Г. В. Стадник методичні вказівки до практичних занять icon

Г. В. Стадник методичні вказівки до практичних занять

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Харківська національна академія міського господарства

До друку

Перший проректор

Г.В. Стадник


до практичних занять


з англійської мови

( для студентів 1-2 курсів спеціальностей

6.070800 – «Екологія та охорона навколишнього середовища», 6.092600 – «Водопостачання та водовідведення»,

6.092100 – «Теплогазопостачання та вентиляція» )

ХНАМГ – 2007

Методичні вказівки до практичних занять “Рольові ігри” з англійської мови (для студентів 1-2 курсів спеціальностей 6.070800 – «Екологія та охорона навколишнього середовища», 6.092600 – «Водопостачання та водовідведення», 6.092100 – «Теплогазопостачання та вентиляція»).

Укладач: Маматова Н.В. – Харків: ХНАМГ, 2007. – 68 с.

Укладач: Маматова Н.В.

Рецензент: О.В. Маматова

Рекомендовано кафедрою іноземних мов,

протокол № 2 від 25 вересня 2007 р.


These instructions are compiled for students specializing in ^ Ecology and Environmental Protection, Wastewater Treatment, Heat & Gas Supply and Ventilation. The purpose of the instructions is to develop students’ creativity with language.

The instructions comprise 2 sections:

* Section 1 provides the learners of English with role plays.

* Section 2 provides the learners of English with original texts for reading from the latest books and journals.

^ Role playing is a powerful learning tool. Role plays are extremely useful in that they are often used in business training. However, learners of English may take a little while to get used to. There are two main difficulties:

1. Students who are not used to role plays are stuck for ideas and do not know what to say.

2. Students may know what they want to say, but may not have the necessary language to do so.

In consequence, when preparing various types of role play, it is very important to bear in mind that students may require help, both with ideas and with language.

In these instructions, ways of stimulating ideas are suggested in the warm-up phase, and on the role cards. Techniques for eliciting students’ own personal experience, charts, functional guides, and reading texts are used. As for the language, it is assumed that the students will have been presented with some relevant structures earlier, and that the role play is the active phase of the learning. Even so, it is often a good idea to elicit certain appropriate structures and vocabulary before the activity begins, and leave these on the blackboard for reference. Some help can be given on the role cards, but these should not be overloaded or the students will be tempted to follow them too closely and simply recite the structures offered, instead of developing their own resources.

If the dramatic dimension of the role play is lacking, do not be disappointed, and do not let your students be disappointed. Remember that role play is not a performance, but a process. Your students will have learnt something from the experience even if they remain convinced that they are only third-rate actors and actresses.

All the learners of English can be directed to Wordlist.

Section1. Role Plays

^ 1.1 Friends of the Earth

Students playing the parts of conservationists and the arms lobby, decide whether to put a ban on hunting in a country in south-eastern Europe.


Lower intermediate upwards (depending on the level of the article used to prompt the role play).


20 minutes


To use a short newspaper article to stimulate ideas for a role play on a disputable issue.


Functions: expressing opinions, presenting arguments, convincing other people.


The class is divided in half.


Make photocopies of the newspaper article entitled ‘^ Proposed Ban on Hunting in Scanovia’, see pages 5-6. Ask the students to read the article, either for homework or in class.


Ask the students which blood sports are practised in their countries. What do they think about them? If there is no spontaneous reaction, elicit responses to the idea of fox-hunting, hare-hunting, etc.


1. Divide the class in half, on one side the conservationists, and on the other side the hunting and shooting lobby.

2. Make sure the students have read the article, and understand the situation.

3. Give the class a time limit of ten minutes to discuss and reach a solution: will they ban shooting or not, or will they reach a compromise solution?

4. Bring the two halves together and initiate a debate, which should take about ten minutes. At the end of the activity, either decide yourself whether a ban should be imposed, or let the students decide which side has won.


Ask the students to list the arguments used for and against the issue.


Divide the class into pairs or small groups, and ask the students to list all the aspects of the environment that are threatened. After ten minutes, ask the groups to swap their lists and note down the possible solutions to the problems on the list they have been given.


Proposed Ban on Hunting in Scanovia

Conservationists’ aim is to force the government to take steps to protect the country’s wildlife. Every year, according to the biggest sportsmen’s association, Scanovia’s gunlicence holders fire 500 million shots during the seven-month shooting season.

As a result, many species, such as pheasants, hares, and thrushes, have almost dis­appeared.

The netting of birds is theoretically banned, but is still openly practised by ‘hun­ters’ who have been granted special licences by the local authorities. The tradition of killing a wide variety of small birds, including blackbirds and sparrows, means that most of the woods are sadly empty of bird life. And because there are few gamekeepers, even protected species are threatened.

