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ЗмістTo the student
To the teacher
Pre – reading Activity
Make sure you know these words
Education in the USA
3. Vocabulary Focus
4. Vocabulary Development
5. Vocabulary Exercises
Studying at University (in England and Wales)
6. Grammar Focus
Direct speech Reported speech
Direct speech Reported speech
МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ
ХАРКІВСЬКА НАЦІОНАЛЬНА АКАДЕМІЯ МІСЬКОГО ГОСПОДАРСТВА
ТРАНСПОРТНІ ЗАСОБИ: ІСТОРІЯ ТА СУЧАСНІСТЬ
Навчальний посібник з англійської мови для студентів денної форми навчання спеціальностей 6.092200 “Електричний транспорт” (спеціалізацій 6.092200 “Електричний транспорт”, 6.092200”Охорона праці та безпека на електричному транспорті”), спеціальностей 6.100401”Організація регулювання дорожнього руху”, 6.100402 “Транспортні системи” і 6.100403 “Організація перевезень і управління на транспорті (міському електротранспорті)”
Харків – ХНАМГ – 2006
“VEHICLES: HISTORY AND MODERNITY”(“ТРАНСПОРТНІ ЗАСОБИ: ІСТОРІЯ ТА СУЧАСНІСТЬ”: Навчальний посібник з англійської мови для студентів денної форми навчання спеціальностей 6.092200 “Електричний транспорт” (спеціалізацій 6.092200 “Електричний транспорт”, 6.092200 “Охорона праці та безпека на електричному транспорті”), спеціальностей 6.100401”Організація регулювання дорожнього руху”, 6.100402 “Транспортні системи” і 6.100403 “Організація перевезень і управління на транспорті (міському електротранспорті)”. Автори-укл. Видашенко Н. І., Сергєєва Г. Б. – Харків: ХНАМГ, 2006. 96с., укр., англ. мовами.
Автори-укладачі: Н. І. Видашенко, Г. Б. Сергєєва
Друкується як навчальний посібник за рішенням Вченої ради академії, протокол № 9 від 28. 04, 2006 року
Рецензенти: к.філол.н., доцент кафедри іноземних мов ХНАМГ Ільєнко О. Л.;
к.філол.н., доцент кафедри іноземних мов ХНАМГ Шумейко Л. В.;
к.філол.н., доцент кафедри іноземних мов № 1 Національної юридичної академії ім. Ярослава Мудрого Зелинська О. І.;
ст. викл. кафедри іноземних мов ХНАМГ Бучковська С. А.
Рекомендовано кафедрою іноземних мов, протокол №6 від 15. 03. 2006 р.
TO THE STUDENT ……………………………………………...4
TO THE TEACHER …………………………………………...…5
UNIT ONE. EDUCATION ……………………………………….……...6
UNIT TWO. TRANSPORT …………………………………………..…20
UNIT THREE. CARS …………………………………………………..30
UNIT FOUR. BUSES ……………………………………………..……39
UNIT FIVE. TRAMS …………………………………………………..48
UNIT SIX. TROLLEYBUSES …………………………………………57
UNIT SEVEN. TRAINS ……………………………………………….66
UNIT EIGHT. UNDERGROUND …………………………..…………76
UNIT NINE. HEATHROW …………………………………………….84
This book is to help you to improve your skills in reading and speaking English, the English grammar and vocabulary.
All students need practice. There are a lot of different certain basic things in English. They cannot be mastered without a great deal of practice. In order to improve your English, you should try to make the most of your classroom time.
Each unit here gives you the vocabulary of transport, words and expressions that will be useful to you and help you understand written and spoken English.
You can find interesting facts about different vehicles, their history and development.
This course is for the students studying English for scientific and technical purposes (ESP). The course is designed to familiarize the students of non-language higher educational institutions with the information on motor vehicles and electrical transport in particular.
The material has been specifically designed for a variety of class environments and as the basis for individual and group work as well for self-study (marked ***).
