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Н. В. Маматова Рецензент: О. В. Маматова




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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ

Харківська національна академія міського господарства


РОБОЧА ПРОГРАМА

до вивчення текстового матеріалу з англійської мови

(для студентів 1-2 курсів за спеціальностями

7.070801 «ЕКОЛОГІЯ ТА ОХОРОНА НАВКОЛИШНЬОГО СЕРЕДОВИЩА»,

7.092601 «ВОДОПОСТАЧАННЯ ТА ВОДОВІДВЕДЕННЯ»,

7.092108 «ТЕПЛОГАЗОПОСТАЧАННЯ І ВЕНТИЛЯЦІЯ»)


Частина I


Харків-ХНАМГ-2005

РОБОЧА ПРОГРАМА до вивчення текстового матеріалу з англійської мови (для студентів 1-2 курсів за спеціальностями 7.070801 «ЕКОЛОГІЯ ТА ОХОРОНА НАВКОЛИШНЬОГО СЕРЕДОВИЩА», 7.092601 «ВОДОПОСТАЧАННЯ ТА ВОДОВІДВЕДЕННЯ», 7.092108 «ТЕПЛОГАЗОПОСТАЧАННЯ І ВЕНТИЛЯЦІЯ»).Частина I. Укладачі: Вергелес Ю. І., Маматова Н. В., - Харків: ХНАМГ, 2005- 52 с.


Укладачі: Ю. І. Вергелес

Н.В. Маматова


Рецензент: О. В.Маматова


Рекомендовано кафедрою іноземних мов,

Протокол № 8 від 17 травня 2005 року.


Introduction


THIS ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING PROGRAMME is a practical guide. In it clear recommendations are offered in plain English to students who look for guidance on specific points of reading , vocabulary, and modern English Grammar. This Programme provides learners of English with original texts and has the very practical aim of improving students’ reading skills.

This Programme is intended for the students specializing in Ecology and Environmental Protection, Wastewater Treatment , Heat and Gas Supply & Ventilation.

The Programme introduces to a particular type of learning experience in a computer class.

It is compiled for 4 semesters each covering texts , key words , exercises and drills, tasks for students’ self-dependent work.

All the learners of English can be directed to References, instructions No.845 and 1360.


THIS ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING PROGRAMME is compiled to assist the first-year students specializing in Ecology and Environmental Protection, Wastewater Treatment, Heat and Gas Supply & Ventilation.

SEMESTER 1

Lexical material, texts

Hours

Work in class : Exercises, drills

Self-dependent work

Lessons 1 - 2 Word-formation, prefixes.

^ Objectives: to teach students to consult a dictionary & recognize prefixed words while reading the text.

Subject: Our Earth Is Our Common Home.

Key words: Ecology – term – pollution - environment – relationship – ecosystem – man-made – community – balance – anthropogenic – biosphere – cycle – Homo Sapiens – grass-eating – bacterium (-riа) – pressing – to influence (on)

TEXT 1: ^ What Is Ecology?

A few years ago, the average person wouldn’t have had the slightest idea of this term. Today, this term is on everyone’s lips. Man usually associates it with the effect of pollution and people’s efforts to clean it up. However, in scientific terms, Ecology is the study of the relationships between plants, animals, people and their environment, and the balances between these relationships. It should be mentioned here that an ecosystem is all the plants and animals that live in a particular area together with the complex relationship that exists between all of them and their environment.

Man-made pollution frequently alters the environment in which a community of organisms lives and upsets its delicate balance. It is of significance that negative anthropogenic influences threaten to disrupt nature’s basic cycles and to undermine the self-regenerating capacities of the biosphere and of its individual components.

Homo Sapiens, of course, is a part of the world ecosystem. In primitive societies based on hunting and food gathering he fitted in quite well, he ate roots and berries or trapped animals for food. He began to disturb the balance of nature only after he started to practise farming on a large scale and keep sizeable herds of grass-eating animals.

In recent years, it is the growth of giant cities accompanied by industrial development on a large scale that has begun to introduce enormous amounts of noxious wastes into the environment. Our transportation devices are likewise serious offenders in this regard as are the numerous synthetic materials such as plastics that soil and water bacteria cannot degrade. The pollution of the environment exerts a substantial adverse influence on the health of individuals, their labour, productivity, and their creative activities and requires increasing capital investments in order to sustain the fertility of agricultural land. The ecological problem which is also very much a social one, is one of the pressing problems of our days. It is closely linked to the problems of economic growth, progress in science and technology, natural resources, energy and food supplies.


Lessons 3 - 4 Suffixes.

^ Objectives: to teach students to form words with the help of suffixes & write a summary of the text.

Key words: protection – to deteriorate – adversely – oasis – impact – safe – environmental – species – ecologist – spray – chemicals – heredity – poisonous – generation – progress – human – fatal consequences – research – nature – interaction – society - harmful – pests

TEXT 2: ^ Protection of the Environment.

