Робоча програма до вивчення текстового матеріалу з англійської мови для студентів 1-2 курсів за спеціальностями 070801 «екологія та охорона навколишнього середовища» icon

Робоча програма до вивчення текстового матеріалу з англійської мови для студентів 1-2 курсів за спеціальностями 070801 «екологія та охорона навколишнього середовища»




НазваРобоча програма до вивчення текстового матеріалу з англійської мови для студентів 1-2 курсів за спеціальностями 070801 «екологія та охорона навколишнього середовища»
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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ

Харківська національна академія міського господарства


РОБОЧА ПРОГРАМА

до вивчення текстового матеріалу з англійської мови


(для студентів 1-2 курсів за спеціальностями 7.070801 «ЕКОЛОГІЯ ТА ОХОРОНА НАВКОЛИШНЬОГО СЕРЕДОВИЩА», 7.092601 «ВОДОПОСТАЧАННЯ ТА ВОДОВІДВЕДЕННЯ», 7.092108 «ТЕПЛОГАЗОПОСТАЧАННЯ І ВЕНТИЛЯЦІЯ»)


Частина II


Харків - 2005


РОБОЧА ПРОГРАМА до вивчення текстового матеріалу з англійської мови (для студентів 1-2 курсів за спеціальностями 7.070801 «ЕКОЛОГІЯ ТА ОХОРОНА НАВКОЛИШНЬОГО СЕРЕДОВИЩА», 7.092601 «ВОДОПОСТАЧАННЯ ТА ВОДОВІДВЕДЕННЯ», 7.092108 «ТЕПЛОГАЗОПОСТАЧАННЯ І ВЕНТИЛЯЦІЯ»). Частина II. Укладачі: Вергелес Ю. І., Маматова Н. В., - Харків: ХНАМГ, 2005-69с.


Укладачі: Ю. І. Вергелес

Н. В. Маматова


Рецензент: О. В.Маматова


Рекомендовано кафедрою іноземних мов,

Протокол № 8 від 17 травня 2005 року.


.


Introduction


THIS ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING PROGRAMME is a practical guide. In it clear recommendations are offered in plain English to students who look for guidance on specific points of reading , vocabulary, and modern English Grammar. This Programme provides learners of English with original texts and has the very practical aim of improving students’ reading skills.

This Programme is intended for the students specializing in Ecology and Environmental Protection, Wastewater Treatment , Heat and Gas Supply & Ventilation.

The Programme introduces to a particular type of learning experience in a computer class.

It is compiled for 4 semesters each covering texts , key words , exercises and drills, tasks for students’ self-dependent work.

All the learners of English can be directed to References, instructions No.845 and 1360.


THIS ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING PROGRAMME is compiled to assist the second-year students specializing in Ecology and Environmental Protection, Wastewater Treatment, Heat and Gas Supply & Ventilation.

SEMESTER 3

Lexical material, texts

Hours

Work in class : Exercises, drills

Self-dependent work

Lessons 1 - 2 The Verb Group.

^ Objectives: to present the verb group in conversation and in sentences, teach students to use verb groups.

Subject: The Warming of the Earth.

Key words: atmosphere – carbon dioxide – carbonate - Carboniferous– Cretaceous crust – Jurassic – latitude – limestone – lush forests –oxygen – Paleozoic – pole

TEXT 1: ^ The Occurrence of Life.

Organisms might have developed photosynthesis as early as 3.5 billion years ago. The oxygen that was produced in this manner, however, was quickly used up by chemical reactions that permanently stored it in the crust. Then, about 2 billion years ago, these oxygen traps became full and the gas began to slowly build up in the ocean and atmosphere. In addition to the generation of oxygen, simple plants removed carbon dioxide from the environment and buried it in the Earth’s crust in the form of carbonaceous sediments.

About this time, mobile crustal plates on the Earth’s surface began to move extensively. This caused carbonaceous sediments and the oceanic crust to be thrust deep into the earth. The newly formed surface area increased the amount of carbon dioxide stored in thick deposits of carbonate rocks such as limestone. The first microscopic plants also developed at this time and began to replace the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with oxygen.

Another substantial carbon dioxide repository was the great coal forests that spread over the land during the Upper Paleozoic Era 260 million years ago. Plants invaded the land about 450 million years ago and extended to all parts of the Earth. Lush forests that grew during the Carboniferous period absorbed large quantities of carbon dioxide.

During the Cretaceous period from about 135 to 65 million years ago, plants and animals were particularly abundant and spread practically from pole to pole. Volcanoes were especially active during this time. They injected massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which warmed the planet significantly. The Cretaceous period was the warmest period in the Earth’s history.

The Earth’s climate actually began to warm at the beginning of the Jurassic period about 180 million years ago.

Coral reefs and other tropical biota, for which bright sunlight and warm seas are essential, ranged as much as a thousand miles closer to the poles than they do today. Polar forests extended into latitudes 85 degrees north and south of the equator. One example is found in the fossilized remains of a forest that once thrived on the now frozen continent of Antarctica. Alligators and crocodiles lived as far north as Labrador, whereas today they are restricted to the warm Gulf Coastal region.

Perhaps the greatest contribution to the warming of the Earth, however, came from increased volcanic activity caused by vigorous continental movements called plate tectonics. Volcanoes produced 4 to 8 times the present amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide, which substantially increased greenhouse warming. This also provided an abundant source of carbon for green plants, which contributed considerably to their prodigious growth and helped feed the hungry dinosaurs.


Lessons 3 - 4 Uncount Nouns.

^ Objective: to revise uncount nouns within the vocabulary assimilated.

