to analyse diagnostic and medical processes, draw conclusions and give the correct estimation of the state of feelings and perception sick for giving him necessary medical assistance.


^ 4. Intersubject integration (base level of preparation).


Names of previous disciplines

Skills are got

1. Normal physiology

2. Medical psychology

  1. Physiology of HNS

  2. Classification of memory.


^ 5. Content of the theme.

The basic stage foresees conducting with the students of educational activity and determination of memory disorders.

Amnesia is a condition in which memory is disturbed. The causes of amnesia are organic or functional. Organic causes include damage to the brain, through trauma or disease, or use of certain (generally sedative) drugs. Functional causes are psychological factors, such as defense mechanisms. Hysterical post-traumatic amnesia is an example of this. Amnesia may also be spontaneous, in the case of transient global amnesia. This global type of amnesia is more common in middle-aged to elderly people, particularly males, and usually lasts less than 24 hours.
^

Types of amnesia


  • In anterograde amnesia, new events contained in the immediate memory are not transferred to the permanent as long-term memory, so the sufferer will not be able to remember anything that occurs after the onset of this type of amnesia for more than a brief period following the event. The complement of this is retrograde amnesia, where someone will have impaired recall of events that occurred prior to the onset of the amnesia. The terms are used to categorise patterns of symptoms, rather than to indicate a particular cause or etiology. Both categories of amnesia can occur together in the same patient, and commonly result from drug effects or damage to the brain regions most closely associated with episodic/declarative memory: the medial temporal lobes and especially the hippocampus.

  • Retrograde Amnesia is the inability to recall some memory or memories of the past, beyond ordinary forgetfulness. An example of mixed retrograde and anterograde amnesia may be a motorcyclist unable to recall driving his motorbike prior to his head injury (retrograde amnesia), nor can he recall the hospital ward where he is told he had conversations with family over the next two days (anterograde amnesia).

  • Traumatic amnesia is generally due to a head injury (fall, knock on the head). Traumatic amnesia is often transient, but may be permanent of either anterograde, retrograde or mixed type. The extent of the period covered by the amnesia is related to the degree of injury and may give an indication of the prognosis for recovery of other functions. Mild trauma, such as a car accident that could result in no more than mild whiplash, might cause the occupant of a car to have no memory of the moments just before the accident due to a brief interruption in the short/long-term memory transfer mechanism.

  • Long-term alcoholism or malnutrition can cause a type of memory loss known as Korsakoff's syndrome. This is caused by brain damage due to a Vitamin B1 deficiency and will be progressive if alcohol intake and nutrition pattern are not modified. Other neurological problems are likely to be present in combination with this type of Amnesia. Korsakoff's syndrome is also known to be connected with confabulation.

  • Short-term memory loss is a common symptom of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

  • Psychogenic amnesia results from a psychological cause as opposed to direct damage to the brain caused by head injury, physical trauma or disease, which is known as organic amnesia. This can include:

  • Dissociative amnesia is used to refer to inability to recall information, usually about stressful or traumatic events in persons' lives, such as a violent attack or rape. The memory is stored in long term memory, but access to it is impaired because of psychological defense mechanisms. Persons retain the capacity to learn new information and there may be some later partial or complete recovery of memory. This contrasts with e.g. anterograde amnesia caused by amnestics such as benzodiazepines or alcohol, where an experience was prevented from being transferred from temporary to permanent memory storage: it will never be recovered, because it was never stored in the first instance.

  • ^ Lacunar amnesia is the loss of memory about one specific event.

  • Childhood amnesia (also known as Infantile amnesia) is the common inability to remember events from one's own childhood. Whilst Sigmund Freud attributed this to sexual repression, others have theorised that this may be due to language development or immature parts of the brain. This is often exploited by the use of false memories in child abuse cases.

  • ^ Global Amnesia is total memory loss. This may be a defence mechanism which occurs after a traumatic event. Post-traumatic stress disorder can also involve the spontaneous, vivid retrieval of unwanted traumatic memories. (flash-backs)

  • Source amnesia is a memory disorder in which someone can recall certain information, but they do not know where or how they obtained the information.

Students independently under the direction of teacher inspect mentally patients with different memory disorders.