More and more attention has been focused on the problem of environmental protection recently. Over the past thirty years or so the quality of many people’s lives has deteriorated in some respects because of technological progress. Human progress has reached the stage of intensive exploration of nuclear and solar energy, outer space, etc. It is evident now, that often man adversely affecting the environment and his activity is sometimes fraught with fatal consequences. The more material wealth people create, the more they realize that they cannot but be concerned about how the biosphere is changing as a result of productive activity. Current ecological research shows that man turning deserts into oases can turn oases into deserts, threatening to destroy everything on Earth. Hence man should carefully study the impact of his activity on various components of the surrounding nature. It is not possible but necessary to transform wild natural environment, namely earthquakes, typhoons, hurricanes, floods, droughts, magnetic and solar storms as well as radioactivity, cosmic radiation into a safe environment suitable for man meeting his needs. This means that the ecological problem is not simply the problem of environmental pollution, but the problem of turning man’s uncontrolled impact on nature into purposeful and planned interaction with the latter. Today, this impact has reached such proportions that the biosphere’s inner resources can no longer compensate for society’s harmful influence on the environment both on individual species and on all of life on Earth. Many ecologists consider the disappearance of particular living species constitutes the main ecological and social problem of the day. For one thing the killing of insects has resulted in a loss of balance in ecology. Insects, although a nuisance of farmers provide food for birds. Many people are afraid that fruit and vegetables sprayed with chemicals may have some poisonous effect upon the people who eat them. The pollution of the environment through chemical, physical and biological agents (the development of micro-organisms and agricultural pests that are immune to drugs and poisons) together with increases in the volume and types of radiation, produce an increase in pathological changes in heredity and a greater number hereditary defects, diseases. Calculations of researches indicate that increases in natural background radiation by only 10 rads may lead to the birth of 6 million hereditarily defective persons in each generation.

At present there has arisen a pressing necessity to change the character of interaction between nature and man.


Lessons 5 - 6 Conversion.

^ Objectives: to teach students to comment on the converted words & ask questions.

Key words: agriculture – area – civilization – destruction – to disappear – disease – farming – habitat – kind – land – plant – soil – wild – rainforest – bank – steppe
^

TEXT 3: Habitat Destruction and Species Extinction.


Animals such as the hippopotamus, the tiger, and the rhino are very popular to see at zoos, but these and about 2000 other large animals are in danger of disappearing forever from the wild. Today, scientists still do not know how many species live on Earth, although they guess that the number is between 5 and 100 million. Some of these unknown species become extinct before we can even discover them. Some scientists think that every ten years about 5% of all species disappear forever. It is a terrible loss because each animal is unique and has a right to exist, but also because many species can be useful to man. For example, many important new medicines come from parts of wild plants. Also many plants can be genetically mixed with plants that we grow for food, so that they are stronger against disease or insects. The large number of species existing in the world is very interesting to study, beautiful to look at, but also very useful for our civilization if we use them wisely. We can think of the natural world as a living bank with many useful things waiting to be discovered. Unfortunately, we are very quickly destroying this bank. We are creating a world which is naturally very poor.

The main cause of this extinction is the destruction of habitat (land that is needed to live). For the last few thousand years, man has changed huge parts of the world into agricultural areas that grow only a few types of plants. Although there are about 30,000 kinds of plants on Earth that can be eaten, only 15 plants and 8 animals are used for 90% of our food. Wild forests and fields with thousands of different species have become huge areas of just one kind like wheat or corn. Agriculture is the most environmentally damaging activity of humans on Earth. Since the 1800's the Earth has lost 6 million kmІ of forests, an area larger than the continent of Europe. Presently most of the destruction is happening to tropical rainforests. These areas are very sensitive and also very important because they are extremely rich in many different animal and plant species. Although only 7% of the Earth's surface is covered by tropical rain­forests, they contain more than 65% of the Earth's species. Today almost half of the original tropical rainforests have been destroyed. Because the roots of trees and plants hold the soil in place, when forests are cut down the soil becomes much easier to wash away in rainstorms. Also since trees convert CO2 into 02, the loss of forests globally is changing the chemistry of our atmosphere and increases global warming.

Much of Ukraine naturally does not have forests because it lies in the steppe region. The steppes are beautiful natural areas with unique plant and animal life, especially along river valleys. Unfortunately, there are very few natural steppe areas left and thousands of small rivers have disappeared. Ukraine is a land that is agriculturally very over-developed. Compared to other European countries it has the smallest percentage of land that is kept in a natural condition. Over 70% of the land is used for agricultural purposes. Many farming lands are losing their richness and are eroding away. Scientists recommend that large areas of land be allowed to rest, so they can naturally regenerate. When the agricultural system is reformed and made more productive, the same amount of food can be grown on less land. Then some land can be made into natural reservation areas. These areas can become habitat for different wild species and also be places for people to enjoy. Again we see that improving the environment of Ukraine can be part of the process of improving the economy of Ukraine.


Lessons 7 - 8 Compound Words.

^ Objectives: to teach students to guess compounds & get the main information while reading the text.

Subject : Protection of the Air.

Key words: acid rain – activity – combustion – control – to dilute – emission – mortality – nitrogen – oxide – to pollute – precipitation – smokestack – spruce – sulfur – tree – vinegar


TEXT 4: Acid Rain.

Industrialization brought with it the combustion of high-sulfur coal and oil and the smelting of sulfide ores, particularly in the heavily industrialized and urbanized temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Human activity accounts for roughly 10 times more sulfur being injected into the atmosphere than natural sulfur emissions from sources such as volcanoes. The combustion of sulfur produces sulfur dioxide, which enters the atmosphere, combines with oxygen, and yields sulfur trioxide. This in turn combines with atmospheric moisture to produce sulfuric acid, which precipitates as highly corrosive acid rain.

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of eastern North America and northwestern Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution at the beginning of the industrial era, two centuries ago, to a diluted solution of sulfuric and nitric acid. In the most extreme cases, rain has had the acidity of vinegar. Current research efforts in North America and Europe are directed toward determining both the direct and indirect effects of increased amounts of acids in the environment.

Acid rain has been known to exist for many decades in the vicinity of large cities and industrial plants. Tall smokestacks designed to disburse emissions high into the atmosphere and away from the cities also help the pollutants travel long distances, even across international borders. Coal-fired electrical generating plants in the Ohio valley, for example, produce acid rain clouds that travel into eastern Canada where the acid rain is destroying forests and once productive fishing streams and lakes.