This course consists of the nine units and is expected to be covered during at least 70 classroom hours and about 100 hours for self-study. These are:
Unit One. Education Unit Six. Trolleybuses
Unit Two. Transport Unit Seven. Trains
Unit Three. Cars Unit Eight. Underground
Unit Four. Buses Unit Nine. Heathrow
Unit Five. Trams.
Most of the units provide the learner of English with original texts from different sources.
Each unit contains:
Unit One. Direct and Indirect Speech
Unit Two. Uses of ‘one’, ‘ones’
Unit Three. Conjunctions
Unit Four. Participle
Unit Five. The Passive
Unit Six. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
Unit Seven. Prefixes and Suffixes
Unit Eight. ‘Used to’
Unit Nine. ‘Have something done’.
UNIT ONE. EDUCATION
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) – тест, що визначає знання та навички студента
community – люди, які мешкають в одному місті
Bachelor of Arts (BA) – людина, яка має перший
університетський ступінь освіти бакалавра з мистецтві
Bachelor of Science (BS) – людина, яка має перший
університетський ступінь освіти бакалавра з науки
Master of Arts (MA) – людина, яка має другий
університетський ступінь освіти магістра з мистецтва
Master of Science (MS) – людина, яка має другий
університетський ступінь освіти магістра з науки
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) – людина, яка отримала
найвищий університетський ступінь доктора
tuition – навчання
tuition fee – плата за навчання
Out of more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for ‘higher education’. It is not easy to enter a college at a leading university in the United States. Such a college may accept only one out of every ten who apply. At present there are over 3,300 different institutions of higher education in the USA with more than 12 million students.
Successful applicants at colleges of higher education are usually chosen on the basis of (a) their high school records which include their class rank, the list of all the courses taken and all the grades received in high school, test results; (b) recommendations from their high school teachers; (c) the impression they make during interviews at the university, which is in fact a serious examination; and (d) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SATs). The SAT is a test on mathematics and the English language, which was introduced in 1947. The SAT is taken in the 11th grade of high school (over 1,5 million high school students take it yearly). If a student gets 1600 scores it is considered as a good result, if he or she gets 400 scores such a result is considered to be poor. A SAT can be taken two or three times, so that the student can improve the results if he or she wishes to do so.
The system of higher education includes four categories of institutions: (1) the two-year, or community college, which is financed by the local authorities and which is intended to satisfy the needs of the local community in different professions. Tuition fees are low in these colleges, that is why about 40 percent of all American students of higher education study at these colleges. On graduation from such colleges American students can start to work or may transfer to four-year colleges or universities; (2) the technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to three – four years, and learn different technical skills, which may include design, business, computer programming, accounting, etc., (3) the four-year college which is not part of a university. The graduates receive the degree of bachelor of arts (BA) or bachelor of science (BS), (4) the university, which may contain (a) several colleges for students who want to receive a bachelor's degree after four years of study; and (b) one or more graduate schools for those who want to continue their studies after college for about two years to receive a master's degree (Master of Arts (MA) or of Science (MS) or a doctoral degree (Ph. D. – Doctor of Philosophy, in some science). There are 156 universities in the USA.
Any of these institutions of one education may be either public or private. The public institutions are financed by the state. Of the four-year institutions 28 percent are public, and 72 percent are private, but most of students, about 80 percent, study at public institutions of higher education, because tuition fees here are much lower. If at the end of the 1980s tuition fees at private institutions were 12 thousand dollars a year and even higher, at public institutions they were two – five thousand dollars a year.
Many students need financial aid to attend college. When a family applies for aid, an analysis is made of the parents’ income. The aid may be given in the form of a grant, or stipend which the student doesn’t need to pay back. It may be given as a loan, which the student must pay back after college. The third type of aid may be given in the form of some kind of work, which the student has to do at the university or college, for which he gets some money. Most students work, especially during the summer vacation.
The academic year is usually nine months, or two semesters of four and a half months each. Studies usually begin in September and end in July. There are summer classes for those who want to improve the grades or take up additional courses. Students who study at a university or four-year college are known as undergraduates. Those who have received a degree after four years of studies are known as graduates. They may continue with their studies and research work for another two years as graduates in order to get a higher degree. The undergraduate students who study for four years are called as follows: (a) the first-year student is called a freshman; (b) the second-year student is called a sophomore; (c) the student of the third year is known as a junior; and (d) the fourth-year student – a senior.
