Міністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства тестові завдання з англійської мови для студентів 1-2 курсів напряму підготовки 030504 «Економіка підприємства» icon

Міністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства тестові завдання з англійської мови для студентів 1-2 курсів напряму підготовки 030504 «Економіка підприємства»




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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ


Харківська національна академія міського господарства


ТЕСТОВІ ЗАВДАННЯ


з англійської мови

(для студентів 1-2 курсів напряму підготовки

6.030504 - «Економіка підприємства»)





Харків – ХНАМГ – 2008


Тестові завдання з англійської мови (для студентів 1-2 курсів напряму підготовки 6.030504 - «Економіка підприємства»).

Укладач: Маматова Н.В. – Харків: ХНАМГ, 2008. – 61 с.


Укладач: Н.В. Маматова


Рецензент: О.В. Маматова


Рекомендовано кафедрою іноземних мов,

протокол № 6 від 8 січня 2008 р.


INTRODUCTION

These tests have been specially designed to provide essential practice for students specializing in ^ Business Economics.

The course consists of 9 tests. Each test contains the following:

* The test in Modern English Grammar and the vocabulary

* The text followed by a number of questions.

The specific benefits of this method of presentation are as follows:

1. It provides the reader with a quick, efficient, and effective means of grasping the essential subject matter.

2. It keeps the reader active in the learning process and increases comprehension level.

When teachers use texts for reading, they are often too concerned with what was written at the expense of how. Reading in any language is an affective as well as a cognitive process. The teacher’s role is not that of corrector or judge, but rather that of enabler. The teacher assists with language, error, but should not replace the student’s perceptions with his or her own.

The following tests are to change the attitude of both teachers and students to classroom activities. The teacher who brings these tests into the study is not depriving the students of language practice, but is, instead, providing a richer context for such practice. These tests can be used for self-study, to check language and to offer a diagnostic for the students’ language development.

All the students can be directed to the Wordlist.


TEST 1

Part A

^ STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION

Directions: In this part each problem consists of an incomplete sentence.

Below the sentence are four choices marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). You should find the one choice which best completes the sentence.


1. Since the days of earliest civilization, ….. has been concerned with the problem of satisfying his unlimited wants with a limited supply of resources.

(A) man

(B) a man

(C) the man

(D) the men

2. This problem resulted in the development of the science of ….., which concerns itself with the distribution of scarce resources in a society with unlimited wants.

(A) stylistics

(B) economics

(C) ecology

(D) psychology

3. ….. scarce resources are land, labour, capital, and entrepreneurship.

(A) This

(B) These

(C) That

(D) Those

4. Land refers to all the ….. resources available to man, including water, natural minerals, timber in forests, and the land itself.

(A) artificial

(B) man-made

(C) natural

(D) common

5. Labour refers ….. the manpower necessary to transform the resources into the products and services demanded by the society.

(A) on

(B) to

(C) in

(D) of

6. Capital refers to all equipment, tools, or other items used in the transformation of resources ….. usable products.

(A) with

(B) upon

(C) from

(D) into

7. Entrepreneurship refers to the human skill of putting all of the other ….. resources together in such a way as to bring about an effective allocation of resources.

(A) two

(B) three

(C) four

(D) five

8. The entrepreneur, therefore, is the individual ….. attempts to assemble an economic unit that specializes in developing and distributing these resources.

(A) which

(B) who

(C) that

(D) what

9. Such an economic unit ….. a business.

(A) would be called

(B) is called

(C) is being called

(D) was called

10. The development of the business firm is dependent ….. the type of economic system a society adopts.

(A) with

(B) to

(C) on

(D) without

Part B TEXT 1

^ MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION

Read and translate the text using a dictionary

In order for a business firm to operate in an economy, certain objectives, policies, and procedures must be established for the various departments in the firm and for the firm as a whole. The establishment of these policies, goals, and objectives is the responsibility of the business firm’s management.

Management can be defined as the process by which the factors of production – men, materials, machines, money, and methods – are combined to achieve the various goals of the business firm.

The management process of combining the factors of production usually encompasses four or five distinct functions: (a) planning, (b) organizing, (c) actuating, and (d) controlling.

