Транспортні засоби: історія та сучасність icon

Транспортні засоби: історія та сучасність




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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ

ХАРКІВСЬКА НАЦІОНАЛЬНА АКАДЕМІЯ МІСЬКОГО ГОСПОДАРСТВА





ТРАНСПОРТНІ ЗАСОБИ: ІСТОРІЯ ТА СУЧАСНІСТЬ


Навчальний посібник з англійської мови для студентів денної форми навчання спеціальностей 6.092200 “Електричний транспорт” (спеціалізацій 6.092200 “Електричний транспорт”, 6.092200”Охорона праці та безпека на електричному транспорті”), спеціальностей 6.100401”Організація регулювання дорожнього руху”, 6.100402 “Транспортні системи” і 6.100403 “Організація перевезень і управління на транспорті (міському електротранспорті)”


Харків – ХНАМГ – 2006

“VEHICLES: HISTORY AND MODERNITY”(“ТРАНСПОРТНІ ЗАСОБИ: ІСТОРІЯ ТА СУЧАСНІСТЬ”: Навчальний посібник з англійської мови для студентів денної форми навчання спеціальностей 6.092200 “Електричний транспорт” (спеціалізацій 6.092200 “Електричний транспорт”, 6.092200 “Охорона праці та безпека на електричному транспорті”), спеціальностей 6.100401”Організація регулювання дорожнього руху”, 6.100402 “Транспортні системи” і 6.100403 “Організація перевезень і управління на транспорті (міському електротранспорті)”. Автори-укл. Видашенко Н. І., Сергєєва Г. Б. – Харків: ХНАМГ, 2006. 96с., укр., англ. мовами.


Автори-укладачі: Н. І. Видашенко, Г. Б. Сергєєва


Друкується як навчальний посібник за рішенням Вченої ради академії, протокол № 9 від 28. 04, 2006 року


Рецензенти: к.філол.н., доцент кафедри іноземних мов ХНАМГ Ільєнко О. Л.;

к.філол.н., доцент кафедри іноземних мов ХНАМГ Шумейко Л. В.;

к.філол.н., доцент кафедри іноземних мов № 1 Національної юридичної академії ім. Ярослава Мудрого Зелинська О. І.;

ст. викл. кафедри іноземних мов ХНАМГ Бучковська С. А.


Рекомендовано кафедрою іноземних мов, протокол №6 від 15. 03. 2006 р.


CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………..…4

TO THE STUDENT ……………………………………………...4

TO THE TEACHER …………………………………………...…5


UNIT ONE. EDUCATION ……………………………………….……...6



UNIT TWO. TRANSPORT …………………………………………..…20


UNIT THREE. CARS …………………………………………………..30


UNIT FOUR. BUSES ……………………………………………..……39


UNIT FIVE. TRAMS …………………………………………………..48


UNIT SIX. TROLLEYBUSES …………………………………………57


UNIT SEVEN. TRAINS ……………………………………………….66


UNIT EIGHT. UNDERGROUND …………………………..…………76


UNIT NINE. HEATHROW …………………………………………….84

SOURCES ……………………………………………………………….95




INTRODUCTION


^ TO THE STUDENT


This book is to help you to improve your skills in reading and speaking English, the English grammar and vocabulary.

All students need practice. There are a lot of different certain basic things in English. They cannot be mastered without a great deal of practice. In order to improve your English, you should try to make the most of your classroom time.


REMEMBER:

  • Good learners know that a teacher cannot do everything.

  • To make progress, you must take responsibility for your own learning. Learning English or other languages is like learning to ski or skate. Your teacher can show you what to do, but you must do it.

  • People often remember things better when we work them out for ourselves, rather when we are simply told. Asking questions does not mean you are stupid. It is a vital part of the learning process.

  • Speaking tasks, group work are not a waste of time. If you are asked to do this, it gives you a chance to use your English.

  • Do more than give a ‘minimum response’. This will help you to be more confident with your English.

  • No one can learn languages without making mistakes. Don’t worry about every little mistake, identify important mistakes and work on those.

  • Your first languages can help you learn English, if some words or grammar structures are similar. But the less you rely on translation, the better you will communicate in English.