Key words: dinosaurs – extinct – fern – to kill – mammals – Pangaea – radiation – species – to survive – Tertiary – Triassic – to vanish – vegetation

TEXT 2: What Killed the Dinosaurs.

The dinosaurs were the most successful land animals. They inhabited the Earth for 140 million years. Humans, on the other hand, have only been around for the past 4 million years. The dinosaurs originated during the Triassic period, which began 240 million years ago, when all the landmasses were assembled into the supercontinent Pangaea. During the Jurassic period, about 180 million years ago, the continents split apart.

Except for a few temporary land bridges, the newly formed oceans provided a barrier to any further dinosaur migration. At this time, almost identical species lived in North America, Europe, and Africa. The greatest dinosaur that ever lived, brachiosaurus, is found only in Colorado-Utah, southwestern Europe, and eastern Africa. It probably travelled to Africa by way of Europe when the continents were still together.

The success of the dinosaurs is exemplified by their extensive range. They occupied a wide variety of habitats and dominated all other forms of land-dwelling animals. Indeed, if the dinosaurs had not become extinct, mammals would never have achieved dominance over the Earth. Also, humans would not have come into existence because the dinosaurs would have suppressed further advancement of the mammals.

About 500 species of dinosaurs have been discovered thus far, although this is probably only a small fraction of the total. The generally warm climate of the Cretaceous period produced lush vegetation, including ferns and cycads, that supplied the insatiable diets of the plant-eating dinosaurs.

Many theories have been put forward to explain the demise of the dinosaurs. At the end of the Cretaceous period the dinosaurs and 70 per cent of all known species vanished. This indicates that something in the environment made them all unfit to survive, yet did not adversely affect the majority of the mammals. The mammals which were no larger than rodents, coexisted with the dinosaurs for more than 100 million years. They lived a nocturnal life style, however, so as not to compete directly with the dinosaurs.


Lessons 5 - 6 Count Nouns.

^ Objective: to revise count nouns within the vocabulary assimilated.

Key words: to adapt – to cancel out – community – greenhouse effect – Pleistocene – to creep – to sustain – to migrate - warming

TEXT 3: Global Warming.

Extreme and often record-breaking weather events have recently occurred world-wide. There have been heat waves in American and central European cities, floods in Africa that interrupted nearly 2 decades of drought, and almost continuous rain and cold in the middle of summer at other places. The decade of the 1980s has had six of the hottest years of the century. This might be a symptom of a global climate change that is caused by the chemical pollution of the atmosphere. The climate variability, however, is such that the strange weather can still be a reflection of natural variation.

There might be unknown moderating factors that can cancel out or at least lessen the greenhouse effect. Scientists have yet to determine where all the carbon dioxide being produced today is going. Only half the carbon dioxide produced by the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation has been found in the atmosphere or the ocean. Gaseous sulfur produced by marine single-celled plants called plankton might help counter human-induced global warming by partially regulating the Earth's temperature. The sulfur gas emissions could increase the concentration of cloud-forming particles, which could make clouds whiter and therefore more reflective. This in turn would lower global temperatures.

What is unique about the current warming trend, which amounts to an increase of over 1 degree Fahrenheit this century, is its unprecedented speed. The present warming is 10 to 40 times faster than the average rate of warming that followed the last Ice Age. By the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago, the Earth warmed perhaps 5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit. Although this temperature increase is simi­lar to the predicted increase for the greenhouse effect, the major difference is that it was spread over a period of several thousand years and not compressed into less than a century.

If present warming trends continue, by the end of the next century global temperatures could be as warm as they were during the Cretaceous period 100 million years ago. This was the hottest period in geological history.

The effects of global warming could last for centuries. Forests would creep northward. Other wildlife habitats, including arctic tundra, would disappear entirely. Those that are able to migrate could find their routes blocked by natural and man-made barriers. The warming would rearrange entire biological communities and cause many species to become extinct. Other species, commonly called pests, could overrun the land. These changes would diminish the diversity of the world's species and have an adverse affect on humans as the biosphere loses its ability to sustain life. Because of man's disruptive activities, the precious planet called Earth could become a totally alien world.


Lessons 7 - 8 Collective Nouns.

^ Objective: to revise collective nouns within the vocabulary assimilated. Subject: Revitalizing Growth with Sustainability.

Key words: sustainable – finite – consumption – waste minimization – wasteful consumption – health care – malnutrition – vulnerability – alleviating –ailments - affordable

TEXT 4: ^ Sustainable Living.

The nations of the world have begun to realize that the Earth’s carrying capacity is finite, and that global consumption, production, and demographic patterns must become sustainable as a result, if future generations are to live healthy, prosperous and satisfying lives. Achieving sustainable living for all requires an environmentally responsible global approach to modify these unsustainable patterns, involving efficiency and waste minimization changes in production processes, less wasteful consumption, reducing demographic pressures and ensuring access to health care.

The poverty, malnutrition and health ailments currently afflicting more than 1 billion people worldwide are indicative of today’s unsustainable patterns. Every day, over 800 million people go hungry, many of them children. Some one and a half billion people do not have primary health care, and are threatened by a host of diseases, many of them easily avoidable. In light of present demographic pressures, meeting the needs of all the world’s inhabitants will become an ever greater challenge. Alleviating poverty is a moral imperative and is essential for sustainable development.

At the same time, this century has seen a massive increase in the world’s production and consumption, particularly in developed countries. Although, stimulating economic growth in the short term, Governments now recognize this globally unsustainable use of the Earth’s resources has degraded the environment and generated, unmanageable amounts of waste and pollution.