During one term or semester a student will study four or five different subjects. The students’ progress is controlled through oral or written tests, term or course papers and a final examination in each course. Each part of a student’s work in a course is given a mark which helps to determine his final grade. A student's record consists of his grade in each course. College grades are usually on a five-point scale: A – is the highest mark and is usually equal to 5 points, B = 4, C = 3, D = 2, E or F means failure. The points make it possible to calculate the GPA (grade point average). Normally, a minimum GPA of 3,5 points is necessary to continue their studies at the college or university and to graduate.
Each college or university has its own curriculum. There are courses that every student has to take in order to receive a degree. These courses or subjects are called major subjects or ‘majors’. At the same time there are subjects, which the student may choose himself for his future life. These courses are called ‘electives’. A student has to earn a certain number of ‘credits’ (about 120) in order to receive a degree at the end of four years of college. Credits are earned by attending lectures or laboratory classes and completing assignments and examinations. One credit usually equals one hour of class per week in a single course during the semester.
Thus, we see that the American system of higher education gives the student much choice which he may realize according to his will. His achievements in his studies and future work depend upon himself. At the same time many Americans are not satisfied with the condition of higher education in their country. The high tuition fees make it difficult for low-paid American families to send their children to university. This is especially true for young people from minority groups – the Blacks, Asians, etc. Though much is spent by the state for education, American universities complain that these funds are becoming smaller with every new year. The equipment which is used at the universities for research is not modern enough, and the universities do not have the money to install new equipment. Under such conditions tuition fees are growing and many talented young people cannot receive higher education. Critics point out that one of every eight highly talented high school graduates does not go on to university or college, and only half the students who enter college for a bachelor’s degree actually achieve their aim. All these problems are widely discussed today in American society.
2. Reading Comprehension
A. Understanding the reading. ***
1. What are the four conditions which every applicant must know to enter a
college of higher education?
2. When does a graduate receive the BA or BS?
3. Why do most students study at public institutions of higher education?
4. How can a student receive financial aid from a college?
5. What is the difference between ‘majors’ and ‘electives’?
6. Does a student have to earn a certain number of ‘credits’ to receive a degree
at the end of four years of college?
7. On what scale are college grades in the USA?
B. Complete the sentence with the best answer (A, B or C) according to the information in the text.
1. Out of more than three million students who graduate from high school each year
A. most of them continue their studies and receive higher education.
B. about one million go on for higher education.
C. about one half join the workforce.
2. The technical training institution is intended for high school graduates
A. to learn different technical skills and trades necessary for industry.
B. to develop their knowledge of foreign languages.
C. to receive the degrees of bachelor of arts, or of science.
3. Of the four-year institutions 28 percent are public and 72 percent are private, but
A. most of the students study at public institutions.
B. most of the students study at private institutions.
C. the tuition fee is the same for both types of higher school.
4. During one term or semester a student will study
A. four or five different subjects.
B. both majors and electives.
C. many subjects that he will need in future life.
5. Though much is spent by the state for education
A. American universities complain that these funds are becoming smaller with every new year.
B. American universities receive much support from rich people.
C. much money is received by the universities from their research
C. Find out whether the statement is true (T) or false (F) according to the information in the text.
only once. ( )
2. Tuition fees are high in community colleges. ( )
3. The aid to a student may be given in the form of a grant, or stipend which
the student must pay back after college. ( )
4. Those who study at a university or four-year college are known as
undergraduates, and those who have received a degree after four years of
studies are known as graduates. ( )
5. A first-year student is called a sophomore, and a second-year student – a
freshman. ( )
6. During one term or semester a student will study six or seven different
subjects. ( )
A. Fill in the blank with the correct word. ***
1. It is not easy to enter a college or a university in the United States, because they may accept only one out of every ten who ____________ .
