Випуск 1 (3), 2011 До випуску ввійшли наукові матеріали міжнародної наукової конференції «Інформаційна безпека держави: теоретичний та практичний виміри» icon

Випуск 1 (3), 2011 До випуску ввійшли наукові матеріали міжнародної наукової конференції «Інформаційна безпека держави: теоретичний та практичний виміри»




НазваВипуск 1 (3), 2011 До випуску ввійшли наукові матеріали міжнародної наукової конференції «Інформаційна безпека держави: теоретичний та практичний виміри»
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Graphic #1: Description sheet

The Image of Ukraine in World Media’s Description Sheet

News network: _________________

Link: _______________________________________________________________________

Name: Author: Date: __________

1) Type of presenting information: 2) Sphere of the topic:

­­­­­­­­­­­_____ news report ____ politics ____ economic ___ international relations

_____ article ____ military _____ society

_____ mention ____ culture _____ sport

3) Actors mentioned in the article: 4) Quotes of Ukrainians:

____ country as a whole ____ social movements ____ Yes

____ government ____ sportsmen ___ No

____ politicians & political parties ____ people

5) Background information: 6) Photos: 7) Videos:

__ Yes __ Yes __ Yes

__ No __ No __ No

8) Origin of the article:

___ Kiev office’s correspondents

___ Moscow office’s correspondents

___ US or UK office’s correspondents with Russian or Ukrainian correspondents’ contribution

___ Exclusive interviews

Source: Author’s own elaboration


Diagram #1. The dynamics of number of publications about Ukraine in the Internet media, January – June, 2010.



Source: Author’s own elaboration.

After February there was a significant decline in the number of news reports, with stable situation on BBC World during next four months with the pieces of news about Ukraine on general issues, while a slight increase in April was on CNN International, when mostly videos of chaos in Ukrainian Parliament4 and problems in the airport caused by volcanic eruption in Iceland5 were presented on American media.

Consequently, we can assume that the number of publications about Ukraine in international online media depends more on events that take place in the country such as elections, official meetings or negotiations than other features that Ukrainian public diplomacy practice attempts to promote. Moreover, considering the same peak of news reports’ number on both global media, on this step the strategy of covering international country according to importance of events that take place there remains the same.

The next element analyzed is the categories of information about Ukraine in news reports on websites of BBC World and CNN International (Diagram #2).

^ Diagram #2. Type of presenting information about Ukraine in BBC World and CNN International.



Source: Author’s own elaboration.

According to the diagram, all the information about Ukraine on CNN International website is almost equally distributed among news reports, articles and just few-words-mentions about the country. At the same time, BBC World, covering Ukraine, presents the news mainly in full news reports with detailed information or in specifically Ukrainian news chronicles. For this research, it is noticeable to find out the way both international news networks deal with the information about the same country. Based on reports analyzed, BBC World correspondents highlighted Ukraine with more details, having written 15 full news reports and chronicles about it, when CNN International staff present the information gathered in three different types.

Concerning the Ukrainian attempts in public diplomacy, it is important to see in which thematic sections news about the country appeared during the first half of 2010 and what Ukrainian actors gained most media attention (Table #1, #2).

As we can see from the table, during the period analyzed Ukraine was portrayed in two international news networks in very similar thematic sections. Considering the fact that some articles belong to more than one thematic section, the biggest amount of articles is about politics, international relations and economics on both global online media. This situation can be called predictable, from the standpoint of the fact that in times of globalization the international community is mostly concerned about domestic and foreign affairs of the country and its economic potential.

^ Table #1. Thematic sections of news reports on BBC World and CNN International

Thematic sections

BBC World, number of articles

BBC World, %

CNNI, number of articles

CNNI, %

Politics

17

61%

10

67%

Military

3

11%

2

13%

Economic

8

29%

3

20%

Culture

2

7%

0

0%

Society

6

21%

2

13%

Sport

3

11%

2

13%

International Relations

10

36%

5

33%

Source: Author’s own elaboration

Based on news reports analyzed, we can see that two international online media are primarily interested in such issues as the foreign policy of the new President6, integration of Ukraine into the WTO and its future strategic plans as part of this organization, multilevel relations with Russia7, the situation with the investment climate in Ukrainian nuclear energy sector and problems with uranium stockpile8, along with the questions of NATO9 and European integration10 of the state.