Natural resources and living standards are often the casualties of population growth. The impact of population on environment and development issues should be further analyzed. Human vulnerability in sensitive areas should be determined. It is proposed that population factors be thoroughly researched and incorporated into national planning, policy and decision-making.

Making primary health care available to everyone is a key aspect of alleviating poverty. Standards of health care for those now receiving poor or moderate services and specialized health care for environmentally related problems must be increased. Access to affordable health care and facilities that communities can maintain on their own are important factors.


Lessons 9 - 10 Determiners.

^ Objectives: to teach students to comment on the determiners and ask questions.

Key words: global – to decline – to amount – migration - economic polarization - population programmes – priority – integrated policies – to foster - maternal and infant mortality – to enhance - living standards

TEXT 5: Demographic Dynamics and Sustainability.

The world’s population reached 5.4 billion in mid-1991. Of these, 77 per cent lived in developing countries and 23 per cent in developed countries. In the 1960s the global population was growing at about 2.1 per cent annually and this has now declined to some 1.7 per cent per year. The number of people added to the total each year, now amounting to 92 million, is higher than ever before. It is projected that world population will reach some 6.3 billion people in the year 2000 and 8.5 billion in the year 2025.

Rapidly increasing demands for natural resources, employment, education and social services will make attempts to protect natural resources and improve living standards very difficult. The migration of large numbers of people within countries and across national boundaries will, more than likely, continue to increase, driven by a combination of factors, including population growth, concentration of wealth and land, poverty and economic polarization.

Population programmes are at the interface between people and their environment. Local-level sustainability requires a new action framework that examines population dynamics in conjunction with other factors such as the social dimensions of gender, access to resources, livelihoods and the structure of authority. Population programmes should empower people, and be consistent with socio-economic and environmental planning for sustainability. Integrated population\ environment programmes should closely correlate action on demographic variables with resources management activities and development goals.

A major priority is to address the links between population dynamics and sustainable development. Population dynamics must be incorporated in the global analysis and research of environment and development issues. Governments should work to develop a better understanding of the relationships between human populations, technology, cultural behaviour, natural capital and life support systems. In order to determine the priorities for action at global and regional levels, human vulnerability in sensitive areas and centres of population must be carefully assessed.

Another priority is to formulate integrated national policies for population environment and development. National population issues must be integrated into the national planning policy and decision-making process as part of national development and conservation plans. Policies and programmes should combine environment and development issues with population concerns to foster a holistic view of sustainable development that holds as its goals the alleviation of poverty, secure livelihoods, integrated health care, the reduction of maternal and infant mortality, education and services for the responsible planning of family size, the improvement of the status and income of women, the fulfillment of women’s personal aspirations, and individual and community empowerment. These policies and programmes should be people-centred, working to increase the quality and improve the capacity of human resources for environmental conservation.

Lastly, implementing integrated population, environment and development programmes at the local level is also a critical priority. These programmes should work to improve the quality of life, ensure the sustainable use of natural resources and enhance environmental quality.


Lessons 11 - 12 Main Uses of “the”.

^ Objective: to teach students main uses of “the” so that they can use it in hearing, speaking, reading and writing.

Key words: proper nutrition – sanitation - food supplies – criteria – infrastructure - environmental care - sound development – healthy - to harm - to exacerbate - hand in hand – preventive – curative – initiatives – malaria – hepatitis - leprosy

TEXT 6: ^ Human Health.

Health ultimately depends on the ability to successfully manage the interactions between the physical, biological and economic and social environment. The condition of the health sector both helps determine and is dependent on overall social and economic development conditions. It is also dependent on a healthy environment, including the provision of clean water, sanitation, adequate food supplies and proper nutrition. These criteria require the building of a primary health care infrastructure in conjunction with primary environmental care.

Although sound development is impossible without a healthy population, most developmental activities to some degree harm the environment and so indirectly cause or exacerbate many health problems. Underdevelopment is both the cause and effect of inadequate health in developing countries. Meeting basic health needs thus goes hand in hand with the alleviation of poverty, and should be seen as a contribution to it. Thus, the fundamental objective, for Governments should be, by the year 2000 to achieve “Health for All”: to meet the basic health needs of all the world’s people. As a matter of priority, health service coverage should be achieved for population groups that are in greatest need.

In order to meet basic health needs, primary health care technologies which are practicable, scientifically sound and greater towards the needs of individual countries should be delivered. Coordination among the public health, environmental protection, and development planning sectors should be strengthened at local and national levels.

Health facilities, aided by mechanisms for sustained local community involvement, should be established and monitored, particularly at the district level, their medical and social services staff trained for basic health care delivery. Traditional knowledge of preventive and curative health practices can often support health care initiatives for the self-management of local communities.

National coordinated action plans and monitoring mechanisms should be established for the control of communicable diseases, including malaria, diarrheal diseases, hepatitis, sleeping sickness, soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis and acute respiratory diseases. Specific targets to be achieved by the year 2000 include the eradication of polio and Guinea worm disease and the effective control of onchocerciasis and leprosy. A global monitoring system for epidemic diseases, in particular those with a potential for transboundary spread, should be established by the year 2000.

National and regional institutions should promote broad intersectoral approaches to prevent and control communicable diseases, including applying new vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents, developing information for public awareness and education, and providing training in immunology, molecular biology, epidemiology and community prevention and control. National and international efforts against AIDS are essential to prevent and reduce the social impacts of HIV infection.

