Випуск 1 (3), 2011 До випуску ввійшли наукові матеріали міжнародної наукової конференції «Інформаційна безпека держави: теоретичний та практичний виміри» icon

Випуск 1 (3), 2011 До випуску ввійшли наукові матеріали міжнародної наукової конференції «Інформаційна безпека держави: теоретичний та практичний виміри»




НазваВипуск 1 (3), 2011 До випуску ввійшли наукові матеріали міжнародної наукової конференції «Інформаційна безпека держави: теоретичний та практичний виміри»
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^ ДЖЕРЕЛА ТА ЛІТЕРАТУРА


  1. Грановский В. Современные фабрики мысли / В. Грановский. – К.: Агентство гуманитарных технологий, 1999.

  2. Мерніков Г. Міжнародні неурядові організації як фактор впливу на ситуацію в Україні // http://www.db.niss.gov.ua/docs/polmil/101.htm.

  3. Сунгуров А. «Фабрики мысли»: первое приближение к анализу зарубежного опыта // «Фабрики мысли» и центры публичной политики: международный и российский опыт / под ред. А.Ю. Сунгурова. – СПб.: Норма, 2002. – С. 56-57.

  4. Современные фабрики мысли. Часть I. Происхождение фабрик мысли // http://xyz.org.ua /discussion/ thnk_tnk1.html.

  5. Современные фабрики мысли. Часть II. Региональные тенденции // http://xyz.org.ua/discussion/thnk_tnk1.html.

  6. Современные фабрики мысли. Часть III. Уроки фабрик мысли / Функции и роль фабрик мысли в политической жизни стран. Методология работы фабрик мысли // http://www.xyz.org.ua/038in.html.

  7. Улахович В. Экспертное обеспечение внешнеполитических решений // Журнал международного права и международных отношений. – 2006. – № 2. // http://www.evolutio.info/index.php? option= com_content&task= view&id= 1012& Itemid=215.

  8. McGann J., Kent R. Weaver Think Tanks & Civil Societies [Book]. – New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2000.

  9. Stone, Diane, Denham Stone, Diane, and Andrew Denham, eds. Think Tank Traditions: Policy Research and the Politics of Ideas. [Book]. – Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.

  10. THE GLOBAL “GO-TO THINK TANKS” // http://www.gotothinktank.com/wp-content/uploads/2010GlobalGoToReport-ThinkTankIndex-UNEDITION-v13.pdf.

  11. Weiss Carol. H. Policy research as advocacy: Pro and con, Knowledge & Policy, Spring / Summer 91. – Vol. 4 Issue 1/2. – Р. 37?57


Алиев М. М. «Фабрики мысли» в формировании внешнеполитической стратегии государства / Институт международных отношений Национального авиационного университета.

В статье рассматриваются проблемы оформления «фабрик мысли» как теоретического концепта и прикладного направления деятельности необходимого для выработки внешнеполитических решений. Детально проанализированы особенности этапов становления современных «мозговых центров». Значительное внимание уделено функциям и методам работы аналитических центров. Рассмотрены проблемы определения классической и современной типологии «фабрик мысли». Проанализированы проблемы использования разработок «фабрик мысли» в формировании внешнеполитической стратегии Украины на международной арене.


Ключевые слова: «фабрики мысли», информационно-аналитические центры, «мозговые центры», внешняя политика.


Aliyev M. M. «Think tanks» in states foreign policy strategy formation / Institute of International Relations National Aviation University.

The article considers the problems of formation of think tanks as theoretical concept and practical activity needed to develop foreign policy decisions. The features of the main stages of think tanks formation are analyzed in details. Considerable attention is given to functions and methods of think tanks activity. The problems of definition of classic and contemporary think tanks typology are considered. The problems of think tanks researches using in shaping foreign policy strategy of Ukraine on the international arena are analyzed.

Key words: «think tanks», analytical centers, foreign policy.


УДК 070.41 (045)


^ GLOBAL MEDIA AND NATIONAL IMAGE: THE CASE OF UKRAINE IN BBC WORLD AND CNN INTERNATIONAL

VENDEL Aliona,

Master in Politics of Mass Communication,

Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain


The article is devoted to the problem of media factor in the process of national image creation in global media with the case of Ukraine’s coverage on BBC World and CNN International. Firstly, the article focuses on the fact that the national image is one of the key-elements of the foreign policy which could affect essentially the relations of the state with other actors on the international scene. Secondly, there analyzed the impact of globalization on mass media, which today have a decisive role in the process of creation and promotion of national images abroad. This work analyses the news about Ukraine during the first half of 2010 on web-sites of BBC World and CNN International and proves the importance of media factor in the process of building the brand of Ukraine, which is prevalently negative today.