Streams and lakes in other parts of the world, especially those that cover granitic strata and are not buffered by carbonate rocks, have become so acidic or polluted that fish populations have been decimated. In the Adirondack Mountains of New York state, 90 per cent of the lakes with high acid levels are completely devoid of fish. In Sweden, it is estimated that more than 15,000 lakes no longer contain fish populations due to acid rain.

Acid rain is especially harmful to aquatic organisms because it lowers the water's pH value. In seawater, the damage comes from nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen acts as a nutrient that promotes the growth of algae, which blocks out sunlight and depletes the water of dissolved oxygen. As a result, aquatic plants and animals suffocate. There has been a widespread increase in nitrate levels in the oceans along with higher concentrations of toxic metals, including arsenic, cadmium, and selenium. The main factors contributing to this increase are fertilizer and pesticide run-off and acid rain, which dissolves heavy metals in the soil.

Some soils have become so acidic they can no longer be cultivated. Plants are dam­aged by the adverse effects of acid on foliage and root systems. Acid precipitation is destroying the great forests of North America, Europe, China, and Brazil. There are widespread reductions in the width of tree-rings and an increased mortality rate for red spruce trees in the eastern United States. Resorts and wilderness areas, like those in the western United States, Norway, and West Germany's famous Black Forest, are los­ing much of their natural beauty because of acid rain.

Acid rain is possibly the most well studied and least acted upon of any pollution prob­lem. The source of the problem has been known for quite some time. The basic chemis­try that turns industrial and motor vehicle emissions into acid rain is well understood. Governments, however, are slow to require expensive mandatory emission controls because companies might lose their competitive edge due to the costly investments.


Lessons 9 - 10 Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs.

Objectives: to revise degrees of comparison of adjectives & adverbs and to teach students give dictionary definitions listed in the New Webster Handy College Dictionary.

Key words: noise – silence – rare – constant – roar – side effect – technological – soothing – wilderness – invade – law – machinery – source


TEXT 5: ^ Noise Pollution.

If indeed silence is golden, it is also becoming as rare as gold. It seems that the progress of man includes a rising volume of noise. In every home a stereo or television will fill the rooms with sound. Between sunrise and sunset, streets and highways are a constant source of noise from cars, buses and trucks. You can pass any factory or construction area and the roar of its machinery will make your ears ring. Music is played in every supermarket, most restaurants, and many offices.

Big cities of the world are well-known for their noisiness. Noise pollution is the new side effect of our technological age. Day or night, the sound of work fills the air. It seems that the soothing effects of silence are nowhere to be found. Even the quiet of our carefully protected wilderness areas can be invaded at any moment by a passing jet.

We are learning finally, that silence is a natural resource and must be protected by law. It appears that we all find company in sound, but at the same time, we all demand a little quiet from time to time.


Lessons 11 - 12 The Verbs “to be”, “to have”.

^ Objectives: to teach students to arrange a talk on the proposed situations & check learners’ skills in reading and understanding the text.

Key words: precious – misconception – activity – fuel-powered – transportation devices - to emit – monoxide – gasoline – carbon – sulfur-bearing ores – lethal

TEXT 6: ^ Air Pollution.

Clean air is a precious resource. It is a common misconception that air pollution has become a serious problem only within the last few decades or so. Actually, it has been with us in some form or another since the very beginning of our existence on this planet. In fact, not all air pollution is caused by man. Today, industrial activity is so great & fuel-powered transportation devices are so numerous that air pollution of human origin is starting to produce noticeable effects on a global scale. Carbon monoxide emitted by automobile engines arises from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon found in gasoline, in which the fuel reacts with less oxygen than it is theoretically possible. Automobile exhaust fumes contain an average 4-5 per cent of carbon monoxide (CO), and during one year’s operation of an “average” automobile, it is estimated that some 3200 lb. of engine wastes make it especially dangerous.

It is known that on worldwide basis, human activity, together with various natural phenomena, release some 260 million tons of carbon monoxide into the Earth’s atmosphere every year.

Air pollution from sulfur oxide comes from three principal sources: coal-and-oil-burning electrical power plants, the smelting of sulfur-bearing ores and industrial combustion of coal and oil. Sulfur oxide has other bad effects in addition to those concerning human health. Being higher than certain concentrations, it is lethal to vegetation.

The World Health Organization monitored air pollution round the world over eight years. They measured two things: the amount of sulfur dioxide in the air and the amount of suspended particles, in other words, smoke. Sulfur dioxide is produced when fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and petrol are burnt. Rain washes it out of the air, but this creates “acid rain” which pollutes water supplies, damage crops, forests & buildings, and may also affect people’s health.


Lessons 13-14 Modal Verbs & Their Equivalents.

^ Objective: to develop students’ reading, writing and speaking within the material covered.

Key words: pollutants – atmospheric – to occur – artificial – heating systems – urban areas – harmful gases – industrial dust – cement – composition – fuel – raw materials – to emit – low-grade coals - soot – compounds – elevated metallurgy – permissible - emissions

TEXT 7: ^ Atmospheric Pollutants.

Scientists distinguish between natural and artificial sources of atmospheric pollution. Natural pollution of the atmosphere occurs when volcanoes erupt, rock is weathered, dust storms take place, etc. Artificial pollution of the atmosphere is characteristic of cities and industrial districts. Cities and suburbs contain numerous industrial enterprises, automobiles and heating systems which pollute the atmosphere and negatively influence the local climate. It has been established that air pollution in urban areas grows in proportion to the population. Today industrial enterprises and automobiles are the primary sources of atmospheric pollution. Industry pollutes the atmosphere by emissions of harmful gases and industrial dust. Thermal electrical plants, metallurgical & chemical factories, oil refineries, cement and other works are sources of air pollution. The chemical composition of emissions into the atmosphere is different, depending on the kind of fuel, of raw materials, technology, etc. Large amounts of dust are emitted into the atmosphere by thermal electrical plants using low-grade coals that yield large quantities of soot and a high percentage of sulfur-containing compounds. Most electric power plants which burn 2000 tons of low-grade coal a day emit about 400 tons of sulphurus gas every day. A trend towards decline in the amounts of emissions of pollutants into the atmospheric air has appeared in recent years, but their amounts are still high enough. So it results in an elevated air pollution level in many regions of Ukraine. Unfortunately, having not enough forests along with developed metallurgy and thermal power industry, Ukraine is among the countries that burn the planet’s oxygen. In order to attain the sanitary standards of the atmospheric air state, draft rates of maximum permissible emissions for production facilities are being worked out. By the present time such rates have been established for 93 per cent of production facilities, whose emissions amount to 90 per cent of the total.


