Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические icon

Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические

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1. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Children and adolescent hygiene.rtf
2. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Health and Environment.rtf
3. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Introduction to hygine.rtf
4. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Nutrition and health. Bolonian..rtf
5. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Occupation and health Bolonian.rtf
6. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Water and health.rtf
7. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Complex microclimate assessment. doc.doc
8. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Topic 08.doc
9. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/Dust. doc.doc
10. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/The methods of air sampling.doc
11. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/Topic 12.doc
12. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Food poisoning/Food pois.doc
13. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Hygiene of children/mannual 1.doc
14. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Hygiene of children/mannual 2.doc
15. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen.doc
16. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Natur. ill. doc.doc
17. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/SOLAR RADIATION AND ITS HYGIENIC IMPORTANCE.doc
18. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 04.doc
19. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 05.doc
20. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/illuminatiom artif. doc.doc
21. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Menu apportion ass/Menu-raskl. doc.doc
22. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Air movement. doc.doc
23. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Determination of atmospheric pressure.doc
24. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF INFRA-RED RADIATION.doc
25. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 06.doc
26. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 07.doc
27. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 11.doc
28. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/temperature. doc.doc
29. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Nois ass/noise and vibration.rtf
30. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Soil.ass/Topic 18.doc
31. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 1.doc
32. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 2.doc
33. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Work hardness/hardness and intencity 2.rtf
34. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/ultraviolate/manual.rtf
Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”
Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
The hygienic estimation of quality of potable water according to inspection and to results of the laboratory analysis
Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
Theme: Methods of determination of the ultraviolet radiation intensity as such as preventive dose of it’s irradiation and use it for diseases prevention and air disinfection in premises


на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические

аспекты воспитания и обучения детей и подростков

( для студентов 3 курса медицинского международного факультета англоязычной формы обучения).

« Health of children and adolescent as the hygienic problem. Physiological and hygienic aspects of children’ and adolescents’ bringing up and education »

1. Hygiene of children and adolescent as a branch of hygiene, its purpose and tasks.

2. Main regularities of the growth and development of children’s’ organism. The acceleration as a hygienic problem.

3. Principles of the assessment an individual and collective children’s’ health.

4. Physiological and hygienic substantiation of the day regime ( rei’ j: m), nutrition and motional activity of children and adolescents.

5. Influence of environmental factors, conditions and organization of education in teaching establishments on a children’s organism (from positions of the adaptive trophic syndrome).

6. Physiological and hygienic substantiation of sanitary requirements to conditions and organization of education and upbringing for children and adolescents in teaching establishments of different type.

7. Physiological and hygienic substantiation of preventive maintenance system for deformations of a skeleton and schoolstudents’ sight disoders.

There are a new complex of adverse factors, new conformities have been originated to natural laws in character and distribution of diseases in conditions of a scientific and technological revolution during the twentieth century:

1. An increasing dynamic morbidity rate among all population’s group (morbidity, physical development, death rate, physical inability, etc.).

2. It is originated a new type of non epidemic pathology

3. Demographic parameters: urbanization, population ageing (‘eigin) are sharply changed (that is especially importance for Ukraine’s population ), death rate is shifted getting towards blood circulation system diseases , digestion & lung chronic ones, trauma , cancer tumors.

4. Diseases’ groups which have met rare earlier (endocrine immune, allergic) becomes more frequently in nowadays.

5. Infectious pathology rate have been increasing on today. First of all hepatites, tuberculosis, flu, children infections etc. There are microorganism are modificated resulting from uncontrolled antibiotics in taking . By the data of WHO 30 % of the total pathology are infectious origins.

6. It is known the tendency to plural pathology.

7. Health rate indices have been increasing in every age, sex, professional and other special groups of the population.

Unfavorable trends in health rate led to the necessity of the systematical organization of preventive maintenance transformations. In turn it has led to differentiation of hygiene. It had been originated hygiene of children and adolescents as a separate branch of hygiene. The state control under unfavorable factors on current sanitary situation and as a previously sanitary inspection have become most importance purpose of the children ‘s and adolescents’ hygiene . At the same time had been continuing findings of efficacy criteria of the preventive activity .

  1. A notion of the health. Factors influencing on health of population, their percentage by the WHO ‘s data. .

Health (WHO) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity . This is an idealistic definition and, if it were possible to quantify any of these terms, perhaps few people could be regarded as truly healthy.

