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Министерство образования и науки украины харьковская национальная академия городского хозяйства практические задания к текстам на английском языке




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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ УКРАИНЫ


ХАРЬКОВСКАЯ НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ ГОРОДСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА


ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ ЗАДАНИЯ


к текстам на английском языке

( для студентов 1 курса специальности 6.070900  

Геоинформационные системы и технологии”)


Харьков – ХНАМГ – 2006


Практические задания к текстам на английском языке для студентов 1 курса специальности 6.070900 “Геоинформационные системы и технологии”. Укл.: Сергеева Г.Б., Крохмаль А.Н.- Харьков: ХНАМГ, 2006- 70 с.


Составители: Г.Б. Сергеева,

А.Н. Крохмаль


Рецензент: Е.Л. Ильенко, канд. филолог. наук,

доцент кафедры иностранных языков


Рекомендовано кафедрой иностранных языков

Протокол № 8 от 19.05.2006


Introduction


The tasks are designed for students studying English for specific purposes (ESP).

There are eleven units which are expected to be covered during about 90 classroom hours. It is assumed that the students doing the tasks get detailed up-to-date information of using GIS to play a role at work and in the community. It is also expected that the students doing these tasks have the knowledge of and ability to use English up to intermediate and upper intermediate levels.

The tasks are based on the authentic texts concerning specifically the geographical information systems and technology. The first unit gives the definitions of GIS. The next ten units focus on the GIS’s roots in cartography, maps and numbers, on getting the map into the computer and basic database management.

The presented educational materials and the choice of tasks are supposed to provide practice in using the professional lexis, in reading and comprehending the specific information, in translating from English and into English and also to give a reasonable motivation for mastering the basics of GIS in English.

Words and phrases unique to the vocabulary of GIS are italicized and defined as they are introduced.


^

UNIT ONE. WHAT IS GIS


Vocabulary Notes :

retrieval - поиск

feature - пространственный объект

tool - зд. метод, способ

toolbox - зд. пакет вспомогательных программ

package - пакет программ

ad hoc - специальный, подготовленный специально


Ex.1 Read Texts A ,B, C and D with some definitions of GIS.

^ A. A GIS IS A TOOLBOX

A GIS can be seen as a set of tools for analyzing spatial data. These are, of course, computer tools, and a GIS can then be thought of as a software package containing the elements necessary for working with spatial data. If we want to write a book, we might visit a computer store and buy a word processing package in a box to install on our computer. Similarly, if we seek to work with spatial data, one definition of a GIS is the software in the box that gives us the geographic capabilities we need.

If a GIS is a toolbox, a logical question is ‘What types of tools does the box contain?’ Several authors have tried to define a GIS in terms of what it does, offering a functional definition of GIS. Most agree that the functions fall into categories and that the categories are subtasks that are arranged sequentially as data move from the information source to a map and then to the GIS user and decision maker. Another GIS definition, for example, states that GISs are ‘automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data.’ This has been called a ‘process definition’ because we start with the tasks closest to the collection of data_and end with tasks that analyse and interpret the information.

^ B. A GIS IS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM

Jack Estes and Jeffrey Star defined a GIS as ‘an information system that is

designed to work with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. In other words, a GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially-referenced data, as well as a set of operations for working with the data.’

Ken Dueker defined a GIS as ‘a special case of information systems where the database consists of observations on spatially distributed features, activities or events, which are definable in space as points, lines, or areas. A geographic information system manipulates data about these points, lines, and areas to retrieve data for ad hoc queries and analyses.’

^ C. A GIS IS AN APPROUCH TO SCIENCE

Goodchild defined geographic information science as ‘the generic issues that surround the use of GIS technology, impede its successful implementation, or emerge from an understanding of its potential capabilities.’ He also noted that this involved both research on GIS and research with GIS. Supporting the science are the uniqueness of geographic data, a distinct set of pertinent research questions that can only be asked geographically, the commonality of interest of GIS meetings, and a supply of books and journals. On the other hand, Goodchild noted that the level of interest depends on innovation, that it is hard to sustain a multidisciplinary (rather than interdisciplinary) science, and that at the core of the science, in geography, a social science tradition has to some extent an antipathy toward technological approaches .

^ D. A GIS PLAYS A ROLE IN SOCIETY

Many people doing research on GIS have argued that defining GIS narrowly, as a technology, as software, or as a science, ignores the role that GIS plays in changing the way people live and work. Not only has GIS radically changed how we do day-to-day business, but also how we operate within human organizations. Nick Chrisman (1999) has defined GIS as ‘organized activity by which people measure and represent geographic phenomena then transform these representations into other forms while interacting with social structures.’