Lessons 15 – 16 Simple Tenses.

^ Objective: to teach new vocabulary on the grammar material familiar to students.

Subject : Protection of Water.

Key words: essential – universally – evaporation of water - water vapour –to deposit – rain-water – dissolved gases – compound – earth’s entrails – dawn – renewable fresh water resources - sufficient – to face – tight water balance – unevenness – shortage - impurities – excess of population

Text 8: Water.

Water plays the most essential part in our lives. It is universally needed, but it is not naturally present everywhere. Where does water come from? We know that evaporation of water from rivers & from the sea causes the water vapour to be held in the atmosphere, from which on cooling, it is deposited as rain. This rain eventually finds its way back to the rivers and sea and so the cycle begins all over again. The heat of the Sun supplies the energy for evaporation. Rain-water is not chemically pure, although it is the nearest approach to pure water among natural waters. Containing little or no mineral matter, it does contain dissolved gases.

Water was originally thought to be an element; it was discovered by both Priestly & Cavendish by passing a spark through a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in proportions of two volumes to one. Lavoisier showed water to be a compound.

Scientists hold that water was born in the earth’s entrails at the dawn of its life. Somewhere in its depths the birth of water continues to this day. Together with lava, volcanoes annually eject 40 million tons of water. Thus, little by little, the amount of water on the Earth’s surface increases. Scientists estimate that the annual satisfaction of human requirements runs to something like 2600 cubic kilometers of water – about 6 per cent of the Earth’s annually renewable fresh water resources. In future the water requirement will reach 6000 cubic metres or about 13 per cent.

The conclusion would seem to be optimistic: our planet has sufficient water. Why then should scores of countries face a tight water balance? The reason is that unevenness of water distribution is aggravated by still greater unevenness of the geographical distribution of people. The shortage strikes where there is an excess of population and industry. Besides, modern industry with its manufacture of increasingly complex and diverse products, requires not just fresh but exceptionally clean, fresh water, the quality of products being highly sensitive to various impurities.


Lessons 17 – 18 The Passive Voice.

^ Objective: to teach students to understand the statements in the Passive Voice.

Key words: occurring forms – sea water – rain-water – consumption – surface & underground water – pressing – to discharge(into) – water reservoirs – recreational resources – petroleum products – toxic chemicals – salts of heavy metals – microbe – lake water – washing – steam boilers – scale formation - corrosion

TEXT 9: ^ The Water Problem.

Water is the most common of all liquids and probably the most useful. Naturally, occurring forms such as sea water, rain-water and lake water are never pure. Consumption increases annually, millions of tons are used each days in industry, so in this respect there is no wonder that there is a water problem. The problem of preventing pollution of surface and underground water is pressing in Ukraine, where 3.2 billion cu. m. of wastes are discharged into rivers and water reservoirs. Rivers, especially small water storages the Sea of Azov and Sivash, and the north-west part of the Black Sea feature an elevated pollution, degradation of the hydrologic state, loss of a considerable share of fish, mineral resources and deterioration of recreational resources. The most polluted rivers are the Donets, the Ingulets, the South Bug, the Dnieper and Danube. Main pollutants include petroleum products, biogenic substances, phenols, toxic chemicals, salts of heavy metals. One of the most important problems is to obtain water sufficiently pure to meet our needs. The choice as to what process is to be used for treatment of water depends upon the uses for which it is intended as well as the impurities it contains. Water used for steam boilers should be free from substances that cause corrosion and scale formation. Water for washing should not contain substances that react with soap. When water is to be used for drinking it is necessary that the microbes which it may contain should be killed. Water which it to be purified is thoroughly filtered. Another way to purify water is to boil it. The answer to heavy demands might well be the sea which covers most of the Earth’s surface. Sea-water varies in composition, but it is in fact, a vast store house of substances apart from water.


Lessons 19 – 20 The Participle. ^ Objective: to teach a new grammar item within the vocabulary assimilated by the students.

Key words: to centre – detrimental effects – drinking water - hydrosphere – waterway – contaminated – equilibrium – apparent - to progress (from) – phenomenon (a) – stable – community – percentage

TEXT 10: ^ Water Pollution.

Ever since man progressed from hunting to an agricultural society, with the corresponding development of stable communities, the phenomenon of water pollution has been his constant companion. As agricultural methods improved a smaller percentage of the population produced all the food needed: larger communities and diverse secondary industries developed and grew into the present modern society. Since man cannot exist without water, community development and city growth centered in areas where the water supplies were adequate and continuous.

The term “pollution” has been variously defined by many people, but it may be described here as “the detrimental effects on a localized ecological structure by the addition of the waste products of a society”, it is apparent that the first noticeable pollution problems should have involved the supply of drinking water.