^ Key words: image of the country, informational resources of the state, global media, BBC World and CNN International, world informational processes, brand of Ukraine.


The end of twentieth century brought many changes in people’s life: technological revolution has created computers, satellites and Internet, while the processes of globalization have affected all the spheres of life from international relations to interpersonal communication. As a result, there is an interpenetration of the latest communication technologies into emerging spheres of global media and global interstate relationships.

As a result, today, in the times of fast technological development, everybody can easily get almost any information any time and from any place in the world just using so common and widely used television-sets, computers, mobile phones, satellites and Internet. When at the end of twentieth century the informational revolution resulted in an overload of information and people got hundreds of news pieces every day, television has become one of the most popular and effective way of communication [6]. And what is more important is that a part of current demand for information has helped bring about the success of international television news.

This growing importance of transmitting international news for twenty-four-hours all over the world is becoming clearer. People do need international news because the events happened on another part of the planet could affect political, economic or climatic situation of their country, their business or even their family. Even though the popularity of Internet is growing rapidly and newspapers are still in demand, for millions of people useful information about what is going on in the world can be easily found at any time of day and night by switching to CNN International and BBC World.

A global media corporation is a new phenomenon described as “nationally based company with overseas operations in two or more countries, whose principal commodity being sold is information and entertainment” [5: 17]. Today global media giants control the whole world with the monopoly of gathering, processing, producing, publishing and broadcasting the information. International online media are rapidly developing and increasingly influential players of the world informational space. They combine television, radio, newspapers and other media within a single information field. Activities of international online media are not limited geographically, and that is why their readership, and therefore the possibility of influence, can spread throughout the world.

Among most powerful media empires the Big Five stands out: Time Warner, Disney Company, Sony, Bertelsmann and News Corporation, while CNN International and BBC World are considered to be the biggest international news networks. These companies are not just media players; nowadays their role is quite significant not only in cultural sphere, but in political and the sphere of international relations [7; 8; 9; 10; 13; 15].

The relevance of research theme is based on the fact that in modern system of international relations, global media, in general, and online media, in particular, carry more and more influence on the competitiveness of states as actors of international relations, creating their image. In the international competitive environment it is the image of the country that determines the place and rank of it in the world. Moreover, good image provides additional investigation in the economy, leads to profitable contracts and agreements and so on. From this perspective the promotion of the image of the country is a political task to the government and public diplomacy departments, but also, considering media factor, it is an important research area for communications scholars. Media in twenty-first century is a powerful tool, which may reflect the balance, but also alter, destroy, improve or deteriorate certain realities in a given state; participate in public diplomacy practices and create national images. Importantly, all countries are not treated equally by the mass media, some of them more often or prominent or favorably covered than others. As a result, nowadays the idea of interdependence between global news media and national image creation has become more acute.

Even though there is a great number of works providing researches on each of separate aspects, there is no deep theoretical background for this particular problem with focus on “Global Media – Image of the country” connections. However, the bibliography and theoretical achievements analyzed [1; 2; 8: 9; 10; 15] help to investigate integrally the way global media participate in public diplomacy and creation of national images.

The purpose of this article is to explore the phenomenon of global media on the relevant example of BBC World and CNN International online versions through the analysis of the image of a country processing in international news networks. On one hand, the national image is one of the key-elements of the foreign policy which could affect essentially the state relations with other actors on the international scene. Mass-media, on the other hand, plays a decisive role in the process of creation and promotion of country image abroad. The combination of these spheres is analyzed through theoretical framework of both international relations and media studies [3; 4; 5; 7; 9; 13].

We live in an era of instant news and we look at the world through the prism of the events shown in the television broadcast. Global media can move us anywhere in the world and make us witnesses of historical moments. The development of the international media systems took place during the geopolitical, economic and social changes of the late 1980’s, as well as during the transformation of the world informational market in 1990’s. Geo-political division of the world after the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet bloc, globalization and the transnationalization of the world economy, improving the accessibility and communication technologies facilitate the creation of global information system, where a crucial role is played by global news networks.