However, on both news websites relatively small number of publications is devoted to the issues on which governmental attempts of public diplomacy are concentrated: multilateral cooperation in informational sphere with European Union, U.S., countries of Latin America and Asia, Ukraine participation in the United Nations Organization and the relations with Ukrainian diaspora abroad

Moreover, the significant difference is that the website of CNN International did not cover cultural events in Ukraine in first six months of 2010 at all, while 4% of BBC World publications are on general or cultural related topics11.

The similar dynamics we can see from data about Ukrainian actors mentioned on international news networks. Having political themes of news about Ukraine as the most frequent, government and politicians (Viktor Yanukovich, Yulia Timoshenko, Viktor Yanukovich) became the most frequently mentioned actors in both CNN International and BBC World, considering the fact that sometimes more than one category of actors was mentioned. Moreover, for most-covered political actors special landing pages were created with their profiles and detailed information (Screenshot #1), while people in general, non-governmental organizations and movements and sportsmen gained less global media attention.

As a result, we can state that the choice of Ukrainian actors and information about Ukraine according to news networks’ strategies was similar in covering mostly political and international events. Less attention was paid to general information and cultural events in Ukraine, especially on CNN International website.

It is important to note that the main priorities of ensuring Ukrainian strategic interests are defined as

^ Table #2. Ukrainian actors mentioned on CNN International and BBC World

Actors

BBC World, number of articles

BBC World, %

CNNI, number of articles

CNNI, %

Country

6

21%

6

40%

Government

20

71%

9

60%

Politicians and political parties

16

57%

8

53%

Social organizations and movements

7

25%

3

20%

Sportsmen

3

11%

3

20%

People

6

21%

1

7%

Source: Author’s own elaboration

Screenshot #1.



Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4848942.stm


integration and improvement of Ukraine-Russia ties, which is impossible without adequate information support. Obtained results suggest the need to pay particular attention to political and economic issues in the work of Ukrainian specialists in public relations with the international online media.

Having analyzed the thematic sections of news reports about Ukraine and the main actors mentioned in it and combined the data of bibliography analyzed and personal interviews with Ukrainian diplomats12, we can assume that despite all Ukrainian attempts in improving of its national brand the country is seen abroad with following elements of national image:

- Not influential and little-known European country;

- The country is in a constant political and economic crisis, political instability with inefficient power13;

- Young democratic country, the country of Orange Revolution14;

- Country of the Chernobyl accident (dangerous country);

- Hosting country with Poland of European football championship in 201215;

- Problems with Russia (country is under the influence of Russia)16;

- High investment risks of corruption in all government institutions;

- Beautiful women and cheap prostitutes (Screenshot #2, Element #3).

The next element of CNN International and BBC World coverage of Ukraine analyzed with description sheets were the complements of news reports. This includes background information about the topic discussed, quotes of Ukrainians in articles, and photos, videos and comments available for readers (Table #3).


^ Table #3. Completeness of news reports on CNN International




BBC World, number of articles

BBC World, %

CNNI, number of articles

CNNI, %

Background information

26

93%

8

53%

Quotes of Ukrainians

22

79%

11

73%

Photos

27

96%

9

60%

Videos

7

25%

4

27%

Total

28

100%

15

100%

Source: Author’s own elaboration

According to the news articles analyzed, BBC correspondents provide background information in the most reports (93%) comparing with slightly more than half pieces of news on CNN (53%); quotes of Ukrainians and photos of the events discussed are almost in all the articles, while only few have video reports on both global news websites. Moreover, there is a correlation with the categories of information about Ukraine, the data about it can be found on Diagram #2. On BBC International the majority of pieces of news about Ukraine are full reports, and this is confirmed by the fact that 22 out of 28 BBC news reports contain background information, quotes and photos. At the same time, on CNN International these figures are slightly lower (Table #7), and the information is mostly presented in a form of small article in few abstracts. Then on both websites the percentage of the quotes of Ukrainians and related videos are almost equal, while there is a significant difference in number of reports with photos on international news websites (96% of BBC World reports about Ukraine contain related pictures comparing with only 60% of CNN International).

