Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages icon

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages




Скачати 40.02 Kb.
НазваMethodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages
Дата15.07.2012
Розмір40.02 Kb.
ТипДокументи


Methodical Instruction of practical lesson № 6

Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages.


I. Actuality of theme:

With a medical purpose the ionizing radiation is used not only in oncology. Radial therapy is very useful at medical treatment of furuncles, carbuncles, neuritises, neuralgias, pain syndrome, arthritis and some other. Radial therapy in such cases is used after individual indications only, if other non-radial methodss are not effective.


ІІ. Training purpose:

2.1. A student must know:

  • methods of radial therapy for medical treatment of non-tumular diseases;

  • local doses valid and total for one session during radial therapy of non-tumular diseases;

  • intervals between sessions during radial therapy of non-tumular diseases;

  • local radial reactions and complications, medical treatment.


2.2 To Be Able:

  • exactly to define a location of pathological process

  • to work out a plan of radial therapy (choice of methods and technique of radiation).


ІІІ. Educational purpose:
  • ^

    to pay attention to importance of deontological, ethics moments of radiotherapy of oncological patients;

IV. Intersubject integration.





The name of discipline and proper department

To Know

To Be Able

Physiology (department of normal and pathological physiology)

Metabolic processes in a mew, physiology of exchange of matters and crovotvorennya

To be able to determine the pathological changes in the organism cased by radiation

Topographical anatomy

Anatomy of organs, their topography

To project a location of organ on body surface
^

V. Plan and organization of practical lesson


5.1. Duration of lesson - 2 hours.

5.2. Stages of lesson (table):


№ p.p.

Basic stages of lesson

Educational purpose in the levels of mastering

Methods of control

Time

1.

Preparatory stage:

-organization of lesson;

-determination of educational purpose and motivation;

-control of initial level of knowledges, abilities and skills;


^ L = II-III

Frontal questioning, test control (sets of tests).

15
min.

2.

Basic stage:

forming of professional abilities and skills:
teaching of a new material and work in the department of radial therapy conducted with active participation of students;

б) a teacher explains, what local and total doses must be for the acute, subacute and chronic inflammation diseases.

в) a teacher indicates on the general and local reactions at radial therapy, clinic, medical treatment, prophylaxis.


L= ІІІ

In written form to name:

- 1) what method of radial therapy is used for acute, subacute and chronic inflammation diseases.

60 min.

3.

Final stage:

- control and correction of level of professional skills and knowledges;

- general result of lesson;

- homework.


L= ІІІ


L = ІІ


Individual control of results of writing works.

Solution of tests.

Tests and standards of answers.

15 min.


5.2.1. Preparatory stage:

At the beginning of lesson a teacher acquaints students with the basic tasks of lesson, plan. For the control of initial level of knowledges of students to each of them the list of tests is offered.
^

5.2.2. Basic stage:


Forming of professional abilities and skills in radial therapy is conducted by exposition of radial methods in treatment of acute, subacute and chronical inflammation diseases, study of general and local reactions at radial therapy.

Damage, possibly severe, to epithelial surfaces (skin, oral, pharyngeal and bowel mucosa, urothelium)

The rates of onset and of recovery depend on the rate of turnover of the epithelial cells. Typically the skin starts to become pink and sore several weeks into treatment. The reaction may become more severe during the treatment and for up to about one week following the end of radiotherapy, and the skin may break down. Although this moist desquamation is uncomfortable, recovery is usually quick. Skin reactions tend to be worse in areas where there are natural folds in the skin, such as underneath the female breast, behind the ear, and in the groin.

Similarly, the lining of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and bowel may be damaged by radiation. If the head and neck area is treated, temporary soreness and ulceration commonly occur in the mouth and throat. If severe, this can affect swallowing, and the patient may need painkillers and nutritional support. The esophagus can also become sore if it is treated directly, or if, as commonly occurs, it receives a dose of collateral radiation during treatment of lung cancer.

The lower bowel may be treated directly with radiation (treatment of rectal or anal cancer) or be exposed by radiotherapy to other pelvic structures (prostate, bladder, female genital tract). Typical symptoms are soreness, diarrhoea, and nausea.