It is in this particular area that the question of pollution takes on a new meaning. Is a body of water polluted when it directly affects man, or should it be classified as polluted when the ecological structure is first upset? The hydrosphere is a dynamic system containing physiochemical and biological equilibria, and there is no doubt that a normally active waterway has a large capacity to assimilate wastes. However, in many areas this capacity is now being reached or exceeded so that many waterways are becoming increasingly contaminated. Before this contamination becomes readily noticeable however, equilibrium is changed and the ecological structure may be seriously affected. Some examples of water-systems where the effects of pollution have become or are becoming increasingly apparent are the Adriatic, Baltic and Mediterranean seas: the Thames, Rhine and Seine rivers; and the Great Lake in America & Canada. But the dynamic systems have a remarkable capacity for regeneration, and with careful planning even the most seriously polluted water-ways may be brought back into full use. An example of river regeneration on a large scale is the successful attempt to restore the Thames estuary.


Lessons 21 – 22 The Infinitive. ^ Objective: to develop students’ speaking skills.

Key words: unevenly – availability – per capita – shortage of water – distribution – varied & intensive use – to protect (from) – depletion – means of treatment – transport routes – fisheries – hunting – recreation sites – due to – irrigated land area – synthetic fibres – water consumption – underground fresh waters – to renew

TEXT 11: ^ Protection of Water.

The water and the air are known to be the most important elements in physical and chemical processes on the surface of the Earth. Resources of river, lake and underground fresh waters are distributed very unevenly on the continents.

Ukraine is among European regions with the lowest water availability. Potential local resources of surface and underground water constitute 60 cu. km. The specific index of water availability from the local water resources in Ukraine is one of the lowest: about 1000 cu. m. per year per capita. The population and national economy of Ukraine use annually about 30 billion cu. m. of water. Shortage of water in different areas of the world is due not only to uneven distribution of water resources but also to its more varied and intensive use.

Suffice it to say, all rivers, lakes and underground waters are to be protected from depletion and pollution as water supply resources, a source of energy and means of treatment. Not to mention that rivers and lakes are also used as transport routes, fisheries, hunting areas, recreation sites.

It is obvious that the exploitation of water resources is extremely varied at the present time. It should be added that the scope of water resources exploitation is growing rapidly due to population growth, fast development of industry and expansion of irrigated land area.

An enormous amount of water is used in industry. To manufacture one ton of paper, 100 cu. m. of water is required, one ton of synthetic fibres – from 2500 to 5000 cu. m. of water and so on. A sharp increase in water consumption on the planet may lead to a water shortage in the near future. In view of this, measures are being worked out to increase water resources and exploit them. There are two ways to redistribute river water by means of reservoirs and through canals. Reservoirs are an example of how man intervenes to a considerable extent in natural processes over large areas. Canals are important not only for redistributing water but also as transport routes. Supplies of underground fresh waters are considerable. Academician Karpinsky called water the most precious natural resource. Unlike mineral deposits, water resources are renewed in the course of exploitation.


Lessons 23 – 24 The Gerund. ^ Objective: to teach students the Gerund so that they can use it in hearing, writing & speaking.

Subject: Sanitary Engineering in the Modern City.

Key words: heating & ventilation – occupant – contamination of the air – loss of heat – central heating – hot-water (heating) system – boiler – steam (heating) system – copper pipes – panel heating system – basement – fuel-convector – radiator – per square inch TEXT 12: Panel Heating.

Heating & ventilation are two branches of engineering which are very closely connected, they are therefore treated as a dual subject. Both are concerned with providing a required atmospheric environment within a space, the former with respect to heat supply to produce a desired temperature for maintaining comfort, health or efficiency of the occupants, the latter with regard to supply and removal of air frequently with emphasis on contamination of the air. Air conditioning is closely related to both heating & ventilation. The determination of the capacity or size of the various components of the heating system is based on the fundamental concept that heat supplied to a space equals heat lost from the space.

The most widely used system of heating is the central heating, where the fuel in one place – the basement or a specially designed room and from which steam, hot water or warm air is distributed to adjacent and remote spaces to be heated.

There are two most common systems of heating – hot water and steam. Both systems are widely used nowadays. A hot-water system consists of the boilers and a system of pipes connected to radiators suitably located in rooms to be heated. The pipes, usually of steel or copper, feed hot water to radiators or convectors.

As for steam systems, steam is generated usually at less than 5 pounds per square inch in the boiler and the steam is led to the radiators through or by means of steel or copper pipes. The steam gives up its heat to the radiators and the radiators to the room and the cooling of the steam condenses it to water. The condensate is returned to the boiler either by gravity or by a pump. The air valve on each radiator is necessary for air escape. Otherwise it would prevent steam from entering the radiator. Recent efforts to completely conceal heating equipment have resulted in an arrangement whereby fluids, whether it be hot water, steam, air or electricity, is circulated through distribution units embedded in the building construction. Panel heating is a method of introducing heat to rooms in which the emitting surfaces are usually completely concealed in the floor, walls or ceiling.


Lessons 25 – 26 The Verbal Noun. ^ Objective: to make a careful study of the Verbal Noun.

Key words: air-conditioning – (close)control – humidity – purity – installations – excess - heat – supply of air – removal of air – fumes – hazardous to health – modern amenities – space heating.

TEXT 13: ^ All-Year Air-Conditioning, Ventilation, Gas Supply.

Air-conditioning implies the control of temperature, humidity, purity and motion of the air in the enclosure. In our modern world of science and highly-developed technology air-conditioning is of great significance for industrial processes as well as for human comfort.

Air-conditioning for human comfort is employed in both large and small installations, such as theatres, office buildings, department stores, residences, air-planes, railways, cars and submarines.

All-year air-conditioning systems provide means for performing all the processes required for winter & summer air-conditioning. The basic pieces of equipment are the filters, preheat coils, fans and controls. The control of air purity can be achieved in various degrees. As a minimum control some sort of filtering must be done near the entrance of the air-conditioning system. Possibly the most efficient filtering device is the electrostatic precipitator.