Integration processes in various spheres of life and the progress in the field of communications have identified the structure of the global media market. It is a collection of regional and local markets combined by the network of transnational media companies that continually moves huge flows of information all over the world. This is the sphere of formation of the detailed picture of the world; it is the international arena of ideologies and cultures’ collision.

The modern global media market it is a complex multilevel structure, where transnational media corporations play a key role. The dominant position in the global information market took Big Five of global media companies, created by the number of mergers, acquisitions, vertical and horizontal integration: Time Warner, Walt Disney Company, Bertelsmann, News Corporation and Sony. According to the magazine Fortune, by the revenues in 2009 these companies belong to the list of top 500 global corporations in the world.

The article pays attention to two largest international news networks with viewers in more than 200 countries – CNN International and BBC World.

The specifics of their broadcasting (news are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, all year round) allow journalists to cover events that rarely enter the national news channels. News topics of global television networks, created by the real time coverage in dozens of bureaus worldwide are often set as the agenda for politicians and diplomats all over the world. Direct broadcasting phenomenon of both real events and the perception of its audience, significantly increases the influence and impact of television images on foreign audience.

Global television with its online versions has become a fast and powerful media, activating world opinion, especially in times of international crisis. Valuable information, the statements of leaders of states and representatives of political and economic elite, comments and suggestions of experts from different countries enter the international news networks along with the dramatic live reports from all over the world. Effects of global television on the international community, on the decisions of politicians and diplomats are particularly important both in crisis situations or international conflicts, and in peacetime formation of the image of the developing countries that want to declare about itself on the world stage.

History of CNN has only 30 years. During this short period American television channel with an audience of few millions of subscribers has turned into a multichannel news network, known throughout the world, and its audience has grown more than a hundred times. CNN has served as a model for other broadcasters, has influenced the practice of creation and dissemination of international news programs. News for 24 hours a day, 7 days a week all year around the world - the formula of Ted Turner, which became the basis for global television news empire. CNN has become one of the factors of influence on the politicians and diplomats’ decisions in times of important international events. CNN International has changed the categorical imperative of the viewers, accustomed them to observe what is going in different parts of the world in real time. International news networks created after the CNN tried to present themselves alternative to it, offering to audiences its unique flow of news, however, adopting the format of the channel and its main innovations [9].

Even though British international news network came late came to global television news market, where CNN International has substantiated a niche, and the first and subsequent steps of BBC World in the global broadcasting were quite successful. BBC World has gained popularity not only in Europe, but in Asia and Africa its prestige and popularity is undeniable.

The quality of BBC World programs are beyond comparison, clean and concise language of the correspondents is the standard of British English. The traditions of journalism, quality of news reports and high level analytics of BBC World are inherited from the BBC and equally attract today an elite audience and ordinary citizens from around the world [15].

Furthermore, it is important to state that global media in general and international news networks in particular are increasingly used nowadays as an instrument of foreign policy and public diplomacy and can influence the course of world events or create national images. Special term ‘mediated public diplomacy’ with its common and distinctive features with traditional diplomacy, national branding and propaganda has firmly entered the lexicon of diplomats and media analysts. The public diplomacy and global media relations represent a new media-diplomatic paradigm, development of which is associated with the important role of information content in the sphere of international relations and improvement of communication technologies.

Summing up, it should be noted that global television has become more sophisticated, fast, powerful tool that changed the speed and progress of the diplomatic process. International news networks shape the agenda; they are unique sources of information and mediator in diplomatic practice.

Particularly important situation arises in the formation of the image of developing countries on global television.

The image of each country is society’s spiritual heritage in which it is individualized on a global or regional level. The image can determine country’s external reputation and it strengthens or it can diminish the performance and prestige on the international arena, moreover, it is the image that can facilitate or complicate relations with world organizations, it can define the level of predictability in relations with partner countries. So, for each country the question of its nation’s branding is of the greatest importance, and Ukraine as a state with a comparatively recent independence is not an exception.

The attention of the society to Ukraine is growing at the time when the information about the country is circulating in the global media environment and thus creates a media image of Ukraine in the eyes of the world audience. Ukrainian country image should be conceived as a platform to overcome the international anonymity, to find a place in the international community, and to establish and improve its foreign public opinion. Moreover, the possibility to present Ukraine positively is determined by its European vector of foreign policy. In this context, a strong, positive and full image of the country may be a substantial advantage on the way to European integration.

