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it is true that those who ignore the lessons of history are likely to repeat the mistakes of earlier generations.

Neurology is a science about the development and functioning of the nervous system in norm and pathology. The problem of research of the brain of the person, the problem of the ratio between the brain and mentality is one of the most important tasks which were considered by the science.

The modern neurology (neuropathology) as an independent science has been established in the second half of the 19th century and it is a result of thousand-year work of many talented observers of antiquity; namely doctors, biologists, physiologists, morphologists, who studied the role of the nervous system in normal and unhealthy conditions of an organism.

An ancient Egyptian treatise concerning trauma surgery, the Edwin Smith papyrus, contains descriptions and suggests treatments for various injuries, including some of neurological nature. They describe the meninges, the external surface of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid and the intracranial pulsations. The Sumerians illustrated paraplegia caused by physical trauma. In the Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita (ancient India) discusses epilepsy and its symptoms and of possible treatments.

Slightly later, the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates was convinced that epilepsy has a natural cause, not a sacred one. The ancient Greeks also dissected the nervous system. For example, Aristotle (although he misunderstood the function of the brain) describes the meninges and also distinguishes between the cerebrum and the cerebellum. More lately, in Rome, Galen performed many dissections of the nervous system in a variety of species, including the ape. One particular discovery he made was of the importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Originally, he cut through them accidentally while performing an experiment

Neuropathology (neurology) as an independent clinical science appeared in 1862 when the department for patients with diseases of the nervous system in hospital Salpetrier near Paris was opened. Jean-Martin Sharko (1835-1893) whom we quite often we name the father of neuropathology headed it.

The first Kiev Department of neurology was founded in 1884 by M.M. Lapinsky (B.M. Mankovsky, D.I. Panchenko their mantle had fallen). The first Kharkiv Department of neurology was founded in 1884 by P.I. Kovalevsky (S.M. Davidenkov, K.I. Platonov, O.M. Grinshtein, G.D. Leshchenko their mantle had fallen). In 1922 the Ukrainian Research Institute of psychiatry and neurology was founded in Kharkiv by G.I. Geimanovitch. In 1926 the Ukrainian Institute of Clinical Psychiatry was founded by V.P. Protopopov. Now its headed professor P.V. Voloshin.

The first Russian neurologic department was opened in 1869, on the base of Catherine’s hospital. The initiator of its creation and its first head was A.J. Kozhevnikov (1836-1902). Under his initiative the first clinic of nervous diseases was constructed in Russia in 1890. Kozhevnikov is the founder of the Moscow school of neuropathologists, which was represented by the famous scientists such as L.O. Darshkevitsh, G.I. Rossolimo, S.S. Korsakov and other.

In St. Petersburg neurological science began to develop on the basis of the Department of mental diseases of Medical-surgical academy created in 1857 (since 1881- Military Medical Academy). From the end of the 80s of the 19th century the course of nervous diseases at this chair was given by Merezhkovskiy (1838-1908). In 1932 surgeon N.N.Burdenko together with neurologist V.V.Kramer created in Moscow independent institute of neurosurgery where such scientists as Irger, Arutjunov and also representative of new fields in neurology such as neurophthalmology, otorhinoneurology, neuroradiology. In 1944 in Moscow the research institute of neurology was founded.

The new stage of the development of neurology was opened by Marushi. He has described the reaction of the activation of the brainstem through the implanted electrodes. Academician Anochin described the theory of functional system.

The newest period, since the 60s-70s years of the 20th century. The ultra structure of synapses was discovered, the theory of ligand-synaptic communications was specified. In peripheral nervous system albuminous or axonal transport was found.


2700 B.C. - Shen Nung originates acupuncture.

1700 B.C. - Edwin Smith surgical papyrus written. First written record about the nervous system.

460-379 B.C. - Hippocrates discusses epilepsy as a disturbance of the brain. 460-379 B.C. - Hippocrates states that the brain is involved with sensation and is the seat of intelligence.

^ 387 B.C. - Plato teaches at Athens. Believes brain is seat of mental process.

335 B.C. - Aristotle writes about sleep; believes heart is seat of mental process

^ 1000 - Al-Zahrawi (also known as Abulcasis or Albucasis) describes several surgical treatments for neurological disorders.

1025 - Avicenna writes about vision and the eye in The Canon of Medicine.
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Lecture I iconLecture for 5 year medical students Lecture plan Definition Epidemiology

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1. /lectures_bc_6_sem/Adds/Adds_Contents.doc
2. /lectures_bc_6_sem/Adds/Adds_Credit_Assignment#1.doc
Lecture I iconLecture 3

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Lecture I iconChapter 41 plus lecture. You should keep in the memory

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Lecture I iconChapter 18 plus lecture. You should keep in the memory

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