  • It is never enough simply to know something. You must be able to do things with what you know.

Each unit here gives you the vocabulary of transport, words and expressions that will be useful to you and help you understand written and spoken English.

You can find interesting facts about different vehicles, their history and development.


^

TO THE TEACHER



This course is for the students studying English for scientific and technical purposes (ESP). The course is designed to familiarize the students of non-language higher educational institutions with the information on motor vehicles and electrical transport in particular.

The material has been specifically designed for a variety of class environments and as the basis for individual and group work as well for self-study (marked ***).

This course consists of the nine units and is expected to be covered during at least 70 classroom hours and about 100 hours for self-study. These are:

Unit One. Education Unit Six. Trolleybuses

Unit Two. Transport Unit Seven. Trains

Unit Three. Cars Unit Eight. Underground

Unit Four. Buses Unit Nine. Heathrow

Unit Five. Trams.

Most of the units provide the learner of English with original texts from different sources.

Each unit contains:

  • Pre-reading Activity which involves students’ own experiences when possible and motivates them to read.

  • Text which focuses on one type of transport.

  • Reading Comprehension which confirms the content of the text either in general or in detail.

  • Vocabulary Focus which encourages students to work out the meanings from the context and reinforces the vocabulary further.

  • Vocabulary Development with word-formation exercises which helps students improve the range of words and phrases for active or passive use.

  • Vocabulary Exercises which are means of presenting and improving vocabulary.

  • Grammar Focus which includes different aspects of the English grammar with rules and relevant exercises. These are:

Unit One. Direct and Indirect Speech

Unit Two. Uses of ‘one’, ‘ones’

Unit Three. Conjunctions

Unit Four. Participle

Unit Five. The Passive

Unit Six. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Unit Seven. Prefixes and Suffixes

Unit Eight. ‘Used to’

Unit Nine. ‘Have something done’.

  • Speaking Practices serve as models to demonstrate how to use words and expressions in everyday conversations. The practical exercises give students additional practice in using words and conversational structures found in the unit.

UNIT ONE. EDUCATION
^

Pre – reading Activity





  • What is education?

  • How can you explain H. Spencer’s phrase ‘Education has for its objects the formation of character’?

  • Ph. Chesterfield said ‘Wear your learning like your watch, in a private pocket; and do not pull it out and strike it, merely to show that you have one’. Do you agree? Say your reasons.



^

Make sure you know these words:



Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) – тест, що визначає знання та навички студента

community – люди, які мешкають в одному місті

Bachelor of Arts (BA) – людина, яка має перший

університетський ступінь освіти бакалавра з мистецтві

Bachelor of Science (BS) – людина, яка має перший

університетський ступінь освіти бакалавра з науки

Master of Arts (MA) – людина, яка має другий

університетський ступінь освіти магістра з мистецтва

Master of Science (MS) – людина, яка має другий

університетський ступінь освіти магістра з науки

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) – людина, яка отримала

найвищий університетський ступінь доктора

tuition – навчання

tuition fee – плата за навчання


  1. Read the Text ***
^
Education in the USA

Out of more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for ‘higher education’. It is not easy to enter a college at a leading university in the United States. Such a college may accept only one out of every ten who apply. At present there are over 3,300 different institutions of higher education in the USA with more than 12 million students.

Successful applicants at colleges of higher education are usually chosen on the basis of (a) their high school records which include their class rank, the list of all the courses taken and all the grades received in high school, test results; (b) recommendations from their high school teachers; (c) the impression they make during interviews at the university, which is in fact a serious examination; and (d) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SATs). The SAT is a test on mathematics and the English language, which was introduced in 1947. The SAT is taken in the 11th grade of high school (over 1,5 million high school students take it yearly). If a student gets 1600 scores it is considered as a good result, if he or she gets 400 scores such a result is considered to be poor. A SAT can be taken two or three times, so that the student can improve the results if he or she wishes to do so.