Percentage of children health level depends on following factors:

1. Biological factors: Genetics, pregnancy, delivery, health state of parents

are shared by 10 -12 %

2. Social and economic ones are shared by 60-65 %: Better to use life style.




harmful habits

3. Environment quality is shared by 20 %:

  • Climatic

  • ecological

Other side they say 80 % of all diseases among the population can be formed due to ecological pressure in separate old industrial regions (including Donbass)

4. A level of medical and preventive aid development is shared by 8-10 %. According to this conformity more hospitals society builds, medical workers teaches the less influence on population’s health rate.

All these factors can be distributed to:

1. Sanitary favorable. Directed to increase level of health.

2. Adverse risk factors, which promote development of nonspecific pathology and possessing specific influence.

Triad of factors of well-being for children are:

1. Optimum mode of impellent activity.

2. Hardening.

3. Adequate nutrition.

The most essential factors of trouble are:

1. Surplus or lack of impellent activity.

2. Infringement of the work and rest rate.

3. Non-observance of training conditions and rules.

4. Harmful habits.

5. Absence of hygienic skills.

The high level of health of children and adolescent should provide:

  1. Optimum genetic parameters. The normal hereditary information.

  2. Necessary reserve of the regulatory systems, providing adaptation to environmental adverse factors.

  3. Presence of duplicating systems, which can provide functioning of an organism in case of stress or injury , thus forming reserves in emergency conditions.

  4. Opportunity of an organism to train those mechanisms which are directed to improvement of regulatory mechanisms and increasing of nonspecific body resistance.

  5. Necessity of use of biorhythms (‘baierithm) , which are incorporated in an organism.

Main conformities to natural laws of the growth and development of children's organism.

The acceleration as a hygienic problem.

International biological age classification:

1. The newborn period -1-10 days

2. Infancy - till 1 year

3. The early childhood - 1-3 years

4. The first childhood - 4-7 of years

5. The second childhood:

boys - 8-12 years

girls - 8-11

6. Adolescents:

  • Boys of-13-16 years

  • Girls of-12-15 years

7. The youthful age:

youthful ( ‘ju:thfel ) man - 17-21

youthful woman - 16-20 years

Maturing of people is a slow and progressive process. Development of the child - is the state of permanent ( ‘pe:menent ) quantitative and qualitative changes, production and renovation of new cells, functions, kinds of activity. It is progressive process at which it is natural quantitative changes transform to radical qualitative one . Change of the body’s position from horizontal to vertical one with the beginning of the pacing (peising) the first words and the further (‘fethe) fast development of speech, transformation of a child into a adolescent during the puberty – they are some stages in development of a human being , each of the which is prepared by a previous stage of the growth.

The Growth – it is total primitive quantitative changes in a cellular, tissues , organs, body’s level in total.

Development – it is qualitative changes. A differentiation (diferenshi’eishn) it is a perfection of the structure and function of separate bodies and systems, organism in total . It is a transformation from quantitative changes into qualitative one .

The metabolism and energy transformation are in a basis of the growth and development of an organism. It develops of two phases – assimilation and dissimilation. These processes are balanced in an adults. The metabolism of a growing organism is qualitatively difference. It originated with significant prevalence of assimilation over dissimilation processes. It is necessary for the formation of new cells, growth of bodies, increasing in weight of a live substance.

The growth and development have following conformity in natural laws

1. Than younger is organism, the more intensively are processes of growth and developments are.

In the age of 3 months growth and development take 36 % of energy, in 6 months - 26 %, in 9 months - 21 %.

In the age of from 1 till 3 years the basic metabolism is - 58-60 in kcal/day/ Kg.

From 3-year age about 25 kcal/ day/ Kg.

are reduced. The weight of a brain of a newborn becomes 12 % of body mass, and of an adult only 2 %.

By the end of the first leaving year a height increases till 47 %, on the second one till 13 %, for the third till 9 %. In the age of 3-7 years the annual increase is 5-7,5 % per year.

The greatest increase of a body mass is in the first year of life, to 4-5 months is doubled, up to 1 year three times; the next years it is a intensity of increase body mass is decreased and again increases in the puberty.

2. The growth and development processes proceed non-uniformly (heterochronism).

Every age has it’s morfofunctional features. Heterochronism of functional system development depends on adaptive abilities of an organism during separate periods of ontogenesis. The periods of intensive growth does not correspond with the periods of an intensified differentiation. Depending the data of age morphology and physiology exploration periods of intensified growth are accompanied by rather slowly processes of differentiation and, on the contrary, the intensified differentiation causes growth retard (ri ’ ta:d).