Sometimes the function of actuating is subdivided into the functions of (a) staffing and (b) directing, thus resulting in five functions of management.

Management occurs at all three levels of the business enterprise; that is, it is performed at the top, middle, and operating or supervisory management levels. While each of the functions of management is performed at all three levels of managerial control, some of the functions are concentrated at particular levels of management.

Top management comprises the corporate Board of Directors, the chairman of the board, President, vice-presidents, and any executive committees that may have been formed to help establish policy. Most of the efforts of top management are concentrated on the function of planning. The planning function determines what shall be done, how it shall be done, why it shall be done, and by whom. Planning procedures, in turn, are determined by the objectives of the firm.

The objectives of the firm are also determined by top management. These objectives may be either general objectives, such as determining the types of products the company will concentrate on producing, or the objectives may be specific. Setting a goal of a certain profitability or return on investment would be an example of a specific goal.

Middle management consists of the department heads, other general managers, and division heads. This group usually is not responsible for establishing overall company policy and goals, but is, to a large extent, the group that transforms company goals into operational policies.

Top management and middle management are jointly responsible for establishing operational policies. These policies may involve such things as the pricing policy for product lines, the financial policy of the firm, and various production policies. These policies are the guidelines for other managerial and operational decisions within the firm.

Organizing involves the utilization of men, materials, money, and machines in such a manner as to efficiently achieve the desired results. The organization may stress the methods of operation, or it may emphasize the organizational structure of the firm, stressing the managerial structure and hierarchy of command within the firm.

The actuating function concerns the blending together of all of the distinct departments and operations in the business enterprise. Coordination is vital, for example, between the sales department and the production department, so that one is not selling goods that cannot be delivered when promised, and the other is not producing goods that cannot be sold.

The control function concerns the evaluation of all of the activities of the firm and the comparison of these activities with the desired objectives of the firm. The purpose, of course, is to locate sources of inefficiency in operations. It is worth noting that this final step in the managerial structure is directly related to the first step, since many future decisions, plans, and changes in organization will depend on the results obtained from the controlling of previous tasks.


Indicate whether each of the following is true or false by writing ‘T’ or ‘F’ in the space provided.

….. 1. The management of a business establishes the firm’s policies, goals, and objectives.

….. 2. Most of the planning function in a business occurs at the middle-management level.

….. 3. The operational policies of a firm are usually set only at its top level of management.

TEST 2

Part A

^ STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION

Directions: In this part each problem consists of an incomplete sentence.

Below the sentence are four choices marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). You should

find the one choice which best completes the sentence.


1. Business, ….. definition, involves all of the activities that play a part in bringing goods and services to the ultimate consumer of those goods.

(A) by

(B) within

(C) from

(D) for

2. People ….. in business because they see the opportunity to make a profit by marketing the product or service they produce.

(A) enforce

(B) engage

(C) enfold

(D) endear

3. ….. can state, therefore, that business is primarily concerned with the satisfaction of human wants in return for a profit.

(A) You

(B) She

(C) We

(D) He

4. Profit ….. as the difference between the cost of producing or providing the product or service and the actual charge made to consumers of that product or service.

(A) ought to be viewed

(B) would be viewed

(C) could be viewed

(D) can be viewed

5. If the goods and services provided by the businessman are, ….., purchased by the consuming public, the businessman will profit.

(A) in fact

(B) for a fact

(C) fairly

(D) furthermore

6. If, ….., the entrepreneur is not successful at marketing his products, he will suffer a loss.

(A) on every hand

(B) on the right hand

(C) on the other hand

(D) on the one hand

7. In recent years, the franchise ….. the sole proprietorship, the partnership, and the corporation as a popular form of business organization.

(A) had joined

(B) has joined

(C) joined

(D) joins

8. The franchise combines elements of the sole proprietorship with ….. of a corporation.

(A) this

(B) these

(C) that

(D) those

9. Specifically, a franchise is an operating agreement ….. which one party (the franchisee) agrees to operate a business developed by another (the franchisor).