The system of higher education includes four categories of institutions: (1) the two-year, or community college, which is financed by the local authorities and which is intended to satisfy the needs of the local community in different professions. Tuition fees are low in these colleges, that is why about 40 percent of all American students of higher education study at these colleges. On graduation from such colleges American students can start to work or may transfer to four-year colleges or universities; (2) the technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to three – four years, and learn different technical skills, which may include design, business, computer programming, accounting, etc., (3) the four-year college which is not part of a university. The graduates receive the degree of bachelor of arts (BA) or bachelor of science (BS), (4) the university, which may contain (a) several colleges for students who want to receive a bachelor's degree after four years of study; and (b) one or more graduate schools for those who want to continue their studies after college for about two years to re­ceive a master's degree (Master of Arts (MA) or of Science (MS) or a docto­ral degree (Ph. D. – Doctor of Philosophy, in some science). There are 156 universities in the USA.

Any of these institutions of one education may be either public or private. The public institutions are financed by the state. Of the four-year institutions 28 percent are public, and 72 percent are private, but most of students, about 80 percent, study at public institutions of higher education, because tuition fees here are much lower. If at the end of the 1980s tuition fees at private institutions were 12 thousand dollars a year and even higher, at public institutions they were two – five thousand dollars a year.

Many students need financial aid to attend college. When a family applies for aid, an analysis is made of the parents’ income. The aid may be given in the form of a grant, or stipend which the student doesn’t need to pay back. It may be given as a loan, which the student must pay back after college. The third type of aid may be given in the form of some kind of work, which the student has to do at the university or college, for which he gets some money. Most students work, especially during the summer vacation.

The academic year is usually nine months, or two semesters of four and a half months each. Studies usually begin in September and end in July. There are summer classes for those who want to improve the grades or take up additional courses. Students who study at a university or four-year college are known as undergraduates. Those who have received a degree after four years of studies are known as graduates. They may continue with their studies and research work for another two years as graduates in order to get a higher degree. The undergraduate students who study for four years are called as follows: (a) the first-year student is called a freshman; (b) the second-year student is called a sophomore; (c) the student of the third year is known as a junior; and (d) the fourth-year student – a senior.

During one term or semester a student will study four or five different subjects. The students’ progress is controlled through oral or written tests, term or course papers and a final examination in each course. Each part of a student’s work in a course is given a mark which helps to determine his final grade. A student's record consists of his grade in each course. College grades are usually on a five-point scale: A – is the highest mark and is usually equal to 5 points, B = 4, C = 3, D = 2, E or F means failure. The points make it possible to calculate the GPA (grade point average). Normally, a minimum GPA of 3,5 points is necessary to continue their studies at the college or university and to graduate.

Each college or university has its own curriculum. There are courses that every student has to take in order to receive a degree. These courses or subjects are called major subjects or ‘majors’. At the same time there are subjects, which the student may choose himself for his future life. These courses are called ‘electives’. A student has to earn a certain number of ‘credits’ (about 120) in order to receive a degree at the end of four years of college. Credits are earned by attending lectures or laboratory classes and completing assignments and examinations. One credit usually equals one hour of class per week in a single course during the semester.

Thus, we see that the American system of higher education gives the student much choice which he may realize according to his will. His achievements in his studies and future work depend upon himself. At the same time many Americans are not satisfied with the condition of higher education in their country. The high tuition fees make it difficult for low-paid American families to send their children to university. This is especially true for young people from minority groups – the Blacks, Asians, etc. Though much is spent by the state for education, American universities complain that these funds are becoming smaller with every new year. The equipment which is used at the universities for research is not modern enough, and the universities do not have the money to install new equipment. Under such conditions tuition fees are growing and many talented young people cannot receive higher education. Critics point out that one of every eight highly talented high school graduates does not go on to university or college, and only half the students who enter college for a bachelor’s degree actually achieve their aim. All these problems are widely discussed today in American society.


2. Reading Comprehension

A. Understanding the reading. ***


1. What are the four conditions which every applicant must know to enter a

college of higher education?

2. When does a graduate receive the BA or BS?

3. Why do most students study at public institutions of higher education?

4. How can a student receive financial aid from a college?

5. What is the difference between ‘majors’ and ‘electives’?

6. Does a student have to earn a certain number of ‘credits’ to receive a degree

at the end of four years of college?