Firstly, the image of the country is essential part of its national security. So the necessity of research is obvious to find out the ways to make the image more positive and correct negative sides. Secondly, in the international competitive environment it’s the image of the country that determines the place and rank of it in the world. Moreover, good image provides additional investigation in the economy, leads to profitable contracts and agreements and so on. Besides, it is important to notice that mass media is the most powerful institute creating public opinion and images of the situation in the world. So, the importance of analysis of the media content is understandable. Lastly, Ukraine, as a country with pro-European politics and desire to be a part of EU, is focused on creating positive image among Europeans and world audience. And analysis of news-reports about Ukraine in BBC and CNN gives us an opportunity to get the information about public opinion of this case.

From this perspective the promotion of the image of the country is a political task to the government and public diplomacy departments, but also, considering media factor, it is an important research area for communications scientists.

Image of the country in the world is a result of its diplomatic actions and, to a great extent, is a product of coverage in foreign media including movies, popular culture and especially international news programs [2]. Media in twenty-first century is a powerful tool, which may reflect the balance, but also alter, destroy, improve or deteriorate certain realities in a given state. So far, the image of the country is a product of coverage in foreign media including popular culture and especially programs of international news networks, such as CNNI and BBC World News.

International news networks can fill up the informational gaps about many countries, since they are not only watched all over the planet, but stimulate the emergence and development of local and regional news channels, instilling high standards of journalism, which ultimately contributes to a more balanced flow of information.

Global media may contribute to the establishment of civilized dialogue, overcoming cultural barriers. With the impact of international news on the world public opinion the politics, economy and culture of different nations are considered in a global context, and a single international approach to solve problems in those areas can be. It is impossible to deny that American and European media corporations impose Western culture, transferring its culture and values to all regions of the world [8]. However, the informational content of international news reports, comprehensive and multilateral policy of news networks, which takes into account the peculiarities of different regions and countries confirm that national culture is not been devastated by the Western media corporations.

Global media offer their viewers to try looking at events from a global perspective and understand the importance of international understanding. Today when the world community is going through the process of cultural globalization and people tend to strengthen national identity, international news networks should serve as links between the countries, peoples and governments [12].

However, all countries are not treated equally by the mass media, some of them more often or prominent or favorably covered than others. So here come the questions “What is the image of Ukraine in BBC and CNN? And what is the strategy of global news networks in dealing with the information about the country?”

To find out the answers, it is convenient to analyze the distinctive features of BBC World and CNN International coverage of the country with the use of quantitative method of analysis. It is based on media monitoring online versions of CNN International and BBC World during six months from January, 1st, 2010 to July, 1st, 2010. With the purpose to distinguish the CNN and BBC’s differences a description sheet was created to classify the information we need (see Graphic #1) and after simple calculations of their main characteristic features, two global media will be compared. The analysis takes into account 8 elements:

  1. Categories of information;

It includes news report or chronicle1, article2 and brief mention of the country in any context.

  1. Thematic topics (politics, economic, international relations, military, society, culture and sport). Sometimes, more than one choice is possible;

  2. Actors (country as a whole, government, politicians and political parties, social movements, sportsmen or people in general.

  3. Quotes of Ukrainian sources;

  4. Background information;

  5. Photos;

  6. Videos;

  7. Source of news (own elaboration, international bureaus or other).

Overall, 43 articles about Ukraine were found on BBC World (28 articles) and CNN International (15 articles) websites for the period from January, 1st, 2010 to July, 1st, 2010 and analyzed according to the description sheet to investigate common and distinctive features of BBC and CNN websites concerning the coverage of Ukraine.

The following presents the results of the investigation.

The first item analyzed is the amount of publications appeared in international news networks during the first six months of 2010. CNN International broadcasted 15 news reports about Ukraine, while on BBC World the country was mentioned in articles during this period for 28 times. BBC’s greater attention to Ukraine can be explained, firstly, with the geographic closeness and some historical ties and, secondly, the opening in 2004 BBC Ukrainian Office in the capital of Ukraine, Kiev. The overall dynamics looks as follows (Diagram #1).

As we can see, the peak of publications in both international networks took place in February, 2010, when the last round of Ukrainian Presidential elections was held and after few scandals and court cases Viktor Yanukovich was assigned as President of Ukraine3.

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