Specific health measures to protect vulnerable groups particularly infants, youth, women and indigenous people and their communities, include: strengthening immunization and nutrition programmes; treating and preventing communicable diseases; providing social services for the education, counseling and treatment of specific health problems, including drug abuse; incorporating health issues in national action programmes on women and development; and utilizing women’s groups at the community and national level in all aspects of health care.


Lessons 13 - 14 Other Uses of “the”.

Objective: to introduce other uses of “the” and use ‘the” in statements. Subject: The Habitable World.

Key words: urban infrastructures - deteriorating air quality - water supplies and water management - noise pollution – to monitor - urban residents - discharge of sludge - to assimilate – disposal of urban wastes – to worsen –– anti-pollution - to enact

TEXT 7: ^ Human Settlements.

Shortly after the turn of the century, half of the world’s population will be living in cities. The urbanization of society into human settlements is an expected outcome of development. It opens new opportunities to society, enabling the efficient provision of basic services. Generating some 60 per cent of the global GNP, cities are a major force behind national economic growth. In developing countries, cities are enlarging by 60 million inhabitants annually a pattern that will lead to a net doubling of urban populations in the next 25 years. This has put enormous pressure on urban infrastructures already under serious stress and unable to meet the needs of the existing inhabitants. Overcrowding inadequate housing, inadequate access to clean water and sanitation, growing amounts of uncollected waste, and deteriorating air quality are already serious problems in these cities and may worsen substantially, if effective and timely action is not taken.

The concentration of people in urban areas presents complex planning and management problems in environmental health, energy and transportation, water supplies and water management. There is a need to develop policies that can connect public, private and social sectors and the institutions to provide training of technical experts and planners.

Environmental health considerations should be incorporated into all aspects of urban development policy. Factors include noise pollution, radiation and waste from factories and power plants. Technology and infrastructure are needed to monitor air and water quality, and anti-pollution laws need to be enacted and enforced.

Rapid urban population growth is also endangering water supplies and quality. It is important that access to safe water be provided to all urban residents. The treatment and safe disposal of an increasing proportion of solid wastes, including sewage, needs priority attention. In the industrialized countries this involves avoiding the discharge of sludge in rivers and at sea. In the developing countries, less than 10 per cent of urban waste receives any treatment and only a small fraction of that meets any quality standards. All countries need to establish disposal standards based on the local capacity of the environment to assimilate the waste produced, and new approaches have to be developed for the collection, storage and disposal of urban wastes.


Lessons 15 - 16 “A” and “an”.

^ Objective: to revise “a” and “an” within the vocabulary assimilated.

Key words: to lack - safe sanitation – crucial - severe strains – estuaries - coastal zones – elimination – unsustainable - low-cost water supply - supply of affordable water – depletion – to recycle - water tariffs - the marginal and opportunity cost of water – municipal - urban agglomerations

TEXT 8: ^ Urban Water Supplies.

Today some 2.4 billion people in the world live in urban areas. In the developed world, most of the 900 million urban dwellers, are served with water piped into their homes as well as with municipal sanitation services. In contrast 1.5 billion urban dwellers in developing countries do not have safe water, and over 2 billion lack safe sanitation. By the year 2025, the world’s urban population is expected to reach over 5 billion, and it is therefore crucial that a high priority be given to the environmentally sound management of water resources.

Rapid urban population growth and industrialization are putting severe strains on water resources for human consumption and industrial use. A high proportion of large urban agglomerations are located around estuaries and in coastal zones, leading to municipal and industrial pollution and the over-exploitation of available water resources, which combine to threaten both marine environment and the supply of freshwater resources. Better management of urban water resources, including the elimination of unsustainable consumption patterns, is essential for the alleviation of poverty and the improvement of the health and quality of life of the urban population. In developing countries, specific measures such as low-cost water supply, sanitation and waste management programmes need to be targeted at the large numbers of urban poor.

The overall priority is to identify and implement strategies and actions to ensure the continued supply of affordable water for present and future needs, and to reverse current trends of resource degradation and depletion. In particular, activities should aim to ensure that, by the year 2000, each resident has access to at least 40 litres per day of safe water, that 75 per cent are provided with on-site or community facilities for sanitation, and that the solid waste generated in urban areas is collected and recycled or disposed of in an environmentally safe way. The specific actions needed to satisfy this priority are indicated below.

Water resources should be protected through the introduction of sanitary waste disposal facilities based on ecological sound, low-cost and upgradable technologies, urban storm water run-off and drainage programmes, the promotion of recycling and reuse of wastewater and solid wastes, and, the comfort of industrial pollution sources. The operation and maintenance inadequacies malfunctioning systems should be corrected before investing in new systems. City development planning should be consistent with the sustainable management of water resources, and satisfy the basic water needs of the urban population. This may involve the introduction of water tariffs, where affordable, to reflect the marginal and opportunity cost of water, especially in production. Throughout these programmes, the skills and potential of non-governmental organizations, the private sector and local people should be utilized, taking into account public and strategic interests in water resources. The public should also be made aware of water’s social and economic value; in order to encourage its rational use and protect its quality.


Lessons 17 - 18 All, most, no, none.

Objectives: to present “all, most, no, none” in conversation and in sentences, teach students to use “all, most, no, none” in hearing, speaking, reading and writing.

Key words: municipal - domestic refuse - non-hazardous wastes – debris - bacterial and parasitic infections - waste-related diseases - air contamination - processing - disposal services - waste prevention - the life cycle – modification – to enhance - sound management – collaboration - mix

TEXT 9: ^ Environmentally Sound Management of Solid Wastes.