^ 5.1. Questions of controls:

  1. Classification of disorders of memory.

  2. Determination and clinical displays of amnesia.

  3. Determination and clinical displays of paramnesias.

  4. Objective signs of memory disorders.

  5. Psychopathological syndrome of memory disorders.

  6. Diagnostic value of disorders of memory.

  7. Peculiarities of the investigation of memory.




  1. Tasks for self-control.

1. The patient was brought to the reception department of a psychiatric hospital by policemen. At the reception department the patient is tense and angry. He states that his neighbor has established in his flat an apparatus, with which he records all the patient's thoughts and inserts his own thoughts into his head. Sometimes with the help of special equipment the neighbor broadcasts pro-grams, in which offends the patient in different ways. Recently the neighbor made the patient walk in the wrong direction, use obscene language in public, and produced artificial cheerfulness in him. The patient attacked his neighbor and tried to stab him with a knife.

^ Name the probable syndrome:

A. Fregoly syndrome

B. Da Casta's syndrome

C. Cotard's syndrome

D. Syndrome of intermetamorphose

E. Clerambault-Kandinsky syndrome

2. A 15-year-old teenager girl during last 4 or 5 months began to pay excessive attention to her appearance. For hours she looks at herself in the mirror, finds some defects in her face, which make it look "horrible" (states that her nose is crooked and her ears are too protruding). Thinks that every­body laughs at her. It is impossible to persuade her that she isn't right. She consulted a cosmetologist and asked him to make a plastic operation on her face.

Name the probable syndrome:

A. Hypochondriac syndrome

B. Cotard's syndrome

C. Dysmorphomanic syndrome

D. Fregoly

E. Metamorphopsia


^ 7. Tests for self-control.

1. A memory disorder in which someone can recall certain information, but they do not know where or how they obtained the information, named:

*A. Retrograde amnesia

B. Gypomnezia.

C. Anterograde amnesia.

D. Traumatic amnesia

E. Lacunar amnesia.


2. A patient actively casts aside ideas about illness and her consequences are possible, estimates the displays of illness as not "serious feelings", that is why renounces an inspection and treatment or limited to "self-treatment". Which type of reacting on illness?

A. Egocentric.

B. Harmonious.

C. Apathetical.

D. Euphoric.

*E. Anosognosia.

3. Ability to understand, recall, mobilize, and constructively integrate previous learning in meeting new situations named:

A. Feeling.

B. Perception.

C. Memory.

*D. Intellect.

E. Thought.

4. Misinterpretation perception of a true sensation of surrounding objects and phenomena of the real world name:

*A. Illusions.

B. Hallucinations.

C. Delirium.

D. Depersonalization.

E. All answers are true.

5. A sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus is named:

A. Illusions.

*B. Hallucinations.

C. Delirium.

D. Depersonalization.

E. All answers are true.

6. A psychical process by which a man represents past experience and real reality is named

A. Thoughts.

B. Perception.

C. Attention.

*D. Memory.

E. Emotions.

7. False belief, based on incorrect experience about external reality, cannot be corrected named:

*A. Delusion.

B. Neologism.

C. Verbigeration.

D. Derailment.

E. Blocking.


Literature


  1. Clinical Psychiatry from Synopsis of Psychiatry by H.I.Kaplan, B.J.Sadock. – New York: Williams @ Wilkins. – 1997.

  2. Psychiatry. Course of lectures. – Odessa: The Odessa State Medical University. – 2005. – 336 p.

  3. Lectures.

  4. Internet resource.

  5. Менделевич В.Д. Психиатрическая пропедевтика. – М.: Медицина, 1997.

  6. Морозов Т.В., Шумский Н.Г. Введение в клиническую психиатрию. – Н.Новгород: Изд-во НГМА, 1998.

  7. Попов Ю.В., Вид В.Д. Современная клиническая психиатрия. – М., 1997.

  8. Сонник Г.Т. Психіатрія: Підручник / Г.Т.Сонник, О.К.Напрєєнко, А.М.Скрипніков. – К.: Здоров’я, 2006.     



Prepared by assistant S.D.Savka

Схожі:

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of health of ukraine bukovynian state medical university

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of health of ukraine bukovynian state medical university

Ministry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University iconMinistry of Health of Ukraine Bukovynian State Medical University

Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:
Документи


База даних захищена авторським правом ©zavantag.com 2000-2013
При копіюванні матеріалу обов'язкове зазначення активного посилання відкритою для індексації.
звернутися до адміністрації
Документи