There is a significant increase of head mass and a spinal cord In the first leaving year. The brain mass of a newborn changes from 355 up to 390 g. By the end of the first year the brain increases in 2-2,5 times, by 3-rd years it is tripled (triplid) , averaging 1100g., in 7 years achieves 1250 g and further grows insignificantly. The brain mass of an adult person is about 1400g. Further a differentiation and development of the brain’s functions have been originating.

During of the growth proportions of a body are changed. The child from bigheaded, short-legged, long trunk gradually turns to small-headed, long-legged, and short trunk.

3. Sexual dimorphism.

The average basic body’s dimensions of newborn boys more than girls one. Such rates are kept till puberty. Puberty is accompanied by endocrinal reorganization and significant intensified of the growth and development processes. The body weight and height intensively increases. In 12-13 years growth, weight of a body, a circle of a thorax at girls exceed those at boys. There is a cross of the age curves of these parameters. From the moment of the beginning of the period of puberty of boys (13-14 years) growth of them sharply amplifies, and by 14-15 years they again overtake girls. Also the weight of a body similarly varies.

4. The specific features reflecting biological age.

Biological age-it is a reaching development level. Criteria of biological age are:

  • growth and its annual increase

  • quantity of a constant teeth

  • development of secondary sexual attributes

  • ossification of bones (distant departments of a forearm, a brush - it is determined by X-ray examining).

Biological normal maturing - biological age outruns or back lags (arrested development) out of the chronological one no more than for 12 months - biological age corresponds chronological one.

The slowed down and accelerated biological maturing – it is an unfavorable state of the organism and is considered as functional deviations.

The acceleration - acceleration of the rate of growth and development of a children’s organism in comparison with rate of growth and development of previous generations. The process is global. Any theory could not explain one . The most logical explanation: the acceleration is consequence in biology of a modern person, which is formed under influence of a complex of different factors.

Main hygienic problems of the acceleration:

1. Rejuvenation of diseases.

2. Possibility of earlier started working age at unhealthy trade, call to military service, as well as age of the matrimony (‘metrimeni). We refute this possibilities by the following evidence: despite the acceleration process young people have not proper biological and social reserves of the adaptation and continue to be sensitive to influencing adverse factors and conditions.

3. Regular revision of physical development, nutrition , furniture, equipment standards , schools and preschool establishments projects etc.

For example which should be height of the staircase step in comprehensive school?

3. Principles of the assessment an individual and collective children’s health.

Modern theoretical and the applied medicine have been developing in a direction of perfection of diagnostics and illness treatment. Development of practical and highly effective technology for diagnostics of a health level and quality is a global problem of medicine. It is obvious, that methods of diagnostics of a health level should be directed to assessment of a child’s organism resistance level and its ability to urgent adaptation to emergency conditions, and also in development of the device for resistance and adaptation prognosis (prog’nusis) for long enough time period. Questions of health level assessment should be solved on a theoretical sufficiency and practical approachability in children and adolescent hygiene

The individual health level assessment is determined of the child by the following principles:

1. Health is assessed taking into account environment factors in which a child grows and develops.

  1. Presence or absence of chronic diseases or pathological conditions at the moment of assessment takes as a leading criterion for health.

  2. A level of child’s development is normal if it corresponds to age.

4. The deviation of functional parameters from regional age-sexual norm is considered as a risk factor of chronic pathology development.

5. Harmonious physical development is considered as morfofunctional basis of a high level of child’s health.

6. Health parameters average regional parameters are accepted within the limits its variation scope as specifications of individual . So, the complex individual assessment of children’s health is determined on medical examination in polyclinics, children's preschool establishments, schools, military registration and enlistment (in) offices, etc. Thus they are guided by the following parameters:

1. Presence or absence of chronic diseases.

  1. Harmonicity of physical development

  2. Nonspecific resistance level

4. Biological age.

Physical development of a child it is a complex morphofunctional indices which correspond processes of the growth, development, capacity for work and resistance to environmental adverse factors.

Physical development is characterized by the following indices:

1. Anthopometrical indices – correspond to the morphological component of the phisical development

2. Physiometrical - physiological one.

3. Somatoscopic -let to recognize adypopexis state, posture disoders (kyphosis, kyphoscoliosis, lordosis (lodo’sis) and lordoscoliosis, posttraumatic cicatrice (‘siketris) рубец and scares.

The physical development assessment of the harmonicity includes the measurement of the anthropometrical indices which should be compared to standard regional one. A variety of methods of children’s physical development assessment is related to various approaches to development of standard parameters and ways of comparison of the measured and standard parameters.