This definition has emerged from an area of GIS research that has examined how GIS fits into society as a whole, including its institutions and organizations, and how GIS can be used in decision making, especially in a public setting such as a town meeting, or on a community group Web site. This latter field is termed PPGIS, for Public Participation GIS.


Ex. 2 Answer the questions using the information from Texts A, B, C and D.

1. What packages are discussed in Text A ?

2. What is a GIS as a toolbox used for?

3. What does Jack Estes’s definition of a GIS differ from Ken Dueker’s definition of

a GIS in ?

4. What does a geographic information science involve?

5. What is the definition of GIS functions from the point of view of social processes?


Ex. 3 Read and translate key terms and their definitions.

feature: A single entity that makes up part of a landscape.

file: Data logically stored together at one location on the storage mechanism of a computer.

format: The specific organization of a digital record.

fourth dimension: A common way of referring to time; the first three dimensions determine location in space, the fourth dimension determines creation, duration, and destruction in time.

functional definition: Definition of a system by what it does rather than what it is.

line feature: A geographic feature recorded on a map as a sequence of locations tracing out a line.. An example is a stream.

point feature: A geographic feature recorded on a map as a location. Example: a single house.

search engine: A software tool designed to search the Internet and the WWW for documents meeting the user's query. Examples: Yahoo and Alta Vista.

software package: A computer program application.

spatial data: Data that can be linked to locations in geographic space, usually via features on a map.

spatial distribution: The locations of features or measurements observed in geographic space.

Ex.4 Look through the text again and find the corresponding verbs to the following definitions.

____________________ 1. to make it difficult for someone or something to move

forward or make progress .

____________________ 2.to mention another book, article, etc. that contains

information connected with the subject you are writing

about.

____________________3. to get back information that has been stored in the

memory of a computer.

____________________ 4. to come out of a difficult experience.

____________________ 5. to support an idea or argument or prove that it is right.


Ex.5 Now read the following text. Find the English equivalents to the terms given below.

Many of the principles of the new geographic information science have been around for quite some time. General-purpose maps date back centuries and usually focused on topography, the lay of the land, and transportation features such as roads and rivers. More recently, in the last century, thematic maps came into use. Thematic maps contain information about a specific subject or a theme, such as surface geology, land use, soils, political units, and data collection areas. Although both types of maps are used in GIS, it is the thematic map that led cartography toward GIS. Some themes on maps are clearly linked. For example, a map of vegetation is closely tied to a map of soils.


1. путь перевозки ______________________________

2. определенный объект ______________________________

3. карта почв ______________________________

4. карта растительной жизни ______________________________

5. карта общего назначения ______________________________

6. тематическая карта ______________________________


Ex. 6 Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

^ SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON GIS

Historically, GIS has been a somewhat disjoint field from a reader's standpoint, and most of the major books, journals, and online resources date from only the last few years. This is far less an issue today, however, and there are now some excellent sources of GIS information. These fall into groups and are covered here under journals and magazines, books, professional societies, the Internet and the World Wide Web, GIS conferences, and educational organizations and universities.

The amount of information available about GIS is somewhat overwhelming. An excellent place to begin one's search is at a library, or perhaps by connecting to the Internet and using one of the World Wide Web search tools. This is possible even at one's home computer, but slow enough that a visit to the library may be more productive. Some libraries have facilities to connect to network search systems and even specialized staff with training in geographic information.

As in our definition of geographic information science, the information sources on GIS fall into the broad categories of research with GIS and research on GIS. As a beginner, try restricting your search to basic material rather than going straight to the research frontier. This can come later. A good way to research a topic is to find publications that came out at about the time a new idea was being introduced. In the older papers, articles, or book chapters, the authors had to write for an audience that would be unfamiliar with the language and concepts under discussion. This is the case in several classic papers in the GIS arena. The writing remains today as a good first step toward understanding and an excellent place to get started with GIS.


1. Most of sources of information on GIS are known from the ancient times. ( )

2. Only a few sources of information on GIS are known nowadays. ( )

3. The Internet is the most productive way to find geographic information. ( )

4. The information sources on GIS have two categories of research. ( )

5. It is advisable to begin the research of geographic information with the

reading of familiar publications. ( )


Ex. 7 Use the above given statements to prepare a brief summary of the text.


Ex.8 Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Наука о географии основывается на знаниях картографии, компьютерной

техники и математики.

2. ГИС состоит по меньшей мере из базы данных и картографической

информации, связанных между собой средствами компьютерной техники.

3. Наука о географической информации касается многих аспектов современной

жизни.

4. ГИС берет свое начало в тематической картографии.

5. ГИС – это бизнес, оцениваемый многими миллионами долларов.


Ex.9 Read the text. Translate it into Russian.