Municipal solid wastes include domestic refuse and non-hazardous wastes such as commercial and institutional wastes, street sweepings and construction debris. By the end of the century over 1 billion people will be without sufficient solid waste disposal services. Inadequate service waste can lead not only to the serious, long-term pollution of land, air and water resources but also bacterial and parasitic infections. The health impacts of this are particularly severe upon the urban poor. At present, as many as 5 million people, 4 million under of the age of 5, die each year from waste-related diseases. The waste problem is particularly severe in the rapidly growing informal settlements of the developing world, where population densities and health risks are high, public awareness of the hazards of uncontrolled disposal is low and the consequent need for municipal waste disposal services is the greatest. These health and environmental effects, moreover, are felt far beyond the unserved settlements themselves in the form of water, land and air contamination and pollution over a wide area. Hence, extending and improving waste collection, appropriate processing and safe disposal services are vital.

By the year 2025, with over 5.5 billion people expected to live in urban areas, waste generation is likely to increase some five-fold. This may be accompanied by a decrease in the biodegradability of wastes, as more as non-organic materials and industrial wastes are discharged into municipal waste facilities. The best chance of reversing this trend is to address its root cause, by attempting to change unsustainable patterns of production of the integrated life cycle management concept, development and environment are taken into account throughout the life cycle of any given product, ask design and production to recycling and disposal. A strategy of waste prevention, minimization and reutilization should become the foundation of all future solid waste management programmes. Waste minimization can be achieved through modification of industrial processes and through changes in the design and use of products.

While the inadequate disposal of wastes gives rise to several environmental problems that contribute toward unsustainable patterns of development, sound waste management policies provide exceptional opportunities for enhancing the environment and supporting development. For example, recycling metal, paper, glass, plastics, and organic waste can lessen the demand for energy, raw materials and fertilizers.

The environmentally sound management of solid wastes requires the integration of four inter-related priority areas, along with the collaboration of national governments and institutions, and inter-governmental organizations. The mix and emphasis given to each of these four areas vary according to the local socio-economic and physical conditions, rates of waste generation and their composition.


Lessons 19 - 20 Both, either, neither.

^ Objective: to check students’ ability in using “both”, “either”, “neither” covered in the exercise and text for reading.

Key words: to outstrip – municipal authorities – to meet health services needs - peri-urban areas – morbidity - to contribute - respiratory diseases – tuberculosis - meningitis - inevitably – dilemma - prevention and abatement measures - municipal health planning TEXT 10: Urban Pollution and Health.

Rapid urbanization, especially in developing countries, has outstripped society’s capacity to meet basic human needs, leaving hundreds of millions of people with inadequate incomes, diets, housing and services. The financial resources and the administrative capacity of the municipal authorities often cannot meet the increasing environmental health services needs. Environmental pollution in urban areas is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. While overcrowding and inadequate housing in the peri-urban areas contribute to respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, meningitis and other health problems.

In many urban locations the general environment is so badly polluted that altogether the health of hundreds of millions of people is adversely affected. Many countries experience high levels of pollution in urban areas from industrial activities, energy production and use, and transport systems, most of which were developed with little or no regard for environmental protection.

Inevitably, urban development has short and long-term environmental impacts and therefore health implications. The dilemma is to avoid or minimize conflicts between economic development, necessary for the immediate improvement of human health, and environmental protection on which the long-term maintenance of human health critically depends. Supportive environments for health have to be created in the urban settlements.

The priority in urban areas is to clean up and maintain the environment to a degree that human health is not impaired and yet development is encouraged. Specific tasks to incorporate appropriate environmental and health safeguards as part of national and urban development programmes include establishing adequate national infrastructures and programmes for providing requisite pollution surveillance, information gathering on health effects to support cost-benefit analyses, and environmental health impact assessments to help determine pollution control, prevention and abatement measures.

To enhance municipal health planning, city authorities should establish intersectoral committees at both the political and technical level, as a way of forming collaborative networks with scientific, cultural, medical, business, social and other city institutions. These “Healthy City” networks should be expanded and maintained to ensure collaboration and the exchange information and experiences.


Lessons 21 - 22 Much, little, many, few, more, less, fewer.

^ Objective: to revise “much”, “little”, “many”, “few”, “more”, “less”, “fewer” within the vocabulary assimilated.

Subject: Efficient Resource Use.

Key words: energy production and consumption - fossil fuels – to ameliorate – renewables - set of measures – incentives - methodologies and criteria - disposing of generated wastes - in terms of – land-use – forestry

TEXT 11: ^ Energy Resources.

The world is presently on an unsustainable path in terms of its patterns of energy production and consumption. Most of the energy consumed comes from fossil fuels, which are significant sources of pollutants such as the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Furthermore, based on a history of relatively cheap energy supplies, methods for utilizing energy have tended to be highly inefficient and wasteful.

In order to ameliorate atmospheric problems, concerted action is required in a number of economic sectors, including energy, industry, transport, agriculture, forestry and other land-use. The energy sector is the largest contributor to these problems, but it also has the largest potential for improvement.

The world community should rapidly begin to make an energy transition to patterns of energy production and consumption as paramount. Countries need to promote energy efficiency measures and increase the percentage of their energy supply mix devoted to environmentally sound energy systems, particularly renewables.

Increasing the utilization of environmentally sound energy systems will require much effort. Funding for research and development of these options would need to be increased considerably. Countries should implement measures to remove any market barriers to the development and use of environmentally sound energy systems.

More efficient energy use patterns and an increased supply of environmentally sound energy systems can be achieved in different manners by various countries, in accordance with their economic, political and technical circumstances. However, any set of measures will have to feature a mixture of economic instruments that will provide incentives for energy suppliers and consumers to make environmentally sound choices. From an industrial standpoint, methodologies and criteria must be developed to incorporate the environmental costs of industrial production including the cost of treating and disposing of generated wastes, into the price of the final products, and incorporate these in the decision-making process.