As far gas ventilation is concerned the modern theory to this effect can be summed up in the statement that for places of general assembly the purpose of ventilation is to carry away excess heat and odours and that normally 10 cu. ft. per minute of outside air per person is sufficient to accomplish this objective. In buildings such as homes, the leakage of air through cracks in doors and windows is usually sufficient to meet this requirement.

Industrial buildings often present special problems in ventilation. There are certain industrial processes that are accompanied by the production of air – born dust, fumes, toxic vapours and gases which are hazardous to health of workers.

Another indispensable part of modern amenities is gas supply. It has come now to be of a very wide use. At the present time natural gas is put to large-scale economic use. The principal utilization of natural gas is a clean, convenient economical source of heat. In homes it is used for cooking, water heating, refrigeration for food as well as for space heating.


Lesson 27 Revision.

Objective: to revise Grammar and Vocabulary of the 1st semester.

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Revision Exercises on Prefixes:

  1. Translate the following into Russian, paying attention to the prefixes non-, in-, il-,un-, denoting negation: admissible – inadmissible; direct – indirect; evitable – inevitable; decomposed – undecomposed; balance – unbalance; polluted – unpolluted; healthy – unhealthy; fertile – infertile; productive – nonproductive

  2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words. Pay attention to the words with the prefix re- used to form verbs and nouns: build - rebuild; cycle – recycle; consider – reconsider; copy – recopy; shape – reshape; use – reuse.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

1. Complete the sentences:

1) The ecological problem which _____ also very much a social one, _____ one of the pressing problems of our days.

2) Today, this term is _____ _____ _____.

3) _____ _____, of course, is a part of the world ecosystem.

4) Man-made pollution frequently _____ _____ _____ in which a community of organisms lives and upsets its delicate balance.

2. Explain the meaning of the word “ecosystem”.

3. Answer the following questions:

a) Knowledge of Ecology is of great use, isn’t it? Give your ideas.

b) When was the balance of nature first disturbed?

c) What alters the environment?

d) What influences greatly the environment nowadays?

e) How do you account for the fact that the ecological problem is a social one?


Revision Exercises on Suffixes:

  1. Give derivatives of the following words and translate them: absorb v., accept v., build v., control n., common a., indicate v., lead n., protect n., produce n., poison n., work n., ecology n..

  2. Prove the statement that the basic way of forming words in word-derivation is affixation.

  3. Find examples of words with suffixes from the text for reading. Estimate your knowledge of affixes in Modern English.

Read the text and give the idea of the text in English.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

  1. Complete the sentences:

  1. _____ _____ evident now, that often man adversely affecting the environment and his activity is sometimes _____ _____ _____ _____.

  2. More and more attention _____ _____ _____ on the problem of environmental protection recently.

  3. It is not possible but necessary to _____ _____ ____ _____ , namely earthquakes, typhoons, hurricanes, floods, droughts, magnetic and solar storms as well as radioactivity, cosmic radiation into a safe environment suitable for man meeting his needs..

  4. For one thing the killing of insects _____ _____ in a loss of balance in ecology.

  1. Comment on the character of interaction between man and nature.

  2. Write a summary of the text in English. \A summary is the expression in a condensed form of the principal content of any piece of writing.\



Revision Exercises on Conversion:

  1. Form verbs from the nouns given below. Comment on the converted verbs:

air –

alarm –

amount –

attack –

culture –

decay –

deposit –

dust –

effect –

envelope –

habitat –

trap –

plant –

  1. Compare the following conversion pairs:

answer v. – answer n.

can v. – can n.

double a. – double v.

empty a. – empty v.

leak v. – leak n.

man n. – man v.

wet a. – wet v.

  1. Get ready to discuss conversion as one of the principal ways of forming words in Modern English

4. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

1. Complete the sentences:

1) Scientists recommend that large areas of land _____ _____ _____ _____, so they can naturally regenerate.

2) _____ _____ think that every ten years about 5% of all species _____ _____.

3) The large number of species existing in the world is _____ _____ _____ _____, beautiful to look at, but also very useful for _____ _____ if we use them wisely.

4) _____ _____ _____ of the natural world as _____ _____ _____with many useful things _____ _____ _____ _____.

2. Can you complete these questions and join them to the correct answer?

1. What ….. elephants eat?

2. Why ….. birds fly south in the winter?

3. How much …… an adult elephant eat in a day?

4. Where ….. leopards live?

5. How ….. bats know where they are going?

6. How fast ….. a cheetah run?

a) They live in Siberia and Africa.

b) They send out a sound and wait for the echo.

c) Up to about 100 km per hour.

d) About 136 kg of plants.

e) They eat fruit, leaves and grass.

f) Because it’s too far to walk!

3. What is the word? Choose the correct pronoun for each space.

  1. 1. Frogs are reptiles. … skin is very thick. … lay eggs. …blood is cold. (they/them/their)

  2. A cow gives milk to … young. (it/its)

  3. We are mammals. … blood is warm and we give milk to … babies. (we/our/us)

  4. Insects have six legs. Most of … have wings and can fly. (them/their)

  5. Do you like spiders? No! I hate …! (they/them /their)

  6. This is my new dog. Do you like …? (he/him/his)


Revision Exercises on Compound Words.

  1. Make a careful study of the following compounds. Translate them and give examples of your own:

(v. + n.) breakstone, breakwater

(n. + a.) oil-rich, smoke-black

(a. + n.) highway, low-lands, mainland

(a. + a.) bright-blue, dark-brown, red-hot

(n. + v. ed) snow-covered

(num. + n.) forty-hour(week),

Seven-year(plan), two-day(journey)

  1. Explain the meaning of the following compound words:

Background, disease-producing, earthquake, limestone, live-stock, man-made, timber-work, wildlife, water-mark, waterway.