Many colleges and universities teach classes in GIS, and some offer complete programmes with course sequences and certificates. No national body as yet certifies people in GIS, but some vendors offer certification as instructors. Some universities and extension services offer short courses, and most of the major GIS vendors offer short training programmes lasting anywhere from a few hours at a national or regional conference to several days or weeks.

Within universities and colleges, GIS classes are taught in many departments. Most are in geography, but many are also in departments and programmes in geology, environmental science, forestry, civil engineering, computer and information science, and many others. There is little consensus among those teaching GIS as to what the content for a course in GIS should be, although standardization efforts are under way.


^ UNIT TWO. MAP AND ATTRIBUTE INFORMATION


Vocabulary notes :

permeate - проникать, распространяться

cluster - группа объектов с общими признаками

item - элемент данных


Ex. 1 Read the text.

^ MAP AND ATTRIBUTIVE INFORMATION

Information permeates our society, but fortunately, it takes on only a few tangible forms. Without the preordering of information, much of it would not be usable by humans in their everyday lives. Among these are the everyday methods for organizing information, visible by everyday examples such as the Yellow Pages, baseball box scores, magazines, or the television listings. Most information is usually preordered into lists, numbers, tables, text, pictures, maps, or indexes. Clusters of similar information, usually numbers and text, are called data. When data are entered into the computer, we store them as files and refer to them collectively as database. In database language, the items that we gather information about are referred to as attributes and individual data items as records.

A basic difference between these types of information and the information that is collected into geographic information systems is that GIS information has associated with it an underlying geography, or descriptions of locations on the face of the earth. This means that pictures and especially maps can be a database, too. A link to the earth must somehow be placed into the GIS database, so that we can refer to the data by the location—and the location by the data. With this feature comes the fact that we can now manage the data using the underlying geography, the attributes, or both.


Ex. 2 Answer the questions using the information from the text.

1. Why can the information be not usable by humans ?

2. What methods of organizing information are available nowadays ?

3. What is the difference between the geographic information and most other

information ?


Ex. 3 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents to the following:

1. данные, информация _____________________

2. база данных _____________________

3. признак, характерный общий объект, атрибут _____________________

4. записанная информация, запись (данных) _____________________

5. вводить данные _____________________

6. предварительная упорядоченность информации ____________________

7. уметь обращаться, управлять _____________________

8. ссылаться , упоминать _____________________


Ex. 4 Now read the text given below. Decide whether the statements after it are true (T) or false (F).

The power of the GIS is in allowing the attribute and the geographic or map information to be linked together in a useful way. For example, we can search the data both by the attributes and by using the map . Obviously, if the two sorts of information are linked, we can use either one to search the other, or we can use them together.

Central to this map and attribute data use is finding a way to link the map with the attributes. As we are using a computer, obviously the link should be in the form of numbers. When we locate people and houses, we usually use street addresses rather than numbers. Later we will see that a GIS gives us the power to move from one to the other of these descriptions of location with numbers. For now. however, we need a simple number description for a location.

It is important to get a feel for what the geographic numbers mean and how they correspond to places on both the earth and the map. It is a little more complex than it first seems, but with a little digression, we can quickly come up to speed, and even be experts. This means that to understand GIS, we need to know a little cartography, which is the science that deals with the construction, use and principles behind maps and map use.


1. The attribute and the geographic information are linked together in a way that

helps you to do or get what you want. ( )

2. These two sorts of information can be used separately or together. ( )

3. The link between the geographic and the attribute information is in the form

of numbers. ( )

4. To become experts we must understand what the geographic numbers mean. ( )


Ex. 5 Use the information in Ex. 4 to give a brief summary of the text.


Ex. 6 Read and translate key terms and their definitions.


attribute: A numerical entry that reflects a measurement or value for a feature. Attributes can be labels, categories, or numbers; they can be dates, standardized values, or field or other measurements. An item for which data are collected and organized. A column in a table or data file.

cartography: The science that deals with the principles, construction, and use of maps.

data: A set of measurements or other values, such as text for at least one attribute and at least one record.

database: A collection of data organized in a systematic way to provide access on demand.

file: Data logically stored together at one location on the storage mechanism of computer.

geocode: A location in geographic space converted into computer-readable form.

latitude: The angle made between the equator, the earth's geometric center, and a point on or above the surface. The south pole has latitude – 90 degrees, the north +90 degrees.

level of measurement: The degree of subjectivity associated with a measurement. Measurements can be nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio.

link: The part or structure of a database that physically connects geographic information with attribute information for the same features. Such a link is a defining component of a G1S.

location: A position on the earth's surface or in geographic space definable by coordinates or some other referencing system, such as a street address or space indexing system.

longitude: The angle formed between a position on or above the earth, the earth's geometric center, and the meridian passing through the center of the observing instrument in Greenwich, England, as projected down onto the plane of the earth's equator or viewed from above the pole. Longitudes range from – 180 (180 degrees West) to +180 (180 degrees East).

map: A depiction of all or part of the earth or other geographic phenomenon as a set of symbols and at a scale whose representative traction is less than 1:1. A digital map has had the symbols geocoded and stored as a data structure within the map database.

record: A set of values for all attributes in a database. Equivalent to a row of a data table.