7. On what scale are college grades in the USA?


B. Complete the sentence with the best answer (A, B or C) according to the information in the text.


1. Out of more than three million students who graduate from high school each year

A. most of them continue their studies and receive higher education.

B. about one million go on for higher education.

C. about one half join the workforce.


2. The technical training institution is intended for high school graduates

A. to learn different technical skills and trades necessary for industry.

B. to develop their knowledge of foreign languages.

C. to receive the degrees of bachelor of arts, or of science.


3. Of the four-year institutions 28 percent are public and 72 percent are private, but

A. most of the students study at public institutions.

B. most of the students study at private institutions.

C. the tuition fee is the same for both types of higher school.


4. During one term or semester a student will study

A. four or five different subjects.

B. both majors and electives.

C. many subjects that he will need in future life.

5. Though much is spent by the state for education

A. American universities complain that these funds are becoming smaller with every new year.

B. American universities receive much support from rich people.

C. much money is received by the universities from their research

programmes.


C. Find out whether the statement is true (T) or false (F) according to the information in the text.


  1. The SAT is a test on the English language and literature which can be taken

only once. ( )

2. Tuition fees are high in community colleges. ( )

3. The aid to a student may be given in the form of a grant, or stipend which

the student must pay back after college. ( )

4. Those who study at a university or four-year college are known as

undergraduates, and those who have received a degree after four years of

studies are known as graduates. ( )

5. A first-year student is called a sophomore, and a second-year student – a

freshman. ( )

6. During one term or semester a student will study six or seven different

subjects. ( )


^ 3. Vocabulary Focus

A. Fill in the blank with the correct word. ***


1. It is not easy to enter a college or a university in the United States, because they may accept only one out of every ten who ____________ .

2. Applicants are usually chosen on the basis of their high school ____________.

3. Among the four types of higher education institutions there is the two-year, or ____________ ____________, which is financed by the local authorities and which is intended for local needs.

4. After four years of studies at a four-year college the graduates receive the degree of ____________ ____________ ____________, or ____________ ____________ ____________.

5. More students study at public institutions of higher education because ____________ fees here are much lower.

6. When a student applies for aid, an analysis is made of the parents' ____________ .

7. Many universities in the USA do not have the money ____________ new equipment which is necessary for research.


B. Find words in the text that mean the same or are similar to the following:


1. ____________ to place, fix (an apparatus) in position for use

2. _____________ money received during a given period

3. _____________ teaching

4. _____________ a payment for teaching

5. _____________ a man or woman who has taken the first university degree in arts or science

6. _____________ the holder of the second university degree in arts or science

7. _____________ a person who has received the highest university degree

8. _____________ the people living in one place, district or country; a community college

9. _____________ a test which discovers the knowledge and skills of the student

10. _____________ a person who applies for a position


^ 4. Vocabulary Development


  • With some new words it is possible to create several new words by adding suffixes.


A. Complete the table below using a dictionary. The first one has been done for you.


Noun

(for person, device)

Noun

(for idea)

Verb

Adjective

educator

education

educate

educated, educational

tutor













lecture













interview













experimental


B. What suffixes can you add to these words?


a. examine b. interview c. study d. project

e. direct f. research g. demonstrate h. supervise


^ 5. Vocabulary Exercises

A. Distribute the following words into the topic groups in the chart. ***


Topic Group

Words

1) Academic year




2) Finance




3) Staff




4) Students




5) Teaching




6) Qualifications




7) Assessment




8) Research




9) Academic writing




10) Facilities







  1. visiting o. library

  2. thesis p. professor

  3. postgraduate (full-time, part-time) q. sponsorship

  4. diploma r. seminars

  5. tutor s. supervisor

  6. fee t. terms

  7. grant (autumn, spring, summer)

  8. interview u. undergraduate

  9. certificate (full-time, part-time)

  10. loan v. vacation/holidays

  11. lectures w. viva voice

  12. lecturer x. practicals

  13. article y. scholarship

  14. accommodation z. dean


B. Match the words with the corresponding definitions.


1

2

3

4

5

















1. experiment a. higher educational institution where students are

taught a particular subject or skill.

2. report b. a thorough test using scientific methods to discover

how someone or something reach under certain

conditions.

3. test c. a place where people living away from home can

stay and eat fairly cheaply.

4. academy d. an official piece of writing that carefully considers a

particular subject, and is often written by a group of

people.

