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MARKET OF ECOLOGICAL SERVICES IN TANZANIA
Kharkov National University Of Radio Elecrtonics,Kharkov, Ukraine
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight,
Ecosystem Services are commonly defined as benefits people obtain from ecosystems.
Classification of economical services
-Provisioning Services or the provision of food, fresh water, fuel, fiber, and other goods;
-Regulating Services such as climate, water, and disease regulation as well as pollination;
-Supporting Services such as soil formation and nutrient cycling; and Cultural Services such as educational, aesthetic, and cultural heritage values as well as recreation and tourism.
At present, however, many of these ecosystem services are either undervalued or have no financial value at all. As day-to-day decisions often focus on immediate financial returns, many ecosystem structures and functions are being fundamentally undercut.
Pro-Poor Payments for Watershed Services
Payments for Watershed Services (PWS) currently exist in TANZANIA, and different countries. In most of these cases, maximizing watershed services through payment systems has led to poverty reduction.
“While there is clear potential for tradeoffs between poverty reduction and watershed services goals, practitioners and policymakers around the world have already shown that they can design and implement PWS programs that minimize these tradeoffs. Indeed, because PWS initiatives are voluntary, because they involve transfers of wealth (often from wealthier urban areas to poorer rural areas), and because they can empower the poor by recognizing them as valued service deliverers, PWS schemes are actually more likely to have pro-poor impacts than most other environmental management interventions.”
Potential Benefits of Market Payment of Ecosystem Services (MPES) for the Rural Poor
• Increased cash income for consumption or investment purposes (such as increased caloric intake for children, expanded access to education and health care, new products for sale, improved enterprise productivity, etc.)
• Expanded experience with external business activities through PES-related economic transactions and interactions with PES-relevant intermediaries
• Increased knowledge of sustainable resource use practices through training and technical assistance associated with PES deal implementation
• Improved resilience of local ecosystems and flow of ecosystem services
Key environmental challenges in which the ecosystem market faces in Tanzania
The environmental challenges are locally and regionally specific but the National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) and the National Environmental Policy (NEP), passed in 1997, identified six major problems of urgent national intervention:
• Land degradation putting soil fertility, food security and biodiversity at risk. About 60% of the country is estimated to suffer from land desertification problems.
• Poor access of good quality water for urban and rural poor. Although Tanzania is blessed with a variety of surface water resources, surface water is limited throughout the country for most of the year. Water shortage and bad water quality are common problems.
• Environmental pollution. Although the level of industrialization is low in Tanzania, untreated industrial waste causes significant levels of localized pollution. About 80 % of the industries, most of them located in the coastal Dar es Salaam. It has been estimated that almost 70 % of the industries pollute directly or indirectly the Indian Ocean
• Loss of wildlife habitats and biodiversity. Wildlife habitats and biodiversity are threatened due to fragmentation, loss of critical ecosystem linkages and over exploitation.
• Deterioration of aquatic ecosystems. One example of this is Lake Victoria, which once drew on hundreds of species, mostly endemic, and now rests solely on three species. Similarly, the marine environment is subject to increased population pressure, harmful fishing techniques, pollution and the breakdown of traditional institutions.
• Clearance of forest and woodlands. Deforestation in Tanzania is taking place at an alarming rate. Since only 5% of the population has access to electricity, wood fuel accounts for more than 90 % of total energy consumption. In 1999, the amount of fuel wood within sustainable use was estimated to17 million/year while the current use is 32 million/year and it is projected to increase.
|Tackling environmental problems (national environmental commission) tanzania||Market presentation|
|Range of services||Ecosystem services|
|Impact of infrastructure on the stability of the financial market||Environmental component of the market value estimation model|
|Contract no. Of providing services||Contract no. Of providing services|
|Contract no on Provision of Services||Concerning the effectiveness of regional ecological policy|