1. By the method of indices for determining standard body mass should be measured height and 100 minus. In case of the child having 75 sm height he should have negative standard body mass. This example demonstrate inability for usage indices method because in doesn’t take in account children’s organism features.

2. The method of standard deviations. By this method harmonicity is determined by comparison each of the measured antropometrica index and standard one. This method’s shortcoming is isolated assessment each index which doesn’t take into consideration natural their correlation.

3. The regression scales method. It removes (устранять ) of the method of standard deviations shortcoming недостаток . It is worked-out standards of the body mass and thoracic circumference for each unites changes of the height for each age-sex groups.

Physiological and hygienic substantiation of the day regime ( rei’ j: m) of children and adolescents.

The notion of the day regime includes duration, organization and distribution within a day of all kinds of activity, rest and food intake. These principles are proved ( u: ) by human supreme nervous activity and anatomic & physiological features conformity of the natural laws of the growing organism. The regime ,coordinates and regulates all sides of life, is an important factor providing normal physical and intellectual children & adolescent development. Rationally constructed and organized regime creates preconditions for optimum capacity for work, prevents overfatigue development, increases the general organism resistance. It is defined as the most important factor in the disease prevention. Regime by Pavlow it is a system unconditioned and conditioned reflexes (‘ri:fleks) leading to dynamic (dai) stereotype forming. Children and adolescent’s behavior by dynamic stereotype leads to most economic life activity way which minimal expenditure characterizing. Construction of the day regime should be based on the following principles:

1. It should include all necessary elements

2. Strong obligation of the regime, unreasonable changes are excluded .

3. Gradual passage to a new regime.

4.The requirement of a child for activity, directed towards satisfaction with vegetative requirements (dream, nutrition, stay on the fresh air, motional activity etc) first be satisfied and only after that would be used teaching time.

5. Duration of the separate regime moments should be depended on age: then more young a child, the more requirement for dream is at him/her, he/she should food intake , etc. is more often. In process of the central nervous system development and perfection requirement for this activity decreases and time is more for teaching process.

6. The separate kinds of activity making the regime should cause some strengthening of appropriate organs and systems that will develop, their training and preparation of an organism to new following dynamic stereotype forming.

It’s distinguished three types of the day regime for children and adolescents:

The delicating one – a few of irritants influencing on an child’s organism , they are monotonous and have minimal intensity. Activity of a child does not adequate adaptable opportunities of his/her organism; he/she is preserved against strengthening and efforts, i.e. from absolutely necessary factor of development. It is possible formed special child’s organism state It is called as a " hospitalism " syndrome: children have lag behind of physical and psychological development, and are become more infection influencing sensitive. In one’s turn it leads to diseases and death rate increasing.

The exhaustive one - a child is under too many different irritants of excessive intensity which may lead to overstrain of different organs and systems adaptation, cause their gradual exhaustion and following lag behind in development, pathology, in particular neuroses, blood pressure increasing, etc.

Stimulating or training-hardening one – Teaching loads increasing gradually that causes continuous and gradual functional reorganization of an organism as a result of which his adaptive mechanisms is developed, capacity for work is risen , health is become stronger.

The level of cell capacity for work of the cerebrum (se’ribrem) cortex is determined by a morphological and functional maturity of the nervous system. Therefore all kinds of activity and rest should be included in the regime corresponds to age features. Activity (its character and duration) should be feasible (‘fi:zebl) посильный and not exceed a limit of the cell capacity for the cerebrum cortex work, and rest - to provide their full functional restoration. This hygienic principle determine content of a regime and a daily budget of time.

The budget of time is considered as total duration of all regime moments which can be united in six basic components of the regime: dream, stay on air, educational activity, game activity, and rest at own choice, food intake , personal hygiene.

1. Sleep require more long sleep in comparison with age.

2. Stay on fresh air - the most effective. Efficiency of walks is caused raised oxy blood, improvement of oxidizing processes and tissue breath. Tonic influence on the cortex and subcortex formations of a stream of pulses acting from the receptors, incorporated in organs and tissues. Stay on air - effective remedy for organism hardening, preventive maintenance of ultra-violet insufficiency and hypodynamia. Depending on age of children of walk (their character and duration) has features. Stay on air of a child till 1, 5 years is his daytime dream. From 1,5 years when the act of walking is formed, walks gradually replacing dream are applied in a day mode. For children 2-3 years of age in the mode of preschool establishment two walks are provided, and the third one parents are recommended to carry out at home in the evening, walking the child before dream. General duration of stay on air should be not less than 4-4,5 hours. Then duration of walks is reduced and includes at schoolboys of elementary grades 3,5, middle – 3 h, senior - 2,5 h a day.

