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ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVENESS OF AN ENTERPRISE
A. Alenkina, a 4th year student,
Faculty of Management of economics, Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University
O.V. Yefremenko, scientific and language supervisor
Competition is the inalienable line of modern economy. Its "invisible hand" always takes place at the market, not having regard to the changes of economic relations and level of government control of economy. It forces to pay attention to competitiveness of enterprises, which provides their maintenance on a certain market segment. Universally (regardless of level of display) a competitiveness is determined as immanent to the economic subject (to the physical, legal person or of industry, sector, economies of country, and on synthetic are countries on the whole) ability (state) to take part in a market economy in the conditions of competition at the increase of profits, expansion of production, increase of level and quality of life of participants of economic process
Scientific researches of questions of enterprise’ competitiveness are widespread. Many scientists devoted their research to competitiveness, its constituents, its features in different industries and on the different types of enterprises, its forming under various conditions forming and under influence of various factors, foreign experience, conceptions, methods of estimation, analysis, increase, support, management, marketing, management, strengthening, development, planning, diagnostics and motivation of competitiveness of countries, regions, industries, enterprises, products etc.
In spite of the great number of approaches, today there is still no unitary definition of such a complicated and many-sided concept as competitiveness of enterprise. At the same time, depending on understanding of this definition, scientists proposed different views on methods of estimation of enterprises’ competitiveness.
At present the actual question is remained about the estimation of level of competitiveness of an enterprise which is reliable and accessible for enterprises has remained. This causes the necessity to examine the variety of existent methods of its evaluation. In addition, the research of the different methodic approaches to the evaluation of level of competitiveness of an enterprise forms a common idea about the aggregate of the methods worked out by other scientists.
The theoretical approach to the evaluation of competitiveness of enterprises includes its classification into different amounts of groups by different characteristics. For example, V. Ulanchuk and N. Lysenko distinguished two basic groups of competitiveness's estimation: analytical and graphic. Z. Borisenko, while describing the methods of evaluation of competitiveness of an enterprise, distinguished also graphic methods, which included matrix and tabular methods. The graphic method of evaluation of the level of competitiveness is based on the construction of the so-called "radial diagram of competitiveness" or "polygon of competitiveness". A construction to the polygon came true by the division of circle by radial evaluation scales on even sectors, the amount of which equaled the amount of select criteria on radial lines. It was graduated so that all values of criteria were into an evaluation circle; the values of criteria increased on the measure of removal from the center of circle. The corresponding scale of measuring points which answered the value of criteria were marked on every landmark; and the curve line, formed by the points accordingly for each enterprise, was drawn. Yet A. Оliv’e, A. Dayan, R. Urse suggested to study strengths and weaknesses of an enterprise by means of polygon of competitiveness, using eight basic criteria: quality, price, finances, trade, after sale service, foreign policy, preparation before a sale, conception of commodity by which its activity was founded. The matrix methods of evaluation of level of competitiveness of an enterprise are based on the use of matrix - table of well-organized on lines and columns of elements, and tabular method - which is a variation of a matrix method. The next groups of indexes were estimated by foreign scientists for the estimation of level of competitiveness. They included finances, productive potential, composition of labor force, technology and research potential, organization and management, marketing. The matrix method, worked out by the Boston consulting group, is based on the analysis of competitiveness of an enterprise taking into account the life cycle of its commodity (services). Essence of evaluation process consists in the analysis of a matrix, built by the principle of the system of co-ordinates: for horizontals - rates of increase (reduction) of amount of sales in a linear scale; for vertical lines is relative part of commodity (services) at the market.
The group of research workers of Institute of strategy and competitiveness of Harvard school of business in the USA under the direction of М. Porter offered methodology of calculation of "index of microeconomic competitiveness". It is based on the theory of competitiveness, according to which the competition strategy and the quality of business-environment play a decision role in creation of competitive edges of enterprise. According to it sub-index "activity and strategy of enterprises" includes on 16 indexes, and sub-index "quality of business-environment" includes a 31 index.
Other scientists suggested to systematize the existent methods of estimation of competitiveness of an enterprise by such groups: methods, based on the analysis of comparative advantages; methods which are based on the theory of equilibrium of firms and industry; methods, built on the basis of theory of effective competition; methods, based on the theory of quality of commodity; matrix methods of estimation; complex (integral) methods.
Thus, the existence of different scientific works about the competitiveness of an enterprise and considered methods of its evaluation testify the absence of a single method of evaluation of the level of enterprise competitiveness. It should be noted, that the modern scientific researches to the evaluation of level of competitiveness of an enterprise are aimed to adaptation of existent methods to the branch features of different enterprises and modern economic terms. At the same time the determination of level of competitiveness of an enterprise is insufficient for describing its activity and making administrative decisions. Therefore the attention should be paid to determination of level of stability of enterprises’ competitiveness as a critical attribute of competitiveness of every enterprise for clarification of estimation of its level. So from the methods of estimation depends the analysis of competitiveness of an enterprise and the results of these analysis.
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