Subject: engineering geology explanatory notes icon

Subject: engineering geology explanatory notes

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The course in Engineering Geology is designated for students of faculty of geology, specialty “Ecology, environmental protection”, consists of 70 hours (including 42 hours of lectures and 28 hrs of labs).

The main aim of the course is to familiarize students with fundamentals of soil science (water, physical, mechanical properties of rocks, engineering-geological classification of rocks), fundamentals of engineering geodynamics (accepted classifications of modern geological and engineering-geological processes, their main laws, methods of study, interconnection with engineering activities, measures for decreasing negative consequences); regional engineering geology (namely, engineering-geological characteristics of conditions in Ukraine and engineering geological zones on the territory of Ukraine), methods of technical melioration of soils and main types of engineering geological works and research.

Fundamental knowledge of this subject is essential for students-ecologists because it is engineering geology that deals with main aspects of interconnection of human beings and geological environment.

The course is supposed to provide student with necessary knowledge to be able to participate in engineering geological field and laboratory research upon obtaining bachelor’s degree.



Topics and their contents



Introduction. Engineering geology as a scientific discipline.

Subject and tasks of engineering geology. Interconnection of engineering geology with other sciences. Main parts of engineering geology. Engineering geological conditions. History of development of engineering geological knowledge.




Topic 1. Subject of soil science. Geological-petrographic factors determining properties of rocks.

Subject and tasks of soil science. Term “soil” in engineering geology. Main properties of soils studied by soil science. Main geological petrographic factors determining properties of rocks. Substance contents. Structural connections. Structure of mineral skeleton and threshold space.



Topic 2. Engineering geological classifications of soils.

Aim and main principles of engineering geological classification of soils. Classification of rocks by F.P. Savarensky, I.V.Popov, P.M.Panukov. Classification, qualitative and estimative characteristics of rocks.



^ Topic 3. Granulometric contents of mountainous rocks.

Fractions of granulometric character of friable rocks. Granulometric analysis: types and designations. Applications for results of granulometric analysis of rocks. Summarizing diagram and triangles of Ferre. Effective diameter and coefficient of heterogeneity. Engineering geological classification of rocks by their granulometric contents.



Topic 4. Physical properties of rocks.

Main physical properties of rocks, studied by soil science. Required and volume weight. Porosity. Humidity. Methods of laboratory measuring.



Topic 5. Water properties of mountainous rocks.

Basic water properties of rocks studied by engineering geology. Water resistance. Water-bearing potential. Water-return properties. Capillary properties. Sagging of woodlands. Swelling. Plasticity (limits of plasticity, number of plasticity). Shrinkage. Methods of their determining.



^ Topic 6. Mechanical properties of rocks.

Main mechanical properties of friable and glutinous rocks. Methods of their determining. Subject of soil mechanics. Strain, plastic, residual and refraction deformations of rocks. Compressive properties of rocks and methods of their determining. Coefficient of consolidation. Module of compression. Consolidation of clay soils. Resistance for shifting of rocks. Cohesion and angle of internal friction. Coefficient of shifting. Angle of natural deflection of friable soils.



^ Topic 7. Engineering geological characteristics of massifs of rocks.

Massifs of rocks. Engineering geology of massifs of rocks. Factors determining behaviour of massifs of rocks. Cleavage of rocks, its genesis and methods of evaluation.



^ Topic 8. Technical melioration of soils.

Tasks and fundamentals of technical melioration of soils. Rocks as an object of technical melioration. Drainage of rocks. Mechanical consolidation. Physical mechanical methods.



Engineering geodynamics


Topic 9. Engineering geological classification of current geological and engineering geological processes and phenomena.

Subject and main tasks of engineering geodynamics. Main laws of geological processes and phenomena. Engineering geological processes. Engineering geological classification of processes and phenomena by P.M. Panukov and G.S. Zolotaryov.



^ Topic 10. Current tectonic movements. Engineering geological analysis of modern tectonics. Principles of anti-seismic construction.

Seismology, its main tasks. Earthquakes. Main characteristic features of earthquakes (hypocenter, seismic waves). Intensiveness of earthquakes. Tsunami. Main tasks arising from studying modern tectonic movements of the Earth’s crust. Methods of evaluation of tectonics movements. Forecast of earthquakes and seismic zoning of territories. Fundamentals principles of anti-seismic construction. Provoked seismicity.