Lessons 23 - 24 Some, any, another, each, every

^ Objective: to revise “some”, “any”, “another”, “each”, “every” within the vocabulary assimilated

Key words: backbone - share of export earnings – to share - rural-urban exodus - urban squalor – upheavals – to enhance - vulnerable groups – priority - land tenure – to promote - sustainable agricultural and rural development – crucial - major investments – to implement

TEXT 12: ^ Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development.

Agriculture is an important sector, if not the backbone, of the national economies of many developing countries, sometimes representing the major share of export earnings. Over the next 10 years, this sector will bear most of the responsibility for providing rural economies with sufficient growth to offer employment and other remunerative activities to the bulk of their population. Without this growth, the present rural-urban exodus is certain to accelerate, leading to unmanageable urban squalor and, in all likelihood, major socio-political upheavals. Hence the need for sustainable off-farm rural development is also critical.

Major adjustments are needed in national and international policies to create conditions for sustainable agriculture and rural development. A major objective is to increase food production in a sustainable way and enhance household food security. This involves education initiatives, utilization of economic incentives and the development of appropriate and new technologies, thus ensuring stable supplies of adequate food for vulnerable groups and production for markets, employment and rural income generation as well as efficient natural resources management and environment protection. Priority must be given to maintaining and improving the capacity of higher potential agricultural lands to support an expanding population. At the same time conserving and rehabilitating lower potential land is essential. Emphasis should also be given to reforming agricultural policies relating to price, subsidies, trade, land tenure, and appropriate farm practices and technologies.

In promoting sustainable agricultural and rural development, commitment of national governments and the support of the international community in implementing the programmes is crucial. Efficient agriculture will need to be job-creating both on and off farm and thus help reduce poverty levels. Emphasis should be given to reforming agricultural policies relating to price, subsidies, trade, land tenure and appropriate farm practices and technologies. Major investments in rural infrastructure will be required in promoting sustainable agricultural and rural development; the support of national governments and the international community in implementing the following action programmes is crucial.


Lessons 25 - 26 Adjectives with prepositions.

Objective: to teach students the grammar item “adjectives with prepositions” so that they can use adjectives with prepositions in hearing, speaking, reading and writing.

Key words: quality of life – to take into consideration – deforestation - soil conservation - exchanges of gases and nutrients - forest-related issues - to secure - forest expansion activities

TEXT 13: ^ Sustainable Forest Development.

Increasing attention is being given to the condition of the world’s forests and to the role they play in local economies and quality of life. While public concern has focused for several years on tropical forests, it is now clearly accepted that all types of forests should be taken into consideration. Recent estimates indicate that annual deforestation rates of tropical forests amount to some 17 million hectares worldwide. Deforestation is a result of many causes; some natural, but mainly due to human development, such as inappropriate land tenure systems and incentives, expansion of agricultural areas, increasing forest product demand and lack of information and understanding on the value of forests.

In the context of environmentally sound and sustainable development, the benefits to be derived from trees, forests lands are wide and varied.

Forests are not only a source of timber and firewood, but also play an important role in soil conservation, the regulation of hydrological cycles exchanges of gases and nutrients, including carbon dioxide, and the maintenance of reservoirs of rich biodiversity. Many local populations have understood the multiple benefits for their livelihoods obtained from forests, yet only recently has the fundamental value of forests emerged at a wider national scale. The realization that forests significantly affect the lives of both local and distant populations has helped place forest-related issues on national planning and on the international agenda.

In a programme for the sustainable development of forests and woodlands, the first priority should be to secure the multiple roles of trees, forests and forest lands by strengthening national institutions and capabilities to formulate and implement effectively policies, plans, programmes and projects relevant to forest issues. The scope and effectiveness of conservation and forest expansion activities should be enhanced, and the sustainable production of forest goods and services in both developed and developing countries should be ensured.


Lesson 27 Revision.

^ Objective: to revise Grammar and Vocabulary of the 3rd semester.


Total:

4


4


4


4


4


4


4


4


4


4


4


4


4


2


54

  1. Underline the main verbs in these sentences:

  1. Chaos pervaded the universe then and now.

  2. Many of the motions of our Solar System are driven by chaos.

  3. Life seems to maintain oxygen and carbon dioxide in perfect balance.

  4. Without life, chemical reactions would have run steadily downhill and oxygen would have long since vanished.

  1. Underline the auxiliaries:

  1. Periods are combined to form eras and subdivided into epochs.

  2. What is happening to the rainforests?

  3. A rainforest is a thick forest of tall trees which is found in tropical areas where there is a lot of rain.

  1. Underline the modals:

  1. We can get a lot of medicines from rainforests.

  2. Organisms might have developed photosynthesis as early as 3.5 billion years ago.

  3. Too much of one with respect to the other could spell the difference between life and death on Earth.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

  1. Complete the sentences:

    1. Plants invaded the land about 450 million years ago and extended to all parts of the _____.

    2. This caused _____ _____ and _____ _____ _____ to be thrust deep into the earth.

    3. The Cretaceous period was _____ _____ _____ in the Earth’s history.

  2. Reread the text and then write a brief summary of it.



Look at the following pairs of sentences. Mark the sentences C for count or U for uncount.

    1. People spend their lives worrying about ecology.

How is life?

    1. She’s had nine months’ experience as a technologist.

The credit test was a painful experience.

    1. There was general agreement on the problem.

We hope to come to a general agreement on future action.