The solution of a total, though probably only tempor­ary, ban on shooting is seen by most local conservationists as the only solution to a desperate situation.

Scanovia’s powerful hunting lobby, which, because of busi­ness from the manufacture of firearms and ammunition, spans all the political parties, is preparing its political ammuni­tion. It hopes to rush through new legislation to protect its interests. It believes the prob­lem can be solved by raising birds and animals in special reserves to replace the hunted species.

^ 1.2 Food for Thought


This role play runs in exactly the same way as the previous one, except that the class is divided into vegetarians and gourmets. Begin by asking the class to read the following article:


Food Customs

The Pelican

A wonderful bird is the pelican,

His bill will hold more than

his belican [‘belly can’]

… from Dixon Merritt (1879-1954)

A pelican is a bird with a very large bill, or beak. He uses his beak to pick up a lot of fish. He can’t eat all the fish at one time. He must hold them in his beak until his stomach is ready. Of course, this doesn’t bother the pelican at all. It is his habit to eat this way. However, it seems strange to the poet Dixon Merritt.

People have food habits and customs, too. These are activities that we do all the time. But people are different from pelicans. We tell our children not to take too much food. ‘Your eyes are bigger than your stomach,’ we say. It is too bad to take more food than we can eat.

Other food customs tell us not to eat certain kinds of food. The health food movement is new, but it is popular. These people don’t eat much sugar, and they don’t drink strong coffee, tea, or alcohol. Vegetarians don’t eat meat. There are many reasons for this. They don’t want to kill animals. They don’t want to become fat, and meat has a lot of fat. Some vegetarians just don’t like the taste of meat. They are avoiding fast food, such as McDonald’s hamburgers, fried chicken and junk food, such as potato chips and candy. We have another saying about food: ‘One man’s meat is another man’s poison.’


Ask the class to discuss the issue of food customs. Students list the arguments used for and against the issue.


Ask them to discuss the following questions: 1. What kind of food do you eat? 2. Do you follow any food laws? 3. What is junk food? 4. Why is junk food harmful? 5. Do you live to eat…or do you eat to live…?

Word Puzzle

This is a spelling game in which you must change the words by changing one letter at a time. To help you, there is a definition by each word.

a. Can you change the word food to the word pork?

1. food something to eat

2. good not bad

3. wood comes from trees

4. word made of letters

5. work your job

6. fork used for eating

7. pork meat from a pig

b. Now change the word fire to mine.

1. fire burns things

2. …. four plus one

3. …. Thin people eat to live.

Fat people …. to eat.

4. …. Pelicans …. to eat fish.

5. …. a short name for Michael

6. …. Cats eat ….

7. mine Not yours

c. And what word will you make at the end of this puzzle?

1. read You can …. a book.

2. …. true, genuine

3. …. breakfast, lunch, or dinner

4. …. pork or beef

5. …. We …. with oil or wood

6. …. hit or strike

7. …. a bird’s mouth

^ 1.3 What Shall We Do with the Money?

The students have raised a considerable sum of money for aid to the Third World, and cannot decide which of three projects to devote the funds to.


Intermediate upwards


30 minutes


To provide a framework for informal discussion.


Functions: reporting, expressing an opinion.


Groups of three students.


Make enough photocopies of the texts to each group, see pages 9-11.


1. Divide the students into groups of three.

2. Explain the following situation: the students are responsible for spending the money raised by charity for a Third World project.

3. Distribute one copy of each text to each group. Ask each student to read aloud one of the texts to the others.

4. Ask the other members of the group to take notes, and at the end discuss the merits of each project, and agree to adopt one of them.

5. Give the groups about half an hour for the reading and discussion stages, and then ask them, in turn, to report back their decision to the whole class, giving reasons for their choice.



Deforestation is the Third World’s most serious environmental problem. Finding firewood for heat and cooking has become a huge challenge in many of the poorer parts of the globe. The women of the Ivory Coast spend four to six hours a day, three days a week just looking for wood for fuel. It is reported that the wood shortage is so acute in the mountainous Himalayan kingdom of Nepal that children miss three days of school a week because they have to hunt for firewood.

Plant-a-Tree is an organization which is fighting against the devastating threat of deforestation in the world. Some countries in which this organization has had some influence have doubled their forested areas in just thirty years. However, in many parts of the globe the problems of the moment use up all available funds, and it is for this reason that Plant-a-Tree is launching an appeal to enable it to reforest vast areas that are desperately in need. Money is also needed to send experts to make sure that the reforestation takes place in the best conditions, and to educate local people who at present do not always understand the problems and do not look as far ahead as the year 2007.

If forests continue to decline, deserts will continue to gain ground. The result of this is easy to predict: more famine, more poverty, and more dependence of the Third World on the handouts from the developed countries.