5. hostel e. a set of questions, exercises or practical activities to

measure someone’s skill, ability or knowledge.


C. Find out what is ‘a degree’. Fill in the gaps with one of the words given in the box and read the short text about a degree.



Bachelors Master Doctor degree

final exam research qualification thesis



A Degree

A degree is an academic (1) _______________ awarded at most universities and colleges upon completion of a higher education course (a first (2) ________________) or a piece of (3) _______________ (higher degree). If students pass their (4) _______________ at the end of a three-year course, they get their first degree. Students with first degree become (5) _______________ of Arts or Science (B.A. or B.S.). If they want to go a step further and become (6) _______________ of Arts or Science, they have to write an original paper, or (7) ______________, on some subject based on short period of research, usually soon after graduation. If students wish to teach in a university, they will work for higher degree of a (8)_______________ of Philosophy – a Ph.D. For this they will have to carry out some important research work.


D. Read the text. Find synonyms of the underlined words in the text. Look at the box. ***



a degree disciplines go to a grant

last obtain succeed in studying for



^ Studying at University (in England and Wales)

If you want to (1)enter university, you must first (2)pass examinations that most students take at the age of eighteen (called ‘A’ levels). Most students take three ‘A’ levels (three examinations in three different (3)subjects) and they must do well in order to (4)get a place at university because the places are limited. At the moment, approximately 30% of young adults go to university in Britain.

If you get a place at university, the teaching is free, and some students also receive (5)money to pay for living expenses, e.g. food and accommodation as well. Students at university are called undergraduates while they are studying for their first degree.

Most university courses (6)go on for three years, some courses last four years, and one or two courses, e.g. medicine, may be even longer. During this period students can say that they are studying history, or (7)doing a degree in history, for example. When they finish the course and pass their examinations, they receive (8)the qualification when they complete a university course successfully. This can be a BA or a BS.


^ 6. Grammar Focus

Direct and Indirect Speech

A.




  • Direct speech is the exact words someone said. We use quotation marks in Direct speech.

Example: He said, ‘I’ll wait for you.’


  • Reported or Indirect speech is the exact words meaning what someone said but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in Reported speech.

Example: He said that he would wait for me.


  • Reported Statements

  • To report statements we use a reporting verb (say, tell, advise, promise, explain etc.) followed by a that-clause. In spoken English that may be omitted.

  • Pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning.

Example:

Direct speech: He said, ‘I can’t fix it myself’.

Reported speech: He said he couldn’t fix it himself.

  • Certain words change as follows:




^ Direct speech

Reported speech

this

these

here

can

will

may

must

that

those

there

could

would

might

had to


Example: ‘This is my book’, he said.

He said that was his book.


  • When the reporting verb is in the Past the verb tenses change as follows:




^ Direct speech

Reported speech


Present Simple

‘I can’t remember his name’, she said.

Present Continuous

‘She’s speaking to Joe’, he said.

^ Present Perfect

‘I’ve bought you some flowers’, she said.

Past Simple

‘He lost all the money’, she said.


Future

‘I’ll see you later’, he said.



Past Simple

She said she couldn’t remember his name.

^ Past Continuous

He said she was speaking to Joe.

Past Perfect

She said she had bought me some flowers.

Past Perfect

She said that he had lost all the money.

Conditional

He said he would see me later.





  • Time expressions change as follows:




^ Direct speech

Reported speech

tonight, today

this week/month/year

now


now that

yesterday

last night/week/month/year


tomorrow

next week/month/year

two days/months/years etc.

ago


‘He arrived last week’, she said.


that night, that day

that week/month/year

then, at the time, at once immediately

since

the day before

the previous night/week/month/year

the day after, the following day the following week/month/year

two days/months/years etc. before


She said that he had arrived the previous week.




  • There are no changes in the verb tenses when the reporting verb is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect tense or when the sentence expresses something which is always true.

Example:

^ Direct speech Reported speech

She’ll say, ‘I can do it’. She’ll say she can do it.

‘The earth is round,’ The teacher said that the earth is round.

said the teacher.


  • The Past Continuous does not usually change.

Example:

^ Direct speech: ‘I was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA,’ he said.