(A) into

(B) at

(C) in

(D) on

10. The franchisee agrees to pay the franchisor a fee for the use of the franchisor’s ….. .

(A) nick

(B) nickname

(C) namesake

(D) name


Part B TEXT 2

^ HUMAN RELATIONS

Read and translate the text using a dictionary

Human relations involves the activities and relationships resulting from the interaction of two or more people. In a business situation, human relations concerns the reason for the way people act and for the degree of motivation they possess. It concerns, in short, all of those activities that result because of the interaction of people. It can be seen, therefore, that knowledge and understanding of human relations is essential for a manager if he is to successfully organize the activities of people in order to attain a company’s goals and objectives.

The study of human relations was not always of paramount concern to the business executive. At one time, workers were considered in the same vein as machines, merely another ‘factor of production’. Companies were noted for the paternalistic attitude with which they treated their employees. Workers were housed, clothed, and fed by their employer – and, in turn, were expected to give absolute loyalty and

service to the company. This philosophy soon gave way to a more enlightened one – one which respected the rights and feelings of the individual worker, thereby establishing the principle of human relations.

All corporations have goals and objectives. So, too, do individuals. Often, the goals and objectives of the corporation and those of the individual are complementary; that is, they can be satisfied simultaneously. For example, the worker may desire to purchase certain material goods. The company wishes to produce goods to sell to consumers. By hiring the worker and paying him a wage, the corporation achieves its objectives as a producer, and the worker at the same time satisfies his needs as a consumer. However, such examples of physical need satisfaction do not tell the whole story. Individuals also have psychological needs which need satisfying, and sometimes these psychological needs can conflict with the satisfying of the physical needs. It is in the resolving of these psychological needs that human relations plays its important role in today’s business firm.

^ Types of Psychological Needs

Different people have different psychological needs, just as they have different physical needs. However, in a corporate enterprise, certain needs appear to recur more frequently than others.

Among the most important are: (a) status, (b) prestige, and (c) esteem.

Status can be defined as the relative position a person has achieved within the business enterprise. Status can be of two types: it may be either achieved or ascribed. Achieved status is status earned because of some personal accomplishment. A college graduate moving into a junior executive position is considered to have achieved status; his position came to him because he possessed a college degree. When people advance within a business enterprise solely because of their past performance, they can be considered to have ‘achieved’ status.

On the other hand, status may also be ascribed. Ascribed status is the attaining of a position on the basis of factors other than accomplishment. For example, if the son of President of the firm suddenly emerges as a vice-president, even though he has just joined the firm, he can be said to possess ‘ascribed’ status. Ascribed status is, as previously stated, status that befalls a person as a result of factors other than accomplishment. It may be birth, race, sex, or any other non-earned factor.

Prestige is the recognition a person receives as a result of his status. Thus, when a person achieves a position of higher status, he usually gains in prestige, since one usually follows the other.

Esteem is the regard a person is held in by his peers and subordinates or superiors. Esteem, unlike status, is usually the result of accomplished activity.

Indicate whether each of the following is true or false by writing ‘T’ or ‘F’ in the space provided.

….. 1. In many instances, the goals of a business and those of its employees can be satisfied simultaneously.

….. 2.’Achieved’ status may be obtained by education, experience, or a combination of the two.

….. 3.’Ascribed’ status is usually earned.


TEST 3

Part A

^ STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION

Directions: In this part each problem consists of an incomplete sentence.

Below the sentence are four choices marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). You should

find the one choice which best completes the sentence.


1. The internal organization of a business firm is ….. on several factors.

(A) contingent

(B) contented

(C) contentious

(D) contemptuous

2. The size of ….. business firm plays an important part in determining the organizational structure of that business.

(A) a

(B) an

(C) the

(D) –

3. The optimal internal organization for a sole proprietorship, for example, may not work ….. well for a large corporation.

(A) out and out

(B) out and away

(C) outwards

(D) out

4. ….., the dependency on a particular product or product line may cause the adoption of an organizational form that, for one reason or another, is suited to the production of that product.

(A) Too

(B) As well

(C) Also

(D) Again

5. ….., the philosophy of management is important.

(A) Finally

(B) However

(C) Moreover

(D) Additionally

6. Some managerial personnel are strict advocates of a strong centralized operation; others favour a ….. decentralized approach.

