Міністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства english for Сross-cultural icon

Міністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства english for Сross-cultural




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НазваМіністерство освіти І науки україни харківська національна академія міського господарства english for Сross-cultural
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New words

blog (web+log) a personal on-line diary or journal that anyone can access.

cyberspace the imaginary 'space' through which Internet messages travel.

dotcom an Internet business

spam unwanted emails sent to you by commercial companies.

webcam (web+camera) a videocamera that can transmit images live over the Internet

webcast (web + broadcast) a live ‘television programme’ on the Internet, broadcast by a webcam.

VOCABULARY

Read the New Words text. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below with the correct words from the text

  1. Did you know you can watch a live .......... of Big Brother 24 hours a day?

  2. 'Did you get any interesting emails this morning?' 'No, just a lot of...........'

  3. My sister works for Web Systems in London - its one of the new ..........s.

  4. They're putting up a .......... in the City Hall so they can broadcast the concert on the Internet.

  5. Have you read this girl's .......... today? Some of her views are really extreme.

  6. ‘I never received that email you sent me.' 'Didn't you? It must have got lost in ............'


^ LOOKING BACK

Write a short summary (100 words) of the text ‘Welcome to Weblish’ and try to present your own ideas on the special language of Internet and computers and how it has changed the vocabulary of Ukrainian youth


III. SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Most of the lines in the text below contain one unnecessary word. Find the unnecessary words and write them in the spaces. If the line is correct, put a plus on the line. The first two lines have been done for you


^ The Making of an Internet Enthusiast

A friend of mine, is a lawyer, had never used a

computer in his life. But when he decided to work

from home, he realized that he would need to get the

one. He was being quite worried about it because

he had no idea about how to use them. I'm sure

he would have been satisfied with a one very basic

machine; but he decided that, if he was going to have

a home office, he should have a 'good' computer. So

as, he phoned to order one, and they sold him

the most powerful computer they had. After a few

days past, he had a super-machine which he hadn't a

clue what to do with that. But two months later, he

has become the greatest Internet enthusiast I know

him. He now uses words like 'log on' and "IP address"

like he's been using them all his life. He does

everything'online': pays for his bills, orders books,

and stationary, contacts his family in America and reads

the news on BBC. The Internet has become part of his life.

0

00

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15


Is ___

+_________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________

__________


(from B.Obee, V.Evans, Upstream: Upper Intermediate. 2004)


  • ^ COMPREHENSION CHECK

      1. The author’s friend has to work from home.

      2. The author decided his friend needed a basic computer.

      3. The friend bought the most powerful computer in the shop.

      4. The friend mastered the computer from the first day.

      5. Less than three months were needed for the friend to become an Internet enthusiast.

      6. It’s easier for him to order books online.

      7. His family contacts him from America.


^ CREATIVE WRITING

Make up a short summary (100 words) of the text and try to give your own ideas as for the Internet mastering and using



UNIT 2

^ TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE




I. READING AND DISCUSSING

PRE-READING TASK

What do you know about e-commerce? Have you ever used this service? In your opinion, which country dominates in selling goods through the Internet?


1. These 7 words are missing from the article below. Decide where they fit and put them into the space provided.


cards

goods

markets

reasons

retailers taxes

telephones

websites


^ First America, then the world

Before e-commerce can go global, it needs to overcome a few obstacles.

Something like three-quarters of all e-commerce currently takes place in the United States. The country also accounts for 90% of commercial websites. Given that the Internet is, by its very nature, global in reach, these two facts raise a vital question about e-commerce for the rest of the world: are America and American websites inevitably going to dominate it?

The answer is not immediately obvious, for several 1. ___________________ . For a start, it is surprisingly hard to cross borders in the retail world. In industries such as drink manufacturing, car making or investment banking, it is comparatively easy for a Coca-Cola, a Ford or a Goldman Sachs to establish itself around the globe. But in shopping or retail banking, cultural, linguistic and regulatory barriers often get in the way.

Surely the Internet will give retailers a further boost? It may well do so: but that does not mean going global will suddenly become straightforward. One big reason is the crucial importance of fulfillment and delivery. Being good at these inside the United States is clearly a plus, but, because they are by definition local, that does not guarantee success in other 2. _____________________ . Several American websites no longer take orders from outside the country for this reason (although Amazon reckons that as many as a quarter of visitors to Amazon.com live abroad). Another reason is that in Europe, the biggest marketplace for e-commerce after America, various government, tax and regulatory obstacles are deterring would-be American electronic vendors.

The third reason that American global domination should not be taken for granted is that many American web 3. ___________________________ may have left it too late: a surprising amount of e-commerce is starting to take place in other countries. In roost Scandinavian countries Internet use is now higher than in the United States, and in Britain and Germany it is catching up.

In some ways Europe and Asia are at a disadvantage compared with America. Credit 4. ____________________________ are far less widely used, which is one reason for the success of mixing online (to place orders) and offline (to pay and pick them up) business. Another problem is telecoms costs. In Europe these can be Five times as high as in America, where local calls are often free. Despite the success of "free" Internet service providers in Europe, it still costs twice as much there as in America to surf the web.

Yet in telecoms both Europe and Japan could now find themselves at an advantage, thanks to their lead over America in mobile telephony. Computer experts like to argue that nobody wants to surf the web on a one-inch screen. But it seems more likely that mobile 5. ____________________________ and other handheld devices are about to become the instrument of choice for Internet access.

But the tax debate is not just about what happens inside America, Tax is also an international issue. In several EU countries the rate of value-added tax (the nearest thing to American sales 6. ______________________ ) can be as high as 250/0, and VAT accounts for an average of 40% of Europe's tax revenues. There is no prospect that, once e-commerce takes off, goods or services sold over the Internet will be allowed to avoid such an important tax.

But it is regulation, rather than tax, that American e-commerce firms are most concerned about when they look at Europe. They are worried about some unhelpful recent cases. In one case, Land's End, a clothes retailer, was found to be breaching German consumer law by offering its normal 100% replacement guarantee for any clothing that wore out. Advertising on 7. ________________________ in Europe is a colossal headache: for example, Denmark bans advertising to children, France bans advertising in English and Germany bans comparative advertising.

(from L .Jones. Business Communication. 2001)


2. Which statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the article?

  1. Retailers have to overcome problems with culture and language if they want to do business around the world.

  2. Delivery is not really a problem for retailers.

  3. Europe is the second largest market for e-commerce in the world.

  4. A higher percentage of Americans use the Internet than any other nationality.

  5. It's cheaper to surf the web in the USA than in most other countries.

  6. In the USA, if you buy on the web, you don't have to pay sales tax.

  7. If Europeans buy from the USA over the web, they can avoid paying VAT.

  8. American firms can use the same advertisements all over the world.


3. Make out questions to which the following numbers are answers

25, 90, 40, 100


4. Put the eight paragraph titles into the correct order the paragraphs appear in the text. One title is extra.

  • Costs are high

  • Delivery problems

  • Domination in commercial websites

  • Governments initiate e-commerce

  • Mobile telephony as an alternative

  • Taxes are obligatory

  • Regulations differences

  • Crossing the borders in the retail world

  • Competitors start e-commerce


5. Study the meaning of the following idioms in the text. Match the idioms in Column A with their meaning in Column B


A

B

to find oneself at an advantage

to be strong for challenges

to take for granted

to be responsible for

to take off

to prevent something

to give boost

to increase the value and reputation

to get in the way

to accept someone or something as a matter of course

to be concerned about

to move faster in order to reach someone or something who is moving in the same direction

to account for

to discover what one’s benefits are

to overcome obstacles

to become popular and successful

to catch up

to worry, trouble about something


^ LOOKING BACK

What are the main problems American commerce faces in Europe?


CONTRIBUTE YOUR IDEAS

Give your ideas on the factors that stand in the way of e-commerce development in Ukraine

  • shortcomings of the Ukrainian legal system;

  • unreadiness of people to buy on-line;

  • unattractiveness of Ukrainian market for foreign investors;

  • insufficient number of Internet users;

  • fear of customers to be deceived


^ II. READING AND DISCUSSING


PRE-READING TASK

In small groups discuss what you know about Ireland. Can you name any places in Ireland or any famous Irish people? Compare your ideas with the ideas of other groups.


1. Read the text and do the comprehension check


Wired Ireland

(A) The stereotypical view of Ireland is of a rural, agricultural country where the people are friendly, but short of money and not very much in touch with the modern world. Nothing could be further from the truth. Today, only about 8% of Irish people work in agriculture, and the population is young and well-educated. Nearly a third of Irish residents are aged between 25-44.

(B) In the last decade, government initiatives have encouraged manufacturing and service industries in Ireland and have brought in much foreign investment, especially from Europe. Ireland is a member of the EU and, unlike the UK, adopted the euro as its currency at the beginning of 2002.

(C )Electronics is the largest manufacturing industry in Ireland, and a third of the country's exports these days consists of products from the telecommunications and computer industries.

(D) About 300 computer and software companies, including world leaders such as Apple, Dell, Microsoft and Intel, have operations in Ireland. Almost a third of personal computers and 60% of packaged software sold in Europe comes from Ireland.

(from Е. Sharman Across Cultures, 2004)


^ COMPREHENSION CHECK



  1. What is the stereotypical view of Ireland? Does it correspond to the reality?

  2. What proportion of the Irish population are aged between 25-44?

  3. What industries are supported by the government?

  4. What currency does Ireland have?

  5. What proportion of Europe’s computers and software originates in Ireland?




2. Match the summary with the correct paragraph

1.

Electronics is developing rapidly

2.

World leading computer companies have operations in Ireland

3.

A false stereotype

4.

Irish government encourages industries and investments


^ CONTRIBUTE YOUR IDEAS

Do you think a great development of computer and software industries in Ireland can be explained by the fact that one third of the country’s residents are aged between 25-44?

Why the world leading computer and software companies have chosen Ireland for their operations?

UNIT 3

^ TECHNOLOGY AND FUTURE





I. READING AND DISCUSSING


PRE-READING TASK

    1. Make a list of any other modern gadgets or appliances which you use at work or home. Example: a microwave oven.

    2. Individually, decide how important they are in your everyday life. Put them in order 1-10 (10 being the least essential).

    3. Discuss your list with others in the group and give reasons for your choices.

    4. Do you think modern technology has a positive or negative effect on life at work and home? Give reasons.


READING

  1. The article identifies two problems of modern life   too much information and an increase in shyness. What do you think is causing these problems? Discuss with a partner.

  2. Read the text and check your predictions.


Stop the World!

The fax is spewing out a 50-page document, the answering machine is flashing six messages, the mobile phone is ringing again, there are 20 e-mails to respond to and the Internet has found 11,000 articles on the subject you are researching. No wonder information-overload syndrome is the latest ailment to strike office workers.

Our ability to generate information has simply exceeded our ability to review and understand most of it, let alone to decide on priorities. And prioritizing is vitally important when you consider how much information we are exposed to - more information has been produced in the past 30 years than in the past five millenniums. The fact that not all of it is of equal importance means that it needs to be sifted first. Likewise, it is crucial that we avoid getting caught up in the urgency culture, where everything has to be done 'by yesterday'.

The growth of computer technology is also fuelling a worldwide 'epidemic' of shyness, the psychologist Professor Zimbardo said yesterday. He believes we are at the beginning of a new 'ice age' of non-communication. The growing use of e-mail and the disappearance of jobs such as shop assistants means that face-to-face conversations are becoming a rarity and it may well soon be possible to go through the entire day without talking to another person directly. Less and less time is spent on personal hobbies, holidays and with friends and relations.

We are sending information but not conveying emotion. Zimbardo's theory is that there is much less small talk (the recounting of the inconsequential trivia the important feature) of social life that forms the social glue which holds communities together. Computers have eroded the opportunity for small talk and this means that people now feel they need a serious reason to start an everyday conversation.

(from J. Soars, L. Soars. Headway. Upper-Intermediate, 2002)


3. Read the text again and answer the questions

1. Why is prioritizing so important?

2. What is meant by 'the urgency culture'?

3. What does the professor mean by a new 'ice age'?

4. What are we not doing as we concentrate on sending out information?

5. Why are people reluctant to start an everyday conversation nowadays?


4. Arrange the paragraph titles in the right order

      1. Face to face conversation disappear

      2. Computers destroy small talk

      3. Prioritizing is difficult

      4. Informational overload.


5. Explain the words or expressions in italics by paraphrasing the sentences

    1. The fax is spewing out a 50-page (line 1)

    2. No wonder information-overload syndrome is (line 5)

    3. let alone to decide on (line 25)

    4. Computers have eroded (line 49)


^ CONTRIBUTE YOUR IDEAS

    • Do you agree that computer technology can be detrimental to our lives? Have you, or has anyone you know, had any experience of this? Should we and could we change this aspect of our culture?

    • How could we deal more effectively with a large amount of information?

    • Is 'small talk' becoming less common in our country?

    • Do you think men or women are more affected socially by the impact of technology?

    • Do you think using of modern technologies / equipment makes people in all corners of the world closer? Do you believe in ‘technological culture’?


^ II. READING AND DISCUSSING


PRE-READING TASK

  1. Do you know what new technologies the scientists are developing for the home and the car?

  2. In which way can these technologies change our life?



  1. Read the text quickly and find the answers to the questions in the Pre-reading section.

1   2   3   4   5   6

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