3. Educational lessons.

4. Game activity and rest at personal choice leads to rising of children’s positive emotions.

Influence of the environment factors, conditions and organization of training for a children's organism (from positions of the adaptive-trophic syndrome).

Teaching is a purposeful systematic process of mastering of the certain knowledge, skills. Teaching of schoolstudents is made in school environment, which is characterized by numerous parameters (pe’remite) of conditions and organization of the training. The organism of a child reacts to the school environment in a complex. Numerous chronic diseases, which are formed at children’s age, develop in process and as result of adaptation to the adverse environment. These reactions of adaptation at children have typical and universal character. They are shown in the form of vegetative reactions and reorganization of hormonal (‘homeunel) activity of an organism. So, many diseases origin as a reaction of dysadaptation.

The general adaptable reactions of an organism:

Stress – it is the systemic co-ordinating of the urgent adaptation mechanism resulting from any exogenous and endogenous strengthening is originated under the real or expectancy threat for homeostasis disturbances by human structural reserves urgent mobilization and expenditure.

This mechanism is very extravagant (ik’strevegent) and not completed depending on irritators , human organism strain, physiological and psychological reserves level. The main aim of this mechanism is the energetic and structural reserves directed transmission to the realizing present adaptive reaction functional system. Exhausting of human organism reserves but forming new adaptive functional system leading to body resistance increasing is the main contradiction of the stress as a physiological phenomenon. We should to seat aside the stress as a physiological phenomenon and other side it is a pathogenic mechanism nonspecific diseases forming. The main role in this effect belongs to sympathoadrenal (sim’’pethe edre’nel) system which activating one leading to stress and clinical syndrome starting up.

The task of preventive works at a school is to exclude action of superstrong and strong irritants, to minimize occurrence of average intensity ones and to transfer the school environment into the category of weak, possessing training influence irritants.

Physiological & hygienic substantiation of sanitary requirements to conditions and organization of education and training of children and adolescents in teaching and educational establishments of various types.

At a school the most difficult activity is realized for children.

For work out proper sanitary requirements to conditions and organization of the teaching process we should analyze of the following schoolchildren’s anatomic and physiological features:

  1. Respiratory system. Narrow respiratory tracts, vulnerability mucous, small vital lungs capacity, the thorax is little raised, edges cannot go down low, lung ventilation is insufficient.

  2. Digestive system. A narrow gullet, gentle mucous. Digesting ability of gastric juices insufficient, intestines has a weak mobility

  3. Musculoskeletal system. Bone tissues have many organic substances, a little mineral. Bends of a backbone appear by 7 years. Lumbar bends originated by the end of puberty. The muscular system is not perfect. In the muscular tissue it is not enough mantle fibers. Cannot keep for a long time a body in vertical position.

  4. Sight. Children are born farsighted (hypermetropic-haipo). The refracting system of an eye is located behind the retina (‘retine). The pressure of accommodation can lead to short-sightedness (myopia). The eye is formed till 10-12 years. Weakness of ciliary muscle. Inadequacy of anteroposterior parts of the eye. .

  5. Skin. It is immature, gentle. Bactericidal ability is low. A wide capillary network, Fast heat output. Fast overheating and cooling.

  6. Teeth. Very thin enamel (inemel). Karees is mediated from hairlines. Cracks leads to caries either.

  7. Low functional ability of the cortex cells.

  8. Insufficient internal guarding braking.

  9. Difficulty from excitation to inhibition processes transition and at the contrary.

  10. High emotional excitability, Inadequacy of emotional reactions. Tearfulness, aggression, sensitivity.

  11. The unbalance of nervous processes, prevailing of excitation process over inhibition one, weak processes of active internal inhibition .

All these features are substantiated requirements to the teaching conditions towards optimization microclimate, natural and artificial illumination, air gas structure, equipments and furniture arrangement under the state sanitary regulation.

Educational activity of children and adolescents is considered as the most difficult tasks for children.

Nervous cells of the cortex possess still rather low functionalities, therefore the big intellectual loadings can caused their exhaustion. Besides one for successful teaching presence of steady concentration of cortex excitation is necessary. To children, especially younger school age, It causes difficulty of concentration of attention on the educational task at lessons. Study also demands of long preservation of the compelled working pose creating significant loading on musculoskeletal system of children. In the schoolstudents’ day regime a ratio between dynamic and static (stetik) loads sharply changes aside prevalence of the most tiresome (taiesem) static component.