Reported speech: He said he was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA.


  • Certain modal verbs do not change in Reported speech. These are: would, could, might, should, ought to.

Example:

Direct speech: ‘He might visit us,’ Mum said.

Reported speech: Mum said that he might visit us.


  • Reported Questions

  • In Reported questions we use affirmative word order and the question mark is omitted. To report a ^ Wh- question, we use ask followed by the question word (who, what, etc.). When there is no question word in direct questions, if or whether is used in Reported questions. Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions etc. change as in statements.

Example:

^ Direct speech Reported speech:

He asked, ‘What time is it?’ He asked what time it was.

He asked me, ‘Do you know her?’ He asked me if/whether I knew her.


  • Reported Commands/ Requests/ Suggestions

  • To report commands, requests, suggestions etc. we use a reporting verb (order, ask, tell, advise, offer, warn, beg, suggest etc.) followed by to –infinitive or not to –infinitive.

Example:

Direct speech Reported speech

He said to me, ‘Stop talking!’ He told me to stop talking.

He said to me, ‘Don’t touch it!’ He told me not to touch it.



B. Report what the guests said at a wedding last Sunday. The first one had been done for you.




Miss Moore Mr. Smith




Mrs. Jones Miss Mayall




Mr. Roberts Mr. Clark


  1. Miss Moore said (that) they would make a lovely couple.

  2. Mr. Smith ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

  1. Mrs. Jones ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

4. Mr. Roberts ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

5. Mr. Clark ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

6. Miss Mayall _____________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________


C. Report the police-officer’s questions to the shop owner. The first one had been done for you.




P^ OLICE OFFICER











  1. The police-officer asked him what his name was.

  2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


D. Report what Mrs. Clark told her students to do. Two of them had been done for you.


M^ RS. CLARK



  1. Mrs. Clark told her students not to smoke.

  2. Mrs. Clark told her students to show respect to teachers.

  3. __________________________________________________________

  4. __________________________________________________________

  5. __________________________________________________________

  6. __________________________________________________________

  7. __________________________________________________________

  8. __________________________________________________________

  9. __________________________________________________________

  10. __________________________________________________________

  11. __________________________________________________________

  12. __________________________________________________________



^ 7. Speaking Practice

A. Question attack.


  1. What do you study?

  2. What faculty are you in?

  3. What year are you in?

  4. What is your major/speciality?

  5. Where do you study?

  6. Are there any other higher schools in your town?

  7. When did you enter the Academy?

  8. When will you graduate from the Academy?

  9. What are your basic subjects?

  10. Who is good at foreign languages?

  11. What is the most serious period in student's life?

  12. What classes attract more students?

  13. What must a student do if he or she fails in an exam?

  14. What are the main areas of employment for graduates?

  15. How can a young man enter the Academy?

  16. Are you a full-time student?

  17. Who studies part-time?

  18. How many faculties are there at the Academy?

  19. Who is Rector? Who is Vice-Rector?

  20. Who is Head of your speciality department?

  21. How to become a good student?

  22. It is not easy to be an excellent student, is it?

  23. Who is an ideal student in your group?


B. Work in pairs. Ask each other questions.


  1. Are you good at physics, mathematics and computing?

  2. Why did you enter the Academy?

  3. What subjects do you like best?

  4. What subjects would you like to drop?

  5. Do you live in a dormitory (hostel)?

  6. Where would you like to study if you were not a student of this Academy?

  7. Are you engaged in any non-academic activities?

  8. Are you a member of the English-speaking Club?

  9. Where do you improve your English?

  10. Do you enjoy student's life?

  11. What do you not like about your studies at the Academy?

  12. What kind of student are you? Why?

  13. Do you know any student who was expelled from the Academy?

  14. Why was he expelled?

  15. How can it be avoided?

  16. Do you get grants?



^ UNIT TWO. TRANSPORT


Pre - reading Activity


  • What traffic safety rules do you know?

  • How many people can each type of public transport carry?

  • Which methods of payment are used in each type of public transport?


Make sure you know these words:


advent – прихід

population explosion – демографічний вибух

facility – можливість, зручні умови

cluster – збиратися групами, скупчуватися

sprawl – незграбний рух в усіх напрямах

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