Ex. 7 Find the English equivalents to the terms given in the text below.

^ THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH

The satellite era has brought with it more accurate means of measurement, including the global positioning system (GPS). An estimate of the ellipsoid allows calculation of the elevation of every point on earth, including sea level, and is often called a datum. Recent datums have been calculated using the centre of the earth as a reference point instead of a point on the ground as was the case before.


^ MAP SCALE

All maps, whether on a sheet of paper or inside a computer, are reductions in size of the earth. A map at one-to-one scale (1:1) would be virtually useless; you would barely be able to unfold it. In cartography, the term representative fraction is used for the amount of scaling. A representative fraction is the ratio of distances on the map to the same distances on the ground.

^ MAP PROJECTIONS

Given that the earth can be approximated by a shape like the sphere or the ellipsoid, how can we go about converting data in latitude and longitude into a flat map, with x and y axes ? The simplest way is to ignore the fact that latitude and longitude are angles at the centre of the earth, and just pretend that they are x and y values.

1. средства измерения, контроля ____________________________________

2. последняя исходная величин ____________________________________

3. точка отсчета, ориентир ____________________________________

4. уменьшение размера ____________________________________

5. масштаб 1:1 ____________________________________

6. приблизительно ____________________________________

7. (географическая) широта ____________________________________

8. (географическая) долгота ____________________________________

9. угол ____________________________________

10. оценка; оценивать ____________________________________


Ex. 8 Render the following sentences into English.

1. Информация может быть представлена в виде каталогов, чисел, таблиц, текста, рисунков, карт и индексов.

2. Кластеры информации, называемые данными, могут храниться вместе в виде базы данных.

3. База данных хранится в компьютере в виде файлов.

4. В базе данных мы храним признаки в виде заголовков, располагающихся в колонках (column headers) и группы взаимосвязанных элементов (records), располагающихся рядами.


Ex. 9 Read the following statements and render them into Russian.

^ MAP SCALE AND PROJECTIONS

• The earth can be modeled as a sphere, an oblate ellipsoid, or a geoid.

- The sphere is about 40 million meters in circumference.

- An ellipsoid is an ellipse rotated in three dimensions about its shorter axis.

- The earth's ellipsoid is only about 1/297 off from a sphere.

- Many ellipsoids have been measured, and maps have been based on each.

Examples are WGS83 and GRS80.

- An ellipsoid gives the base elevation for mapping, called a datum. Examples

are NAD27 and NAD83.

- The geoid is a figure that adjusts the best ellipsoid and the variation of gravity locally. It is the most accurate, and is used more in geodesy than in GIS and cartography.

• Map scale is based on the representative fraction, the ratio of a distance on the map to the same distance on the ground.

• Most maps in GIS fall between 1: 1,000,000 and 1 : 1,000.

• A GIS is scaleless because maps can be enlarged and reduced and plotted at many scales other than that of the original data.

• To compare or edge-match maps in a GIS, both maps MUST be at the same scale and have the same extent.

• The metric system is far easier to use for GIS work.

• Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from 90 degrees south to 90 degrees north in latitude and 180 degrees west to 180 degrees east in longitude.

• A line with a constant latitude running east to west is called a parallel.

• A line longitude running from the north pole to the south pole-is called a meridian. The zero-longitude meridian is called the prime meridian and passes through Greenwich, England.

• A grid of parallels and meridians shown as lines on a map is called a graticule.

• A transformation of the spherical or ellipsoidal earth onto a flat map is called a map projection.

• The map projection can be projected onto a flat surface or a surface that can be made flat by cutting, such as a cylinder or a cone.

• If the globe, after scaling, cuts the surface, the projection is called secant. Lines where the cuts take place or where the surface touches the globe have no projection distortion.

• Projections can be based on axes parallel to the earth's rotation axis (equatorial), at 90 degrees to it (transverse), or at any other angle (oblique).

• A projection that preserves the shape of features across the map is called conformal.

• A projection that preserves the area of a feature across the map is called equal area or equivalent.

• No flat map can be both equivalent and conformal. Most fall between the two as compromises.

• To compare or edge-match maps in a GIS, both maps MUST be in the same projection.


^ UNIT THREE. COORDINATE SYSTEMS

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Коптева Г. Л. Семантика «порога» в архитектурной римике городской среды: Монография Харьков: хнагх, 2009. с
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