Under the intensive and long cerebration loads at schoolboys the fatigue is developed. It’s biological value double: on the one hand, it is protective, guarding reaction from an excessive exhaustion of an organism, and on another hand it is a stimulator of regenerative processes and increases of its functionalities. There are various treatments of exhaustion and sights at the mechanism of its occurrence. Fatigue - physiological reaction of an organism to loading. Changes accompanying fatigue have temporary character and disappear without special influences on an organism during rest or at change of activity.

Russian explorers as I.M.Setchenov, N.E.Vvedensky, A.A.Ukhtomsky's have shown, the reason of the fatigue is change of central nervous system activity.

I. P. Pavlov related the fatigue with a functional and energetic exhaustion. The limit of capacity for work of a neuron changes with the age, depends on a state of health, such as the supreme nervous activity, the accompanying diseases, and also working character and intensity. By V.V.Rozenblat the fatigue level corresponds not only intensity of work, but also those conditions in which it is made. Light exposure and air - thermal regime, the organization of a job placement, etc. Undoubtedly un’dautidli бесспорно development of the fatigue corresponds also to study attitude , motivation and the will efforts.

The fatigue at children develops in two stages. First weakens active internal braking, excitability raises. There is an impellent anxiety. The second stage is connected to easing processes of excitation and amplification of the braking processes. There is reduction in power, speed and accuracy of work, lengthening of the latent period of reflex reactions.

Attributes of the fatigue:

1. Reduction of the work efficacy (increase in number of mistakes and wrong answers)

2. Deterioration of physiological functions regulation.

3. Occurrence of weariness (‘vierines) feeling.

Restoration of the capacity for work is promoted by productive leisure (‘leze) time , stay on fresh air, switching of activity, and also positive emotions

However, at during schoolstudents teaching time it can be observed not only exhaustion, but also overfatigue. Overfatigue causes deeper and proof changes in an organism at intensive or long work on a background of incomplete restoration of capacity for work. Changes in behavior of a schoolstudents are considered as initial attributes of overfatigue.

Syndrome of the expressed overfatigue:

1. Sharp and durative reduction in intellectual and physical capacity for work..

2. Quantity of mistakes are increased.

3. All kinds of reaction are retarded .

4. Impellent activity and excitability are increased..

6. Feeling of tiredness, apathy (‘epethi), vegetative reactions arrhythmia, vegetodysthenic syndrome are originated.

7. Infringement of sleep, bad appetite ‘epitait.

8. Absence of ability to carry out even usual easy loadings.

10. Reduction in resistibility of an organism to influence of the environment adverse factors.

The organization of educational process should be planned in view of physiological principles of change of the children and adolescent capacity for work. At the beginning capacity for work is risen (the development capacity for work phase, warming-up), then it keeps at a high level (the high and steady capacity for work phase), and is gradually reduced (the decreasing capacity for work phase or fatigue).

In the phase of the fatigue three zones are allocated: incomplete compensation, a final impulse and progressive falling.

The general requirements to a teaching schedule :

  1. The academic load should correspond to dynamics of the schoolstudents capacity for work.

  2. Loadings should increase gradually to the middle of a quarter, a lesson, week, and an educational purposes..

  3. Ob’servance of the limiting academic load established by the state within a week.

  4. Alternation of lessons on a degree of their difficulty.

  5. Alternation of static and dynamic loading

Hygienic teaching aspects of 6-years schoolchildren.

  1. Readiness (‘redinis) for scooling (« a school maturity ») at session of the special commissions is determined in territorial out - patient clinics.

  2. They should have classes only in the first shift.

  3. Academic load is no more 20 hours a week

  4. Within a day no more then 4 lessons in up to 35 minutes.

  5. The period of the letter duration up to 10 minutes.

  6. They can concentrate attention no more than 15 minutes.

  7. Obligatory game elements.

  8. Up to lessons and in the middle one a brake should be.

  9. At the end of lessons - game on fresh air.

  10. 2-hour daytime dream.

  11. Conditions of training should come nearer as much as possible to optimum.

Physiological & hygienic substantiation of preventive maintenance system of the skeleton and sight infringement deformations for schoolstudents.

In the nineteenth century the wide circulation concept has received about most frequently school illnesses as enevitable and accompanