Міністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства english for Сross-cultural icon

Міністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства english for Сross-cultural




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How hoteliers can prepare to welcome their Japanese visitors

The following points suggest how hoteliers can make adjustments to satisfy Japanese visitors ' requirements

The manager or a senior member of staff should be on duty when a party of Japanese visitors is checking in and should preferably have a Japanese business card and a lapel badge. This person should, if pos­sible, remain as their main contact in the hotel throughout their stay and extend a personal welcome and farewell. To say goodbye is extremely important in Japan.

Avoid putting Japanese visitors in rooms with the number 4,44,444, etc., as this is considered unlucky. Four is ‘Shi’ in Japanese, the verb ‘to die’ being ‘Shinu’, so this superstition should be taken seriously. Some hotels in Asia do not designate a 4th floor at all.

Ensure a consistently prompt response for service, as well as complaints, in all departments. The Japanese are used to abundant staff on duty and a high level of service. This may initially require a higher level of staffing, but the benefits in terms of future business are obvious.

A welcome sign in Japanese at the reception desk is much appreci­ated. Exit and other directional signs in Japanese throughout the hotel will make the guests feel more at home. Try to have at least one Japanese national on your staff; the other staff should receive basic training in Japanese language and should receive cross-cultural training.

Japanese print should be available at Reception or in rooms, for exam­ple, a letter of welcome and guidance notes, general information, Yellow Pages, a city guide, and a newspaper. Sources of Japanese publications could also be provided.

A selection of toiletries and a hair-drier should be provided in bathrooms. It is also appreciated if a yukata (cotton dressing-gown) and slippers are provided in rooms.

Bathrooms must have a constant supply of hot water and should have a bath and shower attachment. The Japanese are accustomed at home to showering outside the bath tub before soaking in a tub of clean water. There should be a drain in the bathroom floor, or else a notice in Japanese and at least one other language, advising on the correct use of the shower and bath. This could prevent flooding or other dam­age caused through misunderstanding.

Twin beds should be provided for Japanese guests rather than double beds, even for honeymooners.

In the case of groups, care should be taken to give all members rooms of a similar standard.

For refreshment, the Japanese like to have green tea bags, plum tea sachets, and miso soup packets in their rooms with kettle, cups and saucers.

The Japanese like to see evidence of a high level of security, especially with so many ladies traveling unaccompanied. Relevant information could be provided in room literature and promotional leaflets.

For the business visitor, some hotels provide a Business Centre staffed with Japanese linguists, offering translation and word processing.

(from K. Harding, P. Henderson. High Season. 2001)


  1. According to the text, which of these things are especially important to a Japanese visitor?



  1. plenty of staff on duty

  2. notices and signs in Japanese

  3. TV and video in their rooms

  4. A Japanese-speaking staff member

  5. politeness

  6. a high level of security

  7. Japanese newspapers

  8. Japanese food







  1. ROLE PLAY Split into two groups. One of the group will do Task 1 and the other group will work with Task 2


TASK 1 You are the ‘Astoria’ hotel manager and you are going to be responsible for receiving a VIP delegation from Japan. It is very important for the hotel to make a good impression on the guests as it is planned to receive other Japanese delegations in future. Give instructions to your team members on the reception procedure for the delegation of:

      1. a General Manager of a large software company (aged 62);

      2. a member of the Board of Directors (aged 54);

      3. another member of the Board of Directors (aged 46);

      4. personal assistant of the General Manager (aged 31).

It is quite natural for the members of your team to ask questions about the details.


TASK 2 You are the members of the Japanese delegation:

  1. a General Manager of a large software company (aged 62);

  2. a member of the Board of Directors (aged 54);

  3. another member of the Board of Directors (aged 46);

  4. personal assistant of the General Manager (aged 31).

You understand your visit is very important for the hotel ’Astoria’. Describe the procedure of the reception you expect from the hotel manager.

Make your presentations and compare the core ideas of them.


^ II. READING AND MAKING COMMENTS

Tips for foreign visitors to Thailand

Thailand is a very popular tourist destination and a country possessing an old and specific culture. The country is famous for its hospitality, and the average visitor will have no difficulty in adapting to local customs. The following tips are mostly common sense, but to avoid giving offence, foreign visitors may find them useful.

1. Read the interview given by Mr. Nipotam to the British journalist. Mr. Nipotam speaks about the challenges foreign visitors can have during their stay in his country, Thailand.

I = interviewer N = Nikam Nipotam

I: So what kind of things would a visitor to Thailand need to know about? Are there any social customs that are very different from a European country, say?

N: Well, there are a lot of things that are different ... um ... for example, the names, the way you address people is different.

I: How is that?

N: Well, you always call people by the first name ... the polite way to address people is by their first name.

^ I: What, even in a formal situation?

N: Yes, you say 'khun' - it's like 'Mr' or 'Miss' or 'Mrs'.

I: Oh, you mean it's the same for men and women?

N: Yes, 'khun' is for men and women, it's the same. You say 'khun' and the first name, and also, when you meet people, you don't shake hands usually, there's a traditional greeting called a 'wai'.

^ I: A ‘wai’? And what's that exactly?

N: Well, you put your hands together, like when you pray, when you say a prayer, and you bow your head forward slightly and the other person does the same. But it's not usually for friends, you don't need to do it, you just do it for people older than you.

I: I see. And in public are there any things that you find different? Is it true that it's not acceptable for a young couple to hold hands in public?

N: Well, nowadays some of them do, maybe because of the influence of Western society, but it's not so common. I think twenty years ago you couldn't do this, you couldn't hold hands in public, and even now, a couple kissing in public ... no, you wouldn't see that.

I: Uh, uh.

N: Another thing that people might find very different is that the head is very important for Thai people - you can't touch another person's head. You have to respect people, and in the same way as the head is the most important part, the feet is the lowest part. It's very rude to point at anything with your feet. If you want to open a door with your foot, you can't do it.





^ I: Right. So if someone invites you to their home, is there anything you should know about how to behave?

N: Yes, you have to take off your shoes! Don't forget!

I: You have to?

N: You have to. And if you're invited to eat in someone's home, it’s a little bit different. When we eat a meal, we always put the food in the middle, for sharing, you have a big bowl for the rice and everyone helps themselves to the other dishes with a spoon and fork. We don't have salt and pepper, and we have something called 'nam pla' on the table. It’s a fish sauce. It’s got a very strong taste, it’s typical of Thailand. For me, Thai food is very good, very delicious!

^ I: Right. Anything else, any other ‘dos’, ‘don’ts’?

N: Mm ... let me see. Maybe one thing you should know is about the royal family, the Thai royal family - it's not the same as in England. In England you can say anything about the royal family, but in Thailand you can't talk about them like that - you always have to show respect.

^ I: That is very different from England. Well, thank you very much for your help. I'll try to remember everything you've told me!

N: You’re welcome.

(from J.Soars, L. Soars. Headway. Upper-Intermediate. 2002)


2. Read the following statements and using the information of the interview make a choice between the two options

  1. When addressing a Thai person it is polite to use just their (1) first name / their surname.

  2. In more formal situations you should use the word 'Khun'. This is like 'Mr' and is used for addressing (2) men / both men and women.

  3. It is not usual to shake hands when you meet a Thai person. Instead you do a ‘wai’ - you put your hands together as if you are saying a prayer, and bow your head slightly. You should always use this greeting when you meet (3) older people / your friends.

  4. Couples should be careful about how they behave. You don't see Thai couples (4) holding hands / kissing in public.

  5. The head is very important in Thai culture. It is very (5) respectful / not respectful to touch another person's head.

  6. If you're invited to someone's home, you should (6) always take off you shoes / never take off your shoes. It's very important to remember this!

  7. When eating a meal with Thai people, you should expect the food to be served in large bowls in the centre of the table. Everyone helps themselves, using (7) chopsticks / a spoon and fork.

  8. Finally, you should never insult the Thai royal family. Thais always show respect towards their royalty, and they expect visitors to do the same.


^ III. READING AND DISCUSSION


Gestures

Many important facts are contained in the non-vebal world of gestures. Gestures can be helpful when people travel abroad and they do not know the language of the host country. But keep in mind: gestures can be damaging as some of them are universal but others have specific cultural colouring.



Culture clip


Gesture-loving cultures include Israel, France, Italy, Portugal, Mexico, Costa-Rica, Guatemala, Bolivia, Jamaica, and many African and Middle-Eastern countries.

Many Northern European countries dislike frequent gesturing

(from R.L. Oxford. Patterns of Cultural Identity. 1995)



^ IV. SOME MORE READING

1. Read the text about some of the gestures used in Great Britain and the United States of America and compare them with gestures having similar meaning in Ukraine. Comment on the differences


Important gestures

Some gestures are used by all British and American people. Many are appropriate only in informal situations; others are considered rude.


Head

People nod to indicate 'yes'. Sometimes people nod repeatedly during a conversation to show that they agree with the speaker. Nodding to somebody while you are talking to someone else shows that you have noticed them.

Shaking the head from side to side means 'no'. When somebody makes this gesture with their eyes wide open it indi­cates disbelief. If there is a slight smile then the person is also amused.


^ Fingers and thumbs

Thumbs up is a gesture showing ap­proval or success. It is usually made with the thumb of only one hand. Thumbs down is a similar gesture but the thumb points down towards the ground. It is used by somebody to indicate they have failed to do or get something.

Pointing with the forefinger (= first finger) at somebody or something shows which person or thing you want or are talk­ing about. But in both Britain and the US it is considered rude to point.

People can indicate that they think somebody is mad by pointing one finger at the side of their forehead and turning it. A finger held to the lips indicates “Sh!” (Be quiet!).

Fingers crossed is a wish for good luck.

Drumming your fingers, i.e. tapping them repeatedly on a desk or table, suggests impatience. Scratching your head suggests you are not sure what to do. These gestures may also be a sign that a person is nervous.


^ Hands and arms

People often shake hands when they are introduced to each other. Business people may shake hands when they make an agreement.

We wave when saying goodbye to somebody. Waving is also used as a greeting, especially by somebody famous.

Lifting the arm is used to attract attention. In schools teachers say “Hands up” when they ask a question, so that all the children get a chance to answer. Adults also lift their arm to attract the atten­tion of a waiter or a taxi driver. In Britain people stop a bus by holding one arm out at right angles while facing towards the bus.

People clap their hands to show they are pleased about something. After a concert, play, etc. they clap repeatedly to show they enjoyed it.


Shoulders

Shrugging your shoulders shows impatience or lack of interest. It can also be used to indicate that you do not mind which of several things is chosen.

(from “A Guide to British and American Culture”)


2. The following example of’ ‘Gestures of Approval’ can help you understand how different gestures can be used in different cultures to convey the same meaning



(from R.L. Oxford. Patterns of Cultural Identity. 1995)


3. Eye contact can be also challenging for representatives of different cultures. Read the following passage and answer the questions:


Eye language

In Japan eye contact is a key to the way you feel about someone. And the less of it, the better. What a Westerner, considers an honest look in the eye, the oriental takes as a lack of respect and a personal affront. Even when shaking hands or bowing   and especially when conversing   only an occasional glance into the other person’s face is considered polite. The rest of the time, great attention should be paid to fingertips, desk tops, and the warp and woof of the carpet. “Always keep your shoes shined in Tokyo”, advises an electronics representative who has logged many hours there”. You can bet a lot of Japanese you meet will have their eye on them”.

(from R.Axtell. Do’s and Taboos Around the World)


  1. According to the text, which culture dislikes direct eye contact?

  2. Which culture likes direct eye contact?

  3. Why is it so important to have your shoes polished in Japan?

  4. How can you comment on the international saying “The eyes are the window of the soul”? Is there a similar saying in Ukrainian / Russian language?


3.How would you interpret the following body language in your culture

The other person

Meaning

Leans forward when listens to you




Maintains eye contact at all times




Sits upright




Looks down and does not look at you




Looks at a watch or a clock




Covers his/her mouth with hands




^ UNIT 6

SUBCULTURES


SUBCULTURES   groups of people who share a distinct set of cultural traits within a larger society. In some cases the factors that bind a subculture together play a more significant part than national culture.

    1. ^ Do you know any of the following subcultures? Describe their particular philosophy of life, their philosophy about work, their dress, appearance, values, etc.

Hippies Bikers Environmentalists

Cowboys Militia movement Animal Rights Activists

Cyberists Feminists Primitive living supporters

Skinheads Gothic


    1. While discussing the subcultures decide which of the following cultural values they may have. Make up a list of values for at least two subcultures.

Formality

Informality

Indirectness/Face/Ritual

Directness/Openness/Honesty

Change as positive

Stability/Tradition/Continuity

Spirituality

Materialism

Group welfare/Dependence

Individualism/Independence

Practicality

Idealism

Hierarchy/Rank Status

Equality/Fairness

Past Orientation

Future Orientation

Fate/Destiny

Control over environment

Cooperation

Competition

"Being" oriented

Action/work oriented




    1. Identify which subculture would support the following slogans on the bumper sticker or a T- short.
















^ IV. READING AND MAKING A PRESENTATION


Youth Culture


PRE-READING TASK

Try to answer the following questions

  • Do you agree teen’s values are different from adult people’s values in all countries?

  • Do you agree “youth culture” is similar in different countries on the globe?

  • Which factors influence the young people’s values globally and in Ukraine?

  • Write down 3 -5 words presenting the values of young people in Ukraine.

  • Do the opinions of parents, friends, teachers, public people help to form the values and change them?


1. Read the first part of the text presenting general information on teen’s values.

1   2   3   4   5   6

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