  1. Make up sentences with the following uncount nouns: chaos, ice, carbon, oxygen, coal, life, death, dust, rain.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

1) _____ ______ ______ ______ _____ is exemplified by their extensive range.

2) The dinosaurs _____ _____ _____ successful land animals.

3) Also, humans ______ ______ ______ _____ into existence because the dinosaurs _____ ______ ______ further advancement of the mammals.

2. What do you know about the dinosaurs? Are these sentences true or false?

1) Dinosaurs were reptiles.

2) Some dinosaurs were very small.

3) Dinosaurs died a long time before people appeared on Earth.

4) Birds lived at the same time as dinosaurs.

5) Dinosaurs lived in all parts of the world.

6) Some dinosaurs moved very quickly.

7) Most dinosaurs did not eat meat.



    1. Give the plurals of the following nouns:

dinosaur

life

trap

area

continent

plant

rainforest

volcano

reptile

era

epoch

    1. Rewrite these sentences in the plural:

    1. A lion is a dangerous animal.

    2. A cat is supposed to have nine lives.

    3. The biggest rainforest is in South America.

    4. An organism is an animal or a plant.

    5. An alligator is a large animal.

    6. A rodent is a small mammal.

    7. The shallow is the shallow part of an area of water.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. The decade of the 1980s _____ ______ six of the hottest _____ _____ _____ _____.

  2. _____ _____ _____ would lower global temperatures.

  3. The effects of _____ _____ could last for centuries.

  4. _____ and often _____-______ weather events have recently occurred world-wide.

    1. What is happening to the climate? Our climate is changing all the time. Many scientists think that the world is getting warmer. Is it important? Tell the class your ideas.


Make up sentences of your own using the following collective nouns:

public, government, data, group, herd, flock, host, population.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. _____ _____ _____ care available to everyone is a key aspect of _____ _____.

  2. Natural resources and living standards are _____ _____ _____ of _____ _____.

  3. _____ _____ is a moral imperative and is essential for sustainable development.

  4. Human vulnerability in _____ _____ should be _____.

2. Comment on accelerating sustainable development.

3. Write a summary of the text in English.


Underline the determiners in the following sentences:

  1. These priorities will require strengthening research activities.

  2. The condition of the health sector both helps determine and is dependent on overall social and economic development conditions.

  3. Sound health technology should be developed that is adaptable to local needs as well as maintainable and, in the case of equipment, repairable by local community resources.

  4. Better “population literacy”, an awareness of the population\ environment interactions taking place at local and national levels, should be developed among decision makers.

  5. Alleviating poverty is a moral imperative and is essential for sustainable development.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. _____ _____ _____ _____ added to the total each year, now amounting to 92 million, is _____ _____ _____ _____.

  2. A major priority ______ ______ _____ the links between population dynamics and sustainable development.

  3. _____ _____ are at the interface between people _____ _____ _____.

    1. Speak on the main problem of the text for reading.

    1. Make up as many questions as you can connected with the text.



Look at this passage. This time put in either a, an, or the.

Young man was out for a walk in large city when he met penguin. Penguin seemed to like him and began to follow him. Young man didn’t know what to do so he went up to policeman to ask for advice. “Take it to zoo”, policeman said.

Next day policeman saw same young man again still followed by penguin. “What are you doing with that penguin?” he asked. “I told you to take it to zoo”.

“Yes”, young man said, “we went to zoo yesterday. Today we are going to museum”,

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

      1. Complete the sentences:

  1. Underdevelopment is both _____ ______ and effect of inadequate health in developing countries.

  2. _____ _____ require the building of a primary health care infrastructure ______ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.

  3. National and international efforts against AIDS _____ _____ _____ _____ and _____ the social impacts of HIV ______.

      1. Suggest a suitable title for each paragraph of the text for reading.



Read the sentences and mark where the should be. The number in brackets tells you how many times the occurs.

  1. I have been to United Kingdom, Germany, but never to Poland. (1)

  2. Amazon in Brazil is the longest river in South America. (1)

  3. Japan and United States are separated by Pacific Ocean. (2)

  4. Liverpool is in north of England, fairly close to Wales. (1)

  5. I would love to go to Jamaica, Bahamas or somewhere else in Caribbean. (2)

  6. Suez Canal flows through north of Egypt from Port Said to Suez, joining Mediterranean to Gulf of Suez and Red Sea. (5)

  7. Lake Windermere in north-west of England is one of the largest lakes in British Isles. (2)

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. Factors include _____ _____, _____ and _____ from factories and power plants.

  2. _____ _____ _____ _____ of the century, half of the world’s population will be living in cities.

  3. Rapid urban population growth is also _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.

    1. Make up as many questions to the text for reading.



Where you find a noun phrase with a singular count noun but no determiner, put in a or an.

  1. She picked up ….. book.

  2. The information was contained in ….. article on ecology.

  3. I spoke to ….. official and he gave me very good advice.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. Rapid urban population growth and industrialization _____ _____ _____ _____ on water resources for human consumption and industrial use.

  2. _____ _____ 2.4 billion people in the world live in urban areas.

  3. The specific actions _____ _____ _____ this priority are indicated below.

      1. Answer the following questions:

  1. Is the world’s urban population expected to reach over 5 or 10 billion?

  2. What is a high priority given to?

  3. How many litres of safe water per day does each resident have access to?

  4. How should water resources be protected?



Translate the following sentences, paying attention to: all, most, no, none.

    1. The method was suitable for most purposes.

    2. All important decisions were taken by the government.

    3. There is no simple answer to this question because velocity is only indirectly the limiting factor in pipe sizing.

    4. None of them has lasted very long.

    5. None of us are the same.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. The health impacts of this are _____ _____ upon the urban poor.