Swelling (edema or Oedema)

As part of the general inflammation that occurs, swelling of soft tissues may cause problems during radiotherapy. This is a concern during treatment of brain tumours and brain metastases, especially where there is pre-existing raised intracranial pressure or where the tumour is causing near-total obstruction of a lumen (e.g., trachea or main bronchus). Surgical intervention may be considered prior to treatment with radiation. If surgery is deemed unnecessary

Infertility

The gonads (ovaries and testicles) are very sensitive to radiation. They may be unable to produce gametes following direct exposure to most normal treatment doses of radiation. Treatment planning for all body sites is designed to minimize, if not completely exclude dose to the gonads if they are not the primary area of treatment.

Generalized fatigue
^

Medium and long-term side effects


These depend on the tissue that received the treatment; they may be minimal.

Fibrosis

Tissues which have been irradiated tend to become less elastic over time due to a diffuse scarring process.

Hair loss

This may be most pronounced in patients who have received radiotherapy to the brain. Unlike the hair loss seen with chemotherapy, radiation-induced hair loss is more likely to be permanent, but is also more likely to be limited to the area treated by the radiation.

Dryness

The salivary glands and tear glands have a radiation tolerance of about 30 Gy in 2 Gy fractions, a dose which is exceeded by most radical head and neck cancer treatments. Dry mouth (xerostomia) and dry eyes (xerophthalmia) can become irritating long-term problems and severely reduce the patient's quality of life. Similarly, sweat glands in treated skin (such as the armpit) tend to stop working, and the naturally moist vaginal mucosa is often dry following pelvic irradiation.

Cancer

Radiation is a potential cause of cancer, and secondary malignancies are seen in a very small minority of patients, generally many years after they have received a course of radiation treatment. In the vast majority of cases, this risk is greatly outweighed by the reduction in risk conferred by treating the primary cancer.
^

Cumulative side effects


Cumulative effects from reirradiation should not be confused with long-term effects—when short-term effects have disappeared and long-term effects are subclinical, reirradiation can still be problematic


5.4. Final stage.

The control of solution of tasks and eventual level of knowledges is conducted by their verification and raising of questions of practical direction. Rating of mastering the material of theme is depends on theoretical knowledges, practical skills, independent work of studrnt.

In a result a teacher considers typical errors which are assumed by students at implementation of self-education work and assigns to a next lesson. A teacher sets the homework, recommends literature after the theme of the following lesson^: basic and additional.


VІ. Materials for the methodical providing of lesson.


^ 6.1. Place of conducting of lesson: class room, department of radial therapy.


6.2. Material providing of lesson:

Tables:

  • types of radial therapy;

  • methods ofrradiation;

  • principles of planning of radial therapy at patients with the malignant tumours of uterus.


^ 6.3. Materials of control of basic (initial level) preparation of students

Tests for determination of initial level of knowledges

1. What interval between sessions of radiation of non-tumular diseases?

а) 1 per on a day;

б) 2 times per a day;

в) 1 per a week.


2. At medical treatment of what diseases with radial therapy can be used?

а) hepatitis;

б) heart attack;

в) neuralgia;

г) pneumonia.


3. At medical treatment of what diseases radial therapy can be used?

а) gastritis;

б) pain syndrome;

в) cranial-cerebral trauma;

г) pneumonia.


4. The common radial damage is:

а) chronic radiation disease;

б) erythema;

в) gastritis.


5. Erythema comes after a dose:

а) 10 Gr;

б) 20 Gr;

в) 30 Gr;

г) 40 Gr.


VІІ. Literature


Схожі:

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconMethodical Instruction of practical lesson №5 Theme: Radial therapy of tumors of different locations

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconMethodical Instruction of practical lesson №3 Theme: Principles and methods of radial therapy

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconMethodical Instruction of practical lesson №1

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconMethodical Instruction of practical lesson №1

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconMethodical Instruction of practical lesson №4

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconMethodical working out for students a theme: «Rheumatic diseases»

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconDepartment of Children’s diseases №1 Theme-based plan practical lessons for the students of V year of study

Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconDepartment of nervous diseases, psychiatry and medical psychology
Ера, wpa), European Association of Gestalt-therapy (eag), European Association of Positive Therapy (eapt), etc
Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconDepartment of nervous diseases, psychiatry and medical psychology
Ера, wpa), European Association of Gestalt-therapy (eag), European Association of Positive Therapy (eapt), etc
Methodical Instruction of practical lesson №6 Theme: Radial therapy of non-tumular diseases. Radial reactions and damages iconTheme № theme: Acute diseases of external and middle ear

Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:
Документи


База даних захищена авторським правом ©zavantag.com 2000-2013
При копіюванні матеріалу обов'язкове зазначення активного посилання відкритою для індексації.
звернутися до адміністрації
Документи