Working Your Way out of Poverty

The Design Council has launched an appeal for funds for research and development under the title ‘Design for Need’. The funds will be given to an organization called Intermediate Technology, whose chief concern is to take into account the particular local needs of a poor country. They aim to develop technologies to allow quite poor people to work their way out of poverty.

Intermediate Technology point out the incredible waste of sending large-scale, capital intensive machinery to poorer countries where complicated maintenance is not possible because of the lack of local know-how, and the prohibitive cost of importing regular maintenance staff. They quote examples of complicated hydraulic pumps lying inactive, and of heavy industrial saws that cannot be transported on bad roads to places where they could be used.

Examples of some of the technologies they would like to see developed are simple machines manufactured with local materials, such as those needed by the makers of fishing nets in Southern India to enable them to compete again with the sophisticated Japanese machinery used in Bombay and Madras; portable saws which can turn out good quality wood on the forest floor wherever it is needed, or again, water pumping windmills in areas which have never been able to tap underground water and which can transform a small desert community into a productive farming unit.



Food for Africa

People in Ethiopia and other parts of Africa are dying in huge numbers for the simple reason that they are not getting enough to eat. One of the reasons for this is that lush and fertile areas have become desert-like because of drought, and bad farming. People in such areas are being ‘resettled’ and, in the meantime may spend months, if not years, in resettlement camps. Finding enough food to feed people in the camps has become a nightmare. Even worse is the fact that many thousands of people have escaped and returned to their desert homeland because of the wretched conditions in the camps, and because they fear being moved further on. It is vital that money be found to finance the transport of food to these outlying areas, not accessible by normal transport. This means aeroplanes that can dump sacks of grain much nearer to the scattered villages where people need them. At the moment, the mountain inhabitants have to walk fifty kilometres once a month to collect their dry rations, which are barely enough to feed their families anyway. More and more people are so undernourished that they are dying on the way.

The organization, Concern, strongly believes that this is where any available money should go right now: to the resettlement areas and to the people who are refusing to leave their traditional homelands. We believe that first things come first, and that your money makes the difference between life and death.

Arrange a talk on the following topic:

The problem of the environmental protection.

^ 1.4 After the Earthquake

As a result of an earthquake disaster, the authorities of a Pacific island have decided to relocate the inhabitants of the disaster area, which is regularly hit by earthquakes. They meet with local opposition.


Lower intermediate upwards


10-15 minutes


To develop informal and formal discussion skills.


Functions: defending a point of view, persuading, agreeing, disagreeing.


Small groups of three, four or six students.


Prepare ‘inhabitants’ role cards for half the class and ‘local authority’ role cards for the other half, see pages 13-14.


Ask the class if anybody has lived through an earthquake. What are the consequences of earthquakes?


1. Divide the class into small groups of three or four students, half of which are villagers and the other half are members of the local authority.

2. Explain the following situation: the village of Akoto has recently been devastated by a tidal wave caused by an earthquake, which struck just off the coast of the village. One hundred and three people are missing or dead, four hundred and sixty homes were completely destroyed and thirty-five thousand homes are still, three weeks later, without electricity. The inhabitants who lost their homes are now living in a temporary camp on the outskirts of the village. The authorities are refusing to rebuild the village and want to relocate the inhabitants on another island. The villagers are refusing to leave.

3. Give each group the relevant role cards.

4. Allow five to ten minutes for the groups to prepare their arguments.

5. After this time regroup the class: one group of villagers, with one group from the local authority. Ask them to reach a solution: will the villagers move or not?

6. After a set time limit (probably ten minutes), ask each group to report back its decision to the whole class.


If the villagers lose their case, ask the class to write a letter introducing a petition to gain more support for their case. If they win, ask the class to ‘rebuild’ the community by drawing a new plan for the village.


It is easy to adapt this role play to any other rehousing or relocation problem that may be in the news or relevant to your students, for example, volcano activity, chemical pollution of an area, etc.


The Villagers

Your arguments are:

- This is the first time such a strong earthquake has hit your village. It is not likely to happen again.

- You would like to rebuild your village using modern construction techniques which will resist future earthquakes.

- All your family and friends live on this island. You do not wish to sever ties by being moved to another island.

- Your livelihood is here in Akoto. You are a fishing community. You do not trust the authorities to provide you with an equivalent source of income.


The Local Authority

Your arguments are:

- The earthquake was 7.7 on the Richter scale. This is very serious. Earthquakes in this area have been occurring more and more often and getting worse and worse.

- You do not think that technology is available to make safe housing for the villagers under these conditions. It would, in any case, be very expensive.

- You are planning on evacuating the whole island gradually, and you must explain this to the villagers so that they understand that their families and communities will not be able to stay together in the long term anyway.

- You are prepared to do everything you can to make sure that the relocation is successful, both as far as housing and livelihood are concerned. You will, for example, provide new modernized fishing boats for the community.
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