  2. _______ _______ ______ include domestic refuse and non-hazardous wastes such as ______ and _____ _____, street sweepings and ______ _____.

  3. For example, recycling metal, paper, glass, plastics, and _____ _____ _____ _____ the demand for energy, raw materials and fertilizers.

    1. Suggest a suitable title for each paragraph of the text for reading.



Choose the correct form of the verb in brackets to complete these sentences.

1) ^ Both policies ….. good sense. (makes\make)

2) Even in cases where both production records and full billing records are available, disagreements between the two may ….. that need to be resolved. (exists, exist)

3) Transmission and distribution systems can …. either looped or branched. (is, be, am)

4) These probabilities ….. …… either based on historical data or on assumptions of failure. (is obtained, are obtained)

5) In reality, neither party ….. enthusiastic. (were, was)

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. Supportive environments for health ______ _____ _____ _____ in the urban settlements.

  2. _____ _____ in urban areas is associated with excess morbidity and mortality.

  3. Inevitably, urban development has short and long-term environmental impacts and _____ _____ _____.

    1. Analyse the predicate in each sentence of the text for reading.



Complete these sentences using the determiners given in brackets:

  1. I haven’t got ….. time. (little, much)

  2. There are ….. trees here. (fewer, less)

  3. She speaks ….. English but she doesn’t speak ….. French. (a lot of, much, many)

  4. If he can spare me ….. time, I’d like to make ….. suggestions. (a few, a little, much)

  5. I have so ….. work to do. (much, many)

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

1) Increasing the utilization of _____ _____ _____ _____ will require much effort.

2) ______ _____ is presently on an unsustainable path in terms of its patterns of _____ _____ and _____.

3) The energy sector is _____ ______ _____ to these problems, but it also has the largest potential for improvement.

2. Suggest a suitable title for each paragraph of the text for reading.


Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the determiners:

1. Typically, the internal plumbing of a customer is not included in a water distribution system model; however, in some cases, such as sprinkler system, internal plumbing may be modelled..

2. Including separate modelling elements to represent every fitting and appurtenance present in a real-world system would be an unnecessarily tedious task.

3. With every advance in computer technology and each improvement in software methods, hydraulic models become a more integral part of designing and operating safe and reliable water distribution systems.

4. Ideally, each pipe, pump, and valve in a system has been sized using some design flow.

5. Other treatment options that provide additional barriers to contaminants reaching the water user include regular use of granular activated carbon.

6. Another mechanism, raw water storage, provides a time lag between the water intake and water treatment.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

1) _____ ______ _____ is to increase food production in a sustainable way and enhance household food security.

2) Efficient agriculture will need _____ ______ job-creating both on and off farm and thus _____ _____ _____ _____.

3) Agriculture is _____ _____ _____, if not the backbone, of the national economies of many developing countries, sometimes _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.

2. Read the text for reading and then write a brief summary of it.


Complete the definitions using one of the adjectives below with the correct preposition:

furious with; upset with; sensible with; suspicious of.

  1. If something makes you worried and unhappy, you are very ….. ….. it.

  2. If someone makes you very angry, you are ….. ….. them.

  3. If you make a wise decision, someone might say “That’s very ….. ……”

  4. If you feel that you do not trust someone, you are ….. … them.

    1. Work in pairs. Discuss adjectives with prepositions. Note: Some adjectives used after link verbs can be used alone or followed by a prepositional phrase.

e. g. She was afraid.

She was afraid of her enemies.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

1) In the context of environmentally _____ and _____ _____, the benefits to be derived from trees, forests lands are _____ _____ _____.

2) _____ _____ is being given to _____ _____ _____ _____ world’s forests and to the role they play in local economies and ______ ______ _____.

3) Recent estimates indicate that annual _____ _____ of tropical forests amount to some 17 million _____ _____.

2. Speak of the main facts presented in the text for reading.


Pick out examples of verb groups from the text. Note: the verb group usually comes after the subject and always has a main verb. Verb groups can also include one or two auxiliaries, or a modal, or a modal and one or two auxiliaries.


Tell of the occurrence of life.


Pick out examples of uncount nouns from the text. Note: some nouns can be both uncount and count nouns.


Discuss the problem of the demise of the dinosaurs.


Ask questions relating to the text.


Pick out examples of count nouns from the text.


Render the text in English.


Pick out examples of count nouns from the text.


Render the text.


Pick out determiners at the beginning of noun groups; specific & general determiners from the text for reading. Note: The specific determiners are: the definite article: the demonstrati-ves: this that these those possessives: my your his her its our their The general determiners are:

a both few all each fewer an either less another enough little any every many more other most several much some neither no


Render the text for reading in a nutshell.


Pick out examples of main uses of “the” from the text.


Find new exciting facts in the text for reading & render it as if you were a full-fledged specialist.


Summarize the text in 8-10 sentences.


Pick out examples of a and an from the text.

Note: You only use “a” or “an” with singular count nouns. You use “a” or “an” to talk about a person or thing for the first time.


Render the text in brief.


Pick out examples of all, most, no, none from the text if there are any.


State what passages contain the most important information.


Render the text in a nut-shell.


Pick out examples of much, little, many, few, more, less, fewer from the text for reading.


State what passages contain the most important information of the text for reading.


Summarize the text for reading in 8-10 sentences.


Pick out examples of some, any, another, each, every from the text for reading if there are any.


Render what you have read in the text, according to your own plan.


Point all the adjectives with prepositions in the text for reading.


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