(A) many

(B) most

(C) more

(D) –

7. The choice of the two will greatly ….. the type of organization the firm adopts.

(A) affect

(B) effect

(C) effectuate

(D) efface

8. The line organization is characterized by a vertical ….. of command, running from a supervisor to his subordinates.

(A) stream

(B) chain

(C) flow

(D) range

9. The flow of authority and responsibility is also ….. .

(A) pernicious

(B) perpetual

(C) perpendicular

(D) vertical

10. Workers know definitely to whom they report, and ….. shifting of responsibility is avoided.

(A) while

(B) if

(C) thus

(D) however


Part B TEXT 3

PRODUCTION

Read and translate the text using a dictionary

Production can be defined as the process by which raw materials are transformed into items possessing increased value because of their form utility. Production management involves the general managerial elements of planning, organizing, decision making, and controlling. In production management, however, these elements are directly related to the questions of (a) product development, (b) production capacity, (c) production layout, (d) cost of production, and (e) production control.

Product Development

Product development involves the basic decision of what to produce. This decision concerns not only the general product line to be manufactured, but also considers the problems of size requirements, the desirability of different types or models of the product, and the design of the product. Because the development of new products is essential to the survival of the firm, it must be a total company effort. In a truly integrated business situation, product development will involve the opinions of the marketing personnel (who probably have the best idea of what the potential customer wants) and the finance personnel (who can translate the complexities of the manufacture of these goods into the financial needs and costs for the firm as a whole).

^ Production Capacity

Production capacity is concerned with those factors relating to the size of the manufacturing operation. Obviously, a primary determinant of the desired production capacity is the size of the projected market. The larger the potential market, the greater the production capacity will need to be. Similarly, the type of product, the size of the market, and the desired level of output will greatly influence the type of building that will house the production facility. The decision on the type of building will have to consider such factors as (a) impact on employee morale, (b) cost, (c) storage space, and (d) the efficient movement of materials and product through the plant.

Questions regarding machinery needs will be considered in this phase of the production cycle also. Whether the factory will utilize blast furnaces, numerically controlled machines, or large assembly lines will enter into this phase of the production decision.

^ Production Layout

The production layout will depend on the nature of the product being produced. Some goods are produced continuously (referred to as continuous production), that is, the machines and labour are producing around the clock. Steel companies produce continuously, since it would entail too much wasted time and money to reheat the blast furnaces every day. Other companies produce intermittently (referred to as intermittent production), that is, they produce goods during part of the day only. Most companies produce on an intermittent basis.

Similarly, some goods can be mass-produced. Such items require a certain layout to facilitate the continuous flow of materials. Other companies produce goods on a ‘custom-made’ basis. For such goods, the internal plant layout may be completely different than that used for a mass production item.

^ Cost of Production

The fundamental cost considerations regarding production are two-fold. The first cost factor concerns the level of fixed costs that need to be incurred in order for production to occur. Fixed costs are those costs that must be incurred regardless of the level of production undertaken. For example, the cost of heating the plant, taxes, executive salaries, and fixed depreciation expenses of machines are costs that remain fairly constant even though production varies. The second cost factor incurred by the business firm involves variable costs. These are costs that vary directly with the level of production undertaken. Examples of these costs would be wages paid to labourers, electricity used to run the machines, cost of storage of goods, and to some extent, the fuel used to run the machines.

The level of fixed costs is a vital factor in determining the break-even point. The break-even point is that level of output that must be produced and sold in order for revenues to exactly equal costs. It is, in essence, the level of output necessary to produce zero profit. Obviously, the sooner a firm can reach its break-even point, the sooner it will begin making profits. It should be noted that firms utilizing continuous production usually have a higher level of fixed costs – and, therefore probably have a higher break-even point than firms producing intermittently.

^ Production Control

The final stage in the production cycle concerns production control. Production control involves the activities of (1) routing the materials of production through the plant, (2) inspecting the production channel for ways of improving and increasing output, (3) controlling the purchase of raw materials that enter the production cycle, and (4) managing the inventory of finished goods that are awaiting sale.


Indicate whether each of the following is true or false by writing ‘T’ or ‘F’ in the space provided.

….. 1. Marketing personnel are often involved in product development decisions.

….. 2. Most manufacturing companies produce on a continuous basis.

….. 3. Wages paid to production workers are an example of fixed costs.

….. 4. A firm earns no profit until it surpasses its break-even point.


TEST 4

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