  1. Recall the sentences from the text in which compound words are used. Write out of the text all compounds. State the parts of speech they consist of.

  2. Read and translate the text and think of sub-titles.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

1. Complete the sentences:

  1. ______ ______ ______ that turns _____ ______ ______ ______ ______ into acid rain is well understood.

  2. Human activity accounts for roughly ______ ______ ______ sulfur being injected into the atmosphere than natural sulfur emissions from sources such _______ ______.

  3. The main factors contributing to this increase are ______ and ______ _____-_____ and ______ _____, which dissolves heavy metals in the soil.

  4. As a result, _______ _______ and _______ suffocate.




  1. Ask fact-finding questions on the text.

  1. Get ready to write a dictation (at the teacher’s discretion).




  1. Give the comparative and superlative degree of the following adjectives and adverbs:

Slight, delicate, numerous, industrial, large, primitive, well, far, badly, hard.

  1. Supply the missing forms:

Positive | |well| |

Comparative| | |worse|

Superlative |best| | |

  1. Read and translate the text and speak on the key problem of the text.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

  1. Complete the sentences:

  1. Music ______ _____ in every supermarket, most restaurants, and many offices.

  2. _____ _____ _____ finally, that silence is a natural resource and must be protected by law.

  3. If indeed silence _____ _____, it is also becoming _____ _____ _____ _____.

  4. Noise pollution is _____ _____ _____ _____ of our technological age.




  1. Writing assignment. Without referring to a dictionary write short definitions of the following words & word combinations: (compare your definitions with definitions given in the Dictionary of Contemporary English)

noise –

noise pollution -

roar –

wilderness –

natural source –

noxious wastes –

adverse –


3. Discussion topics:

1) Is noise pollution a serious problem everywhere? Give your views.

2) What are some of the causes (sources) of noise pollution in your city? (buses, trucks, motorcycles, cars, jets, etc.). Describe them.

3) Is there a way to solve the problem of noise pollution in your city? How could this be done? Give your ideas.



  1. Put parts of the verbs “to be”, “to have” into the blank spaces.

  1. The scientific method _____ a general way of thinking used by scientists in solving problems.

  2. A scientific law _____ a statement of the regularity, a uniformity of the behaviour of matter and energy.

  3. Pressure _____ little effect on the solubility of solids.

  4. Solids _____ a definite volume but no definite shape, taking on the shape of their containers.

Read the text and speak on air pollutants.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

  1. Complete the sentences:

    1. Sulfur dioxide _____ _____ when fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and petrol are burnt.

    2. ______ _____ is a precious resource.

    3. _____ _____ _____ _____ monitored air pollution round the world over eight years.

    4. In fact, _____ ______ _____ _____ is caused by man.

  2. Try your hand at managing a plant. Describe how you would handle the situation:

If you were a manager of a chemical plant, which measures would you take to prevent pollution of air (water, soil)? (filters, modernization of equipment, modern technology, wasteless production, etc.)

  1. Arrange a talk on the following topics:

    1. The initiative of “Green Peace” movement.

    2. The environment is in danger of human activity.

    3. Toxic properties of carbon monoxide & sulfur oxide.

    4. The problem of environmental protection.

  2. Write a spelling translation test.



Revision Exercises on Modals:

  1. Translate these sentences into Russian paying attention to modals & their equivalents:

    1. We must use new methods in our research work.

    2. He couldn’t complete his research in time.

    3. The students were unable to do work without their teacher’s help.

    4. Nobody was able to understand this phenomenon.

    5. You ought to tell the truth.

  1. Here is a series of sentences. Write questions with “have to.”

  1. “The lecture is to begin at 10 o’clock.” What time exactly …….?

  2. “We had to answer a lot of questions in the examination.” How many questions.…..?

  3. “She had to work at her candidate dissertation.” Who…….…?

  4. “He has to pass his qualifying examinations for the candidate degree.” When……….?

Read & translate the text.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

  1. Complete the sentences:

  1. Unfortunately having not enough forests along with developed metallurgy and thermal power industry _____, is among the countries that burn the planet’s oxygen.

  2. Scientists distinguish between _____ and ______ ______ of atmospheric pollution.

  3. ______ ______ ______, ______ & chemical factories, oil refineries, cement and other works are _____ ______ _____ _____.

  4. It has been established that _____ ______ in urban areas grows in proportion to _____ ______.

2. Make up short dialogues on the text.


Revision Exercises on Tenses.

  1. Translate these sentences into Russian paying attention to the construction: there is\ there are.

The Present Simple Tense

  1. There must be some solution of the problem.

  2. There are local climatic effects due to air pollution.

  3. There are certain natural groupings among the chemical elements.

The Past Simple Tense

  1. Was there a mistake in his report?

  2. There was no result.

The Future Simple Tense

  1. There will be no lectures on Sunday.

  2. There will be a new chemical laboratory in some years.

  1. Replace the Infinitive by the correct form of the verb.

1) He usually (to carry out) the experiments in the laboratory.

2) The lecture (to last) for two hours yesterday.

3) Water (to play) the most essential part in our lives.

4) I (not to think) he (to be able) to put to use the results of such investigations.

5) The world mineral reserves (to be) enormous and (to run) into millions, billions and trillions of tons. However, they (not to be) infinite and some deposits (to become) depleted, when they are intensively exploited.

Read the text. Summarize it in 8 – 10 sentences.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. _____ ______ ______ _____ Sun supplies the energy for evaporation.

  2. It is universally needed, but _____ _____ ______ ______ _____ everywhere.

3) Lavoisier showed ____ _____ ______ a compound.

4) Thus, little by little, the amount of water _____ _____ _____ ______ increases.