Topic 11. Engineering geological study of weathering processes.

Role of weathering processes for other processes of destruction of massifs of rocks. Main trends in studying weathering processes. Constituents of weathering. Main problems of engineering geological studying of weathering. Diagrams of subdivision of weathering crust. Signs of weathering of rocks (quantitative and qualitative). Role of weathering for construction practice. Main measures for fighting with weathering of rocks.



^ Topic 12. Eolian processes and phenomena. Engineering geological evaluation and protection methods.



Topic 13. Swamping of territories.

Swamp. Swamped territories. Flooding of territories. Relevance of swamps and swamped territories to certain geomorphological and hydrogeological conditions. Engineering geological research in the field of spreading of swamps and extension of swamped territories.



Topic 14. Formation of sea coasts and lake shores. Engineering geological evaluation of abrasion processes.

Main processes and factors in formation of shores. Transformation of shores of water reserves. Engineering geological study of processes of formation and abrasion of sea, lake and water reserves shores. Classification of modern shores. Methods of calculation of shores transformation intensiveness. Main measures of fighting with abrasion and protection of shore territories.



Topic 15. Erosive and mud processes.

Plain and linear erosion. Steep bank formation: factors, stages and preventive measures. River-bed erosion. Anti-erosion preventive measures. Mud flows: conditions of formation, types, evaluation and forecast for mud flows. Tasks of engineering geological study of mud processes. Main protective measures.



^ Topic 16. Gravitation sloping processes. Formation and steadiness of slopes.

Classification of modern gravitational processes. Practical tasks of engineering geological studies. Landslides, shifts, landslips, falls and avalanches, disintegration of boulders, fragment-boulders and stone-snow avalanches. Protective measures from falls and landslides. Kurums and solifluction forms. Shifting processes: elements of shifts, their classification: shifts of displacement, sliding, shifts-flows, shifts of complex types. Types of slopes, their formation and steadiness. Classification of slopes. Stages in development. Forecast for sloping processes and evaluation of slope steadiness. Measures for stabilization of slopes and protection of territories from shifts and processes connected with them.



Topic 17. Karst processes and suffosia.

Conditions necessary for development of karst. Carbonate, sulphate and salt karst, and hydrodynamic law of karst development. Technogenic factors of karst development. Evaluation of speed of karst processes. Engineering geological studies of karst. Protective measures for karst processes. Suffosia, chemical and mechanical. Engineering geological studies and protective measures.



^ Topic 18. Phenomena of sagging in woodlands.

Woodlands as geological formations and object of engineering geological studies. Genesis, mechanism and evaluation of sagging of woodlands. Tasks of complex engineering geological research in the areas of extension of sagging woodlands. Peculiarities of construction design for woodlands.



^ Topic 19. Engineering geological phenomena in buildings foundations and foundation pits.

Rocks and phenomena in foundations of buildings. Groups of rocks as to their reliability as foundations for buildings. Deformation of foundation rocks. Engineering geological studies of building foundations. Water flows and shifting sands in foundation pits. Engineering geological studies of shifting sands phenomena. Preventive measures for shifting sands.



Regional Engineering Geology


Topic 20. General issues of regional engineering geology.

Engineering geological conditions of territories. Regional and zoning factors of engineering geological conditions. Theory of formations in engineering geology. Engineering geological subdivision of territories by their types. Engineering geological subdivision of territories into regions.



^ Topic 21. Engineering geological subdivision of territory of Ukraine into regions.

Characteristics of engineering geological regions and areas.



Topic 22. Engineering geological evaluation of environmental conditions of Ukraine.

Engineering geological characteristics of relief. Physico-geological processes and phenomena on the territory of Ukraine: mud processes, erosion, karst, shifts, transformation of shores of water reserves. Soils located in the areas of engineering influence on the territory of Ukraine.



Topic 23. Engineering geological research. Current status and prospective developments of engineering geology in Ukraine.

Main tasks and types of engineering geological research: shooting, drilling, investigation works, geophysical research, observation works. Methods of soils research. Current status and prospective developments of engineering geology in Ukraine.



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