Consequently, having made the quantitative analysis of news reports of CNN International and BBC World about Ukraine in 2010, some similarities and differences between two largest international news networks have been found in dealing with the same information. Firstly, the attention of global media to Ukraine directly depends on political events that have place in the country: the increased number of articles about Ukraine on both CNN International and BBC World websites in February coincides with presidential elections in Ukraine. Moreover, politics and international relations are the main topics of news reports on both networks, while government, politicians and political parties gain more media attention than all other actors together. This reflects the similar strategy of both international news networks in choosing information to create report about. However, many differences in presenting the information about Ukraine on CNN International and BBC World online versions were found.

The website of CNN International has few original features. After each article about Ukraine there are “We recommend” section (Screenshot #3, Element #1) with news reports that can be interested for the audience reading this piece of news and “Related topics” section (Screenshot #2, Element #2) with articles about Ukraine in general, or Ukrainians that have been covered most on CNN International, such as President Yanukovich or politicians Timoshenko and Yuschenko. Moreover, while news about Ukraine belongs to World section, there are recommended news reports from this section called “More World” (Screenshot #3, Element #2).

Another distinctive feature is the story highlights option, when on the left side of webpage the reader can find a useful summary of news report (Screenshot #2, Element #1). Furthermore, there is a possibility to leave comments about the article or related issues for registered users (Screenshot #3, Element #4). The structure of all these options along with pictures, videos and comments make the CNN International webpage and information about Ukraine on it very easy and interesting to read and assimilate. Moreover, according to the dynamics of mentions of Ukraine, the editors and journalists react on important events in the country, so we can conclude that public diplomacy attempts do not work properly with global media networks. Even though, the important step to establish Ukrainian promo video “Beautifully Yours” on CNN International channel and website was done in 200817, there are a lot of problems to work on. For instance, at the end of each article about Ukraine there are sponsored links promoting Ukrainian prostitutes or marriage with Ukrainian women that can negatively affect the image of Ukraine and negate all the attempts to improve the brand of Ukraine (Screenshot #3, Element #3).

Screenshot #2







4 proceso alternativo





Source: http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/04/24/russia.ukraine/index.html

BBC World online version has common and distinctive features of presenting news reports with its competitor. Similarly to CNN International, there are “Profiles” (Screenshot #4, Element #1), “See also”, “Related links” (Screenshot #4, Element #2) and “Top Europe Stories” (Screenshot #4, Element #3) sections with the articles about related topics or from the same news section. The main quotes or the most important abstracts are highlightened; there are many pictures, graphs and tables to visualize the information (Screenshot #4, Element #4). Moreover, while some pieces of news, which are written by UK correspondents, include the analysis of Ukrainian journalists from BBC Ukrainian office in Kiev (Screenshot #5), many of with the articles about related topics or from the same news section. The main quotes or the most important abstracts are highlightened; there are many pictures, graphs and tables to visualize the information (Screenshot #4, Element #4). Moreover, while some pieces of news, which are written by UK correspondents, include the analysis of Ukrainian journalists from BBC Ukrainian office in Kiev (Screenshot #5), many of them are translated to Ukrainian along with other languages (Screenshot #4, Element #5).

Along with these, if there are related to the theme of article television programs the links to them are provided for readers. The good example of it can be the link to Russian Business Report program’s webpage in the article about Ukraine-Russian economic relations (Screenshot #6).

Screenshot #3



Source: http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/04/24/russia.ukraine/index.html

The next distinctive feature of BBC International is the creation of special section that contains all the related news reports, for instance, all the articles about Presidential elections in Ukraine are inside “Ukraine election 2010” section with background information (Screenshot #7).

Furthermore, if there are discussions concerning the theme of news report in the article, there are voting bar, where readers can leave their opinions and lately see the results analyzed in next articles. Additionally, some articles present the emails of BBC World website readers with their opinions regarding the theme discussed, while there is no possibility for readers to leave comments.

Finally, the last and huge difference between CNN International and BBC World websites according to broadcasting news about Ukraine in 2010 lies in geographical coverage of CNN and BBC: while CNN International gathers information about Ukraine with correspondents from US or Russian office, BBC World has its own BBC Ukrainian office in Kiev (Table #4). As we can see from data, 19 BBC news reports about Ukraine were made directly from the scene by BBC Ukrainian stuff, while all the CNN articles were written by Russian (4 articles) or American (11 articles) journalists, sometimes referring to Ukrainian sources (6 arti-cles). This fact explains all some differences in higher number of full news reports about the country and the quality of them with more detailed information on BBC World website. Furthermore, the information, for

Screenshot #4



Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8505552.stm

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