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Змістto pay attention to importance of deontological, ethics moments of radiotherapy of oncological patients
V. Plan and organizatio of practical lesson
L = ii-iii
5.2.2. Basic stage
6.1. Place of conducting of lesson
6.3. Materials of control of basic (initial level) preparation of students
Methodical Instruction of practical lesson № 1
Theme: Basic characteristic of ionizing radiation. Biological effect of ionizing radiation on a healthy and pathologically changed mew
I. Actuality of theme:
With a medical purpose the ionizing radiation is used in oncology in general. Among the reasons of death rate the oncologic diseases take II place in the world of after the cardio-vascular diseases. On consideration in Ukraine about 1 million of oncologic patients are treated per year. Annual growth of morbidity on a cancer makes 3%. Dise every year about 100 thousand oncological patients, and more a third part of those quantity, who has primary spoted cancer, dies during the 1 year. About 50-60% of oncological patients, that is a 80-90 thousands, need radiational therapy.
ІІ. Training purpose:
2.1. A student must know:
2.2 To Be Able:
ІІІ. Educational purpose:
IV. Intersubject integration.
5.1. Duration of lesson - 2 hours.
5.2. Stages of lesson (table):
5.2.1. Preparatory stage:
At the beginning of lesson a teacher acquaints students with the basic tasks of lesson, plan. For the control of initial level of knowledges of students to each of them the list of tests is offered. The analysis of basic properties of ionizing radiation is conducted.
Radiology began with Wilhelm Conrad Rцntgen’s discovery of x-rays in 1895.It was such an important advance in medicine that within ten years radiology was being used all over the Western world. In 1901, Roentgen received the first Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1905 the first English book on chest radiography was published. During World War I, Maria Skłodowska-Curie pushed for the use of mobile radiography units for the treatment of wounded soldiers. She personally provided the radon tubes for the French Army. In 1920 the Society of Radiographers was formed. In 1924 Gilbert Stead published his Elementary Physics for medical and radiology students, helping bring radiology to the level of a generally recognized medical specialty. In 1937 a patient with leukemia was treated at the University of California, Berkeley in the first therapeutic use of radioactivity for cancer. Also in 1937, Joseph Gilbert Hamilton started to use radioactive iodine as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent in the treatment of thyroid disease.
Nuclear medicine has a complex and multifaceted heritage. The roots of nuclear medicine go back to Henri Becquerel's discovery of radioactivity in 1896. The idea that radioactivity results from the spontaneous discharge of an element was developed by Frederick Soddy in 1903. Ernerst 0. Lawrence developed the cyclotron in 1931, and paved the way for major experiments later conducted at the Radium Institute in Paris. Irene Curie, the daughter of Pierre and Marie, and her husband, Frederic Joliot, produced artificial radioactive isotopes in early 1934. After the Joliot-Curie announcement, physicists from around the world began to search for additional types of radioactive isotopes. Within twelve months, over a hundred new forms of artificial radioactive material had been discovered. The origins of Nuclear Medicine stem from many scientific discoveries, most notably the discovery of x-rays in 1895 and the discovery of "artificial radioactivity" in 1934. The first clinical use of "artificial radioactivity" was carried out in 1937 for the treatment of a patient with leukaemia at the University of California at Berkeley.
A landmark event for nuclear medicine occurred in 1946 when a thyroid cancer patient's treatment with radioactive iodine caused complete disappearance of the spread of the patient's cancer. This has been considered by some as the true beginning of nuclear medicine. Widespread clinical use of nuclear medicine, however, did not start until the early 1950s.
The value of radioactive iodine became apparent as its use increased to measure the function of the thyroid and to diagnose thyroid disease. Simultaneously, more and more physicians begin to use "nuclear medicine" for the treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism. The concept of nuclear medicine was a dramatic breakthrough for diagnostic medicine. Moreover, the ability to treat a disease with radiopharmaceuticals and to record and make a "picture" of the form and structure of an organ was invaluable.
In the mid-sixties and the years that followed, the growth of nuclear medicine as a speciality discipline was phenomenal. The advances in nuclear medicine technology and instrument manufacturers were critical to this development.
The 1970s brought the visualisation of most other organs of the body with nuclear medicine, including liver and spleen scanning, brain tumour localisation, and studies of the gastrointestinal track.
The 1980s provided the use of radiopharmaceuticals for such critical diagnoses as heart disease and the development of cutting-edge nuclear medicine cameras and computers. The use of computers, laser printers and software has transformed Nuclear Medicine. Today, there are nearly 100 different nuclear medicine procedures that uniquely provide information about virtually every major organ system within the body. Nuclear medicine is an integral part of patient care, and an important diagnostic and therapeutic speciality in the armamentarium of medical science.
5.3. Control questions to the theme of lesson:
1. History of researching of radioactivity: basic stages of development of radiology.
2. Nature and properties of ionizing radiations: x-rays, neutrons and protons.
3. Structure of radiological departments for work with the opened and closed radio-active matters. Types of radiological departments.
4. Basic normative documents, that regulate work of radiological departmentss.
5. Methods of defence during work with the sources of ionizing radiation.
6. Biological effect of ionizing radiation on all levels of organizations of organism.
8. Direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation on human organisms.
9. Specific, individual and age varieties of radiosensitivity.
10. Mutagenic effect of radiation.
11. Influence of external factors on radiosensitivity of organism.
12. Radio-activity, units of radio-activity. Types of radio-active disintegration.
5.4. Final stage.
The control of solution of tasks and eventual level of knowledges is conducted by their verification and raising of questions of practical direction. Rating of mastering the material of theme is depends on theoretical knowledges, practical skills, independent work of studrnt.
In a result a teacher considers typical errors which are assumed by students at implementation of self-education work and assigns to a next lesson. A teacher sets the homework, recommends literature after the theme of the following lesson^: basic and additional.
VІ. Materials for the methodical providing of lesson.
^ class room, department of radial therapy.
6.2. Material providing of lesson:
-- characteristic of radiomodifiers.
Tests for determination of initial level of knowledges
1. Who discover the phenomen of radioactivity?
а) William Conradom Rentgenom;
б) Antouanom Anri Beccerelem;
в) Maria Sclodovscoyo Curie.
2. Name intergovernmental organization on the questions of the peaceful use of atomic energy.
3. What types of radiations are ionizing s?
б) Ultraviolet rays;
в) Infra-red radiation;
4. Physical characteristic of gamma-radiation.
а) stream of electrons;
б) corpuscular radiation.
в) electromagnetic vibrations;
5. Physical characteristic of beta-radiation.
а) electromagnetic vibrations;
б) stream of electrons;
в) neutron radiation.
6. What organs in radial therapy are named critical.
а) are pathologically changed;
7. Indicate the most effective principle of defence during work with the powerful sources of ionizing radiations.
а) Defence by a quantity;
б) Defence by time;
в) Defence by distance;
г) Defence by screens;
д) All marked;
е) No one of marked.
8. What organs is most radiosensetive?
в) Lens of the eye.
9. In obedience to NRBOu to A group what type of populations belong:
а) nurse of radial therapy;
б) patalogoanatomist of oncologic dispansery;
в) patient which gets radial therapy.
10. Absolutely mortal radiation dose for all body:
а) 4 Gr;
б) 6 Gr;
в) 2 Gr;
г) 10 Gr.
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