Міністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства english for Сross-cultural icon

Міністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства english for Сross-cultural




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The perfect European

  1. Look at the postcard which presents national stereotypes of the European Union members (antistereotypes). Discuss them in small groups. Are some of them new for you? Do you agree with some of them?

  2. In small groups try to design a stereotype and an illustrating picture for Ukrainians.




^ II. SPEAKING AND MAKING PRESENTATIONS


a



b



c



d



e



f




1. Look at the pictures and answer the questions

  • What nationalities are the people? What makes it easy for you to identify them?

  • What is the stereotype of an English man or woman? Think of the stereotypes of your nationality? Do you believe in stereotypes?


2. Using your knowledge (sometimes stereotypes) try to choose at least 10 adjectives typical of different nationalities. In small groups make a short presentation of one nationality.


hard-working easy-going punctual friendly reserved emotional lazy outgoing hospitable sociable formal casual enthusiastic quiet tolerant talkative sophisticated well-dressed fun-loving respectful humorous serious nationalistic romantic nepotic reserved casually dressed mean patriotic naive


^ III. READING AND SPEAKING


PRE-READING TASK

In small groups write down as many facts and opinions, stereotypes about Scotland and the Scots as you can.

What is the thing a mean person does NOT like doing?

Compare what other members of your group have written.

1. Read the article and do the comprehension check


Scots in Sweden upset by cheap jokes

SCOTS working in Sweden have complained to the European Commission for Human Rights that jokes about mean Scotsmen in advertising are an insult to the image of their race.

A case was put to Strasbourg by the Scottish Group for Civil Rights in Sweden, an organization formed recently of Scots people working there, to protest against Swedish Railways using such a traditional joke in an advertising campaign.

It showed two Scotsmen accepting the offer of travel for two for the price of one first-class ticket, while a third hides in the luggage rack.

‘We are not against Scots jokes in everyday life,’ said Mr. David Webster, a 38-year-old marketing manager working near Stockholm, who helped to form the group. ‘There are nationalistic jokes like this in every country. What we don’t like is the frequency of such jokes in commercial advertising.

But the commission did not feel that the group had fully explained its case, and has asked for more information on some points before it decides whether the case can continue.

“There is even one group of cut-price shops in the Stockholm area that has changed its name to The Scot,’ said Mr. Webster. ‘Their motto is, “You can’t get it cheaper anywhere else”. These things are offensive only because they happen so often, we believe.

Apart from the further information demanded by the European Commission for Human Rights, the Scots in Sweden are up against another difficulty. They have so far spent several hundred pounds on their campaign, but voluntary contributions from group members have totaled only Ј50.

(from J. Soars, L. Soars. Headway. Intermediate. 2002)


  • ^ COMPREHENSION CHECK

  1. What is the advertisement that the Scots don't like?

  2. Who have they complained to?

  3. What is the name of their organization?

  4. What is the point that Mr David Webster is trying to make?

  5. What is amusing in the last paragraph?


2. Match the summary with the correct paragraph





a.

A description of the advertisement the Scots are complaining about.




b.

The commission's reaction.




c.

The exact reason why the Scottish people are complaining




d.

A financial problem for the Scots in Sweden




e.

Some Scottish people have complained to the European Courts about the advertisement.




f.

Another example of the reason for complaining




g.

Scottish formed an organization and explained why they were complaining to the court.


^ ANY COMMENTS?

Comment on the saying of the late American president John F. Kennedy ‘Let us not be blind to our differences   but let us also direct attention to our common interests and the means by which these differences can be resolved’


^ CONTRIBUTE YOUR IDEAS

  • Do you think the Scots were right to go to the European Commission for Human Rights, or do you think they took it too seriously?

  • Do you agree nationalistic jokes can be come across in every country? Is it an example of stereotypical thinking? Which nationality is considered to be mean by Ukrainians?

  • In your opinion, why funny stereotypes of the postcard ‘Prefect European’ do not hurt people, in contrast with cheap jokes about Scots?


IV. Fill out the table of stereotypes for different nationalities. Some parts of the table have been done for you as an example. For the last column choose any nationality you like. Discuss your answers with the partners.


Stereotypes





American

English

Ukrainian

Japanese

Your choice

Works:
















Lives:

in a house



in a flat










Hobby:
















Carries:




an umbrella










Drinks:
















Eats:
















Newspaper:
















Favourite part of paper:



















American

English

Ukrainian

Japanese

Your choice

Wears:




a bowler hat

dark suit











Talks about:




weather












Loves:
















Has:




a garden

a pipe











Pets:
















Sport:




cricket












Behaviour:




reserved












Emotions:
















UNIT 3

^ LIFESTYLE AND CULTURE





Working mothers


Birthrate figures

USA

UK

Australia

Average age of mothers giving birth

27

30

29

Average age for having a first baby

25

28

27

Average number of children per family

1.9

1.64

1.75



^ PRE-READING TASK

Look at the table of birthrate figures.