2. Make up short dialogues using the active vocabulary of the text.

3. Arrange short debates on the following questions, making sure each member of the group gets a chance to speak.

1) Why is water so important for life?

2) Where does water come from?

3) Why then should scores of countries face a tight water balance?



    1. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the Passive Voice.

  1. They were asked to translate the article.

  2. The lecture was attended by many students.

  3. I was given a textbook.

  4. The book was much spoken about.

  5. He can be relied on.

  6. She was told to come in time.

  7. Students are taught English

    1. Change into the Passive:

    1. He carried out the experiment in time.

    2. The treatment of water and wastewater requires a variety of techniques.

    3. Toxic chemicals can affect food chains.

Read the text, divide it into some logical parts and think of sub-titles.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. Water _____ ______ should not contain substances that react _____ ______.

  2. Water used for ______ ______ should be free from substances _____ _____ corrosion and scale formation.

  3. _____ ______ is to be used _____ _____ it is necessary that the microbes ______ _____ ______ ______ should be killed.

    1. Make up your own dialogues on the text for reading. Use the vocabulary of the text.

    2. Arrange a talk about water supply in your neighbourhood.



  1. Read and translate the following sentences, paying attention to the Participle.

    1. I spent a lot of time mixing these liquids.

    2. Dripping taps must be repaired.

    3. The experimental data obtained proved the theory.

    4. Having discussed the experimental data at the conference he decided to publish them without delay.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. It is in this particular area that _____ _____ _____ ______ takes on a new meaning.

  2. _____ _____ ______ progressed from hunting to an agricultural society, with _____ _____ _____ of stable communities, the phenomenon of water pollution has been his constant companion.

  3. An example of river regeneration _____ _____ _____ _____ is the successful attempt to restore the Thames estuary.

  4. Before this contamination _____ _____ _____ _____, equilibrium is changed and the ecological structure may be _____ _____.

    1. Comment on the problem if a water famine threatens the world.



Translate into Russian.

    1. To explain this fact is not so very easy.

    2. To describe this phenomenon you must introduce new data.

    3. To carry out the experiment you must have all the necessary equipment.

    4. The thermometer is used to measure temperature.

    5. The aim of the experiment is to get new data.

    6. The task of the conference is to discuss these phenomena.

    7. It is too early to discuss our results.

    8. One of the most important aims of chemistry is to obtain new substances.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ is used in industry.

  2. Canals are important _____ ______ _____ _____ _____ but also as transport routes.

  3. _____ _____ and _____ _____ are known to be the most important elements in physical and chemical processes on the surface of the Earth.

  4. Ukraine _____ _____ European regions with the lowest water availability.

  1. Explain the meaning of the word “redistribution”.

  2. Discussion topics:

    1. Uneven distribution of water resources.

    2. Reasons for redistribution of water.

    3. Ways to redistribute river water.

    4. Water is the most precious natural resource.



Revision Exercises on the Gerund:

  1. Study these sentences:

  1. Boiling continued for as long as 80 hours.

  2. The experiment resulted in obtaining valuable data.

  3. He stopped writing & joined the discussion.

  4. On heating ice melts.

  5. She got a chance of obtaining good results.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

1. Complete the sentences:

1) _____ _____ is closely related to both heating & ventilation.

2) Both systems _____ _____ _____ nowadays.

3) The pipes, usually of steel or copper, _____ _____ _____ to radiators or convectors.

4) Otherwise _____ _____ _____ _____ from entering the radiator.

2. Answer the following questions:

1) What are heating & ventilation concerned with?

2) Why do industrial buildings maintain a lower air temperature?



    1. Read and translate the following sentences, paying attention to the Gerund and the Verbal Noun.

  1. She stopped writing and began reading a book.

  2. The heating is used to bring about the arrangement of the crystalline structure in the desired way and give it the required properties.

  3. Heat is developed by splitting atoms in the reactor.

  4. In converting water into ice we do not change its composition.

  5. The result may be achieved by inverting a test-tube filled with water.

  6. Seeing is believing.

  7. Learning rules without examples is useless.

Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Drills:

Comprehension of the information.

1. Complete the sentences:

1) _____ _____ _____ air purity can be achieved in various degrees.

2) _____- _____ implies the control of temperature, humidity, purity and motion of the air in the enclosure.

3) It has come now to be of _____ _____ _____ _____.

4) Industrial buildings often present _____ _____ in ventilation.

2. Topics for oral or written work:

1) Air-conditioning.

2) Ventilation.

3) Gas Supply.



Pick out examples of prefixed words from the text for reading and be ready to comment on them.


Render the text in brief


Inform of the protection of the environment. Summarize the article in 8-10 sentences.


Render the text in a nutshell.


Comment on the abundance of compound words in the English vocabulary and the sources of their development.


Inform of the acidity of rain and snow.


Pick out examples of adjectives from the text for reading and be ready to write down these adjectives in the positive, the comparative and superlative degrees.


Make up a short dialogue on your own.


Write an abstract of the text in English.


Render the text, add more information on atmospheric pollutants.


1. Ask fact-finding questions on the text.


2. Comment on the topics:

a) The Annual Consumption of Water in Kharkov.

b) Ukraine Faces a Tight Water Balance. Can it be and why?


Pick out examples of Passive constructions from the text for reading & be ready to comment on them.


Render the text as if you were a full-fledged specialist.


Pick out examples of Participles from the text for reading and be ready to make up sentences on your own.


Render what you have read in the text, according to your own plan.


Pick out examples of Infinitives from the text for reading and note the use of the Infinitive


Read the text & render it as close as possible to the original.


Pick out examples of the Gerund from the text for reading and make up sentences on your own.


Render the text as if you were a full-fledged specialist.


Pick out examples of the Verbal Noun from the text for reading and note the use of the Verbal Noun


Compose 10 questions on your own.


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