2. Applicants are usually chosen on the basis of their high school ____________.
3. Among the four types of higher education institutions there is the two-year, or ____________ ____________, which is financed by the local authorities and which is intended for local needs.
4. After four years of studies at a four-year college the graduates receive the degree of ____________ ____________ ____________, or ____________ ____________ ____________.
5. More students study at public institutions of higher education because ____________ fees here are much lower.
6. When a student applies for aid, an analysis is made of the parents' ____________ .
7. Many universities in the USA do not have the money ____________ new equipment which is necessary for research.
B. Find words in the text that mean the same or are similar to the following:
1. ____________ to place, fix (an apparatus) in position for use
2. _____________ money received during a given period
3. _____________ teaching
4. _____________ a payment for teaching
5. _____________ a man or woman who has taken the first university degree in arts or science
6. _____________ the holder of the second university degree in arts or science
7. _____________ a person who has received the highest university degree
8. _____________ the people living in one place, district or country; a community college
9. _____________ a test which discovers the knowledge and skills of the student
10. _____________ a person who applies for a position
A. Complete the table below using a dictionary. The first one has been done for you.
B. What suffixes can you add to these words?
a. examine b. interview c. study d. project
e. direct f. research g. demonstrate h. supervise
A. Distribute the following words into the topic groups in the chart. ***
B. Match the words with the corresponding definitions.
1. experiment a. higher educational institution where students are
taught a particular subject or skill.
2. report b. a thorough test using scientific methods to discover
how someone or something reach under certain
3. test c. a place where people living away from home can
stay and eat fairly cheaply.
4. academy d. an official piece of writing that carefully considers a
particular subject, and is often written by a group of
5. hostel e. a set of questions, exercises or practical activities to
measure someone’s skill, ability or knowledge.
C. Find out what is ‘a degree’. Fill in the gaps with one of the words given in the box and read the short text about a degree.
A degree is an academic (1) _______________ awarded at most universities and colleges upon completion of a higher education course (a first (2) ________________) or a piece of (3) _______________ (higher degree). If students pass their (4) _______________ at the end of a three-year course, they get their first degree. Students with first degree become (5) _______________ of Arts or Science (B.A. or B.S.). If they want to go a step further and become (6) _______________ of Arts or Science, they have to write an original paper, or (7) ______________, on some subject based on short period of research, usually soon after graduation. If students wish to teach in a university, they will work for higher degree of a (8)_______________ of Philosophy – a Ph.D. For this they will have to carry out some important research work.
D. Read the text. Find synonyms of the underlined words in the text. Look at the box. ***
If you want to (1)enter university, you must first (2)pass examinations that most students take at the age of eighteen (called ‘A’ levels). Most students take three ‘A’ levels (three examinations in three different (3)subjects) and they must do well in order to (4)get a place at university because the places are limited. At the moment, approximately 30% of young adults go to university in Britain.
If you get a place at university, the teaching is free, and some students also receive (5)money to pay for living expenses, e.g. food and accommodation as well. Students at university are called undergraduates while they are studying for their first degree.
Most university courses (6)go on for three years, some courses last four years, and one or two courses, e.g. medicine, may be even longer. During this period students can say that they are studying history, or (7)doing a degree in history, for example. When they finish the course and pass their examinations, they receive (8)the qualification when they complete a university course successfully. This can be a BA or a BS.
Direct and Indirect Speech
B. Report what the guests said at a wedding last Sunday. The first one had been done for you.
Miss Moore Mr. Smith
Mrs. Jones Miss Mayall
Mr. Roberts Mr. Clark
4. Mr. Roberts ______________________________________________________
5. Mr. Clark ______________________________________________________
6. Miss Mayall _____________________________________________________
C. Report the police-officer’s questions to the shop owner. The first one had been done for you.
D. Report what Mrs. Clark told her students to do. Two of them had been done for you.
A. Question attack.
B. Work in pairs. Ask each other questions.
Pre - reading Activity
Make sure you know these words:
advent – прихід
population explosion – демографічний вибух
facility – можливість, зручні умови
cluster – збиратися групами, скупчуватися
sprawl – незграбний рух в усіх напрямах
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