Do you think

the statistics might have been different 30 years ago?

the statistics has changed in recent years?

the statistics is similar or different in Ukraine?


^ I. READING AND SPEAKING

1. Read the text and answer the questions that follow the text:


Who is holding the baby?


These days better education and career opportunities for women in the English speaking world mean that many women are leaving it until the age of 30, or even 40, to start a family. By this age, many woman already have successful careers which they are often reluctant to give up. These days there are a number of men, especially those in couples where the woman earns the most money, who are happy to stay at home in the traditional role of the “housewife”, but for a large proportion of couples this is not an option. Financial pressures, particularly in the UK, where house prices have reached astronomical heights, mean that many couples cannot afford to give up one of their salaries when a baby arrives. In 39% of British couples with children, both parents work, and some women return to work when their babies are only three or four months old. So who is holding the baby for these couples?

(from E. Sharman. Across Cultures. 2004)


  1. Why do some women in the English speaking world have babies later in life?

  2. What sometimes happens in couples where the woman earns more than the man?

  3. What causes particular financial pressure on families in the UK these days?

  4. In what percentage of British families do both mother and the father work?

  5. Who, in your opinion, is holding the babies for working couples?


2. Study the meaning of the words in Column A and try to match them to their definitions in Column B.

A

B

1. childminder

a. a special type of ‘school’ where parents can leave very young children all day (American English)


2. day care center

b. a special type of ‘school’ where parents can leave very young children (British English)


3. nanny

c. someone who looks after one family’s children in the family home


4. nursery

d. various people’s children in their own home



3. Agree or disagree with these statements:

  1. Women these days have babies too late in their lives.

  2. Women who have young children should not continue to work.

  3. It’s OK for men who have young children to continue to work.

  4. Men who look after their children while their wives work are silly.

  5. It’s wrong to pay someone else to look after your young children while you work.


^ CREATIVE WRITING

Make up a short summary (about 100 words) on the topic under discussion using your answers to the previous tasks, your own family experience, the experience of the families which are models for you

II. MAKING COMMENTS ON STATISTICAL DATA

Read the statistical data based on the lifestyle in Canada





Career Statistics Women in the Workforce

  • 57% of Canadian women (15 and up) have jobs, compared to 24% in 1951 (and to 68% of men today)

  • 63% of Moms with kids under 3 work, up from 28% in 1976; 71% of mothers with kids under 16 have jobs

  • 28% of working women are part-timers – 1 in 5 to take care of family; 11% of working men are part-time

  • 75% of female execs (women executives) believe commitment to family hinders advancement; 41% delayed or skipped having children

  • 91 minutes: average daily time a mother spends on child care in a 2-income family with a kid under 5; dad: 47 minutes

(from Macleans. Ca, March 15, 2004)

1. Make out questions to which the following numbers are answers:

15; 61; 41; 75; 47.

2. Complete the sentences using comparative constructions:

  1. _____________ minutes more a Canadian mother ____________than a Canadian father.

  2. ________ % more Canadian mothers with kids under 3 work now than __________ in 1976.

  3. ________ % more Canadian women have jobs now than __________ in 1951.

  4. ________ % more women in Canada work part-time than the men.

  5. ________ % more Canadian female execs (women executives) believe career advancement is hindered by the family than those who have the opposite opinion.

3. Make comments on the tendencies in women/mothers’ occupation in Canada.

4. Try to compare this information with the situation in Ukraine. Do you think there are similar tendencies on mothers’ occupation, career preferences over the family, delay on having children?


^ ANY COMMENTS ?

Comment on the saying of the writer Marya Mannes’ Nobody objects to a woman being a good writer or sculptor or geneticist if at the same time she is a good wife, a good mother, good-looking, good-tempered, well-dressed, well-groomed, and unaggressive’


^ PROJECT WORK

Try to find in the Internet or any other sources of information statistical data concerning women occupation (full-time/part-time), two/one parent families, salaries of working mothers, legal support of maternity, mothers’ discrimination at the workplace etc. and make up a short summary (about 100 words).

UNIT 4

^ NATIONAL VALUES

ANY COMMENTS?

Read the definition outstanding people give to the term “values” and explain the idea in your own words. Which of the definitions do you like most of all? Give your reasons


  1. The only real voyage of discovery consists not in seeing new landscapes, but in having new eyes, in seeing the Universe with the eyes of another, of hundreds of others, in seeing the hundreds of Universes that each of them sees (Marcel Proust)

  2. We see things not as they are but as we are (Anais Nin).

  3. Values are established, taught and maintained by a culture. They determine what is good, what is beautiful, and what is right for each member of that society. They are what ‘make a people tick’. To understand others, we must understand their values as much as their language (O. Zatsepina).


^ I. READING


Ideals, Values and Group Identity


“The land of the free and the home of the brave”. These closing words of the U.S. national anthem, "The Star Spangled Banner," sum up the ideals that many citizens of the United States have for their country. Ideals and values play an important role in the cultural life of the United States, just as they do in any country.

One of the most important ideals of the United States — and an important part of the way many people in the United States see themselves — is that of freedom. From the time of the American Revolution, when the colonists declared indepen­dence from England, the United States has attracted people seeking freedom.

A second ideal of great importance in the United States is that of rule by the people. The framers of the Constitution of the United States strove to ensure that political power would lie in the hands of the voters, not a king or dictator. So they created a federal government composed of three branches — legislative, executive, and judicial — to prevent any one part of the govern­ment from becoming too powerful. The balance of power among these branches is called the system of checks and balances. Also, by reserving much political power for the states that form the national union, the framers strove to prevent the federal government itself from becoming too powerful. This system was hailed by President Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) as "government of the people, by the people, and for the people."

Another key value in the United States is that of the rights of the individual. The Bill of Rights — the first ten amendments, or additions, to the Constitution — is intended to safeguard the rights of the individual and guarantee protection from unjust treatment by the government or the majority. The importance of this protection is reflected in newspaper articles about violations of individual rights. Family, minority group, worker, student, and professional issues often revolve around questions of individual rights.

Nonetheless, individuals and groups together contend for prominence in the United States of today. For all of the importance of individualism, group identity also plays an important role in people's cultural values. And many diverse groups, in­cluding non citizens and naturalized immigrants, have an impact on the cultural life of the United States.

(from Crossroads USA. 2003)


^ COMPREHENSION CHECK

1. Mark the following statements as True (T) or False(F)

    1. The ideals and values of American people are mentioned in the Constitution of the United States.

    2. There are three branches of the local government in order to avoid giving too much power to one of them.

    3. The government is elected by people voting.

    4. The system of checks and balances is used for financial accounting of the government.

    5. The President Abraham Lincoln introduced the system of power balance between the federal and state government.

    6. Individualism is valued nowadays more than group identity.

    7. Immigrants have no impact on cultural life in the United States.

    8. Any individual can appeal against the unjust treatment by the majority.


2. Find out the titles for the paragraphs of the text

  1. Rule by the people

  2. Group identity

  3. The importance of values and ideas

  4. Freedom as the main value of American people

  5. Rights of individual


3. Explain the meaning of the following phrases:

Rights of the individual, rule by the people, key values, group identity, state government, federal government, the balance of power, to safeguard the rights.


^ II. DISCUSSING VALUES THROUGH PROVERBS

National values are often reflected in the proverbs as popular wisdom is concentrated in them


1. The following proverbs will help you understand American values.

Match the proverb with the cultural value implied in it and write down the right value into the box provided on the right

A man's home is his castle




Time is money.




Don't cry over spilt milk.




Waste not, want not




A penny saved is a penny earned.




Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.




God helps them who helps themselves.




It's not whether you win or lose, it's how you play the game.




You've made your bed, now lie in it.




Birds of a feather flock together.







Practicality

Initiative

Sportsmanship

Value of time

Cleanliness

Thriftiness

Diligence

Privacy

Work Ethic

Responsibility

Frugality

Guilt by Association


2. Look at the following proverbs. They belong to people of six nationalities (two for each). The proverbs from other languages are translated into English. Try to match two proverbs to the nationalities and comment on the values they present

      1. A man’s home is his castle.

      2. Everything is for the King first and then for me.

      3. Together we can fight against the father

      4. God helps those who help themselves

      5. Our own calf is better than an overseas cow

      6. The Devil is not as frightening as he is painted

      7. Even silly child is dear for the mother

      8. A penny saved is a penny earned

      9. When this man is sleeping the Devil is lulling him

      10. Duties are as hard as a nut.

      11. Take a bullock and a wife from the next farmstead

      12. Don’t cry over spilt milk




English

h

French




Italian




Ukrainian




American




German




UNIT 5

^ TRAVEL AND CULTURE




Look at the picture presenting a French businessmen visiting China and try to answer the questions:

1. Where is this French businessman at the moment? Does he look relaxed? What do you think he is feeling?

2. Have you ever arrived in a country without any knowledge of the language or without knowing anyone?


BRAINSTORMING

Today more and more people travel around the globe on different reasons.

On their way travelers face various challenges coming in contact with people of different nationalities and cultures. It is often in the hotel where the cultural differences are most evident.





  • What special cultural difficulties and needs would a person from abroad have in Ukraine? Think about social customs/behaviour, greeting people and meeting in general, language difficulties, food and eating habits (and meal table etiquette), and business situations (dress, negotiating, making deals, etc.)

  • What can the hotel administration do to help people of different nationalities and cultures feel at home and able to communicete with others? Think about reception procedures, room design and facilities, information sheets and signs, restaurants, and staffing and make up a list of your suggestions


^ I. READING AND MAKING PRESENTATION

A significant proportion of business travellers are Japanese, and some hotels try to cater for their specific requirements.


PRE-READING TASK:

  1. Why would a Japanese visitor probably not want to stay in room 444?

  2. What particular features would a Japanese visitor want to find in a hotel bathroom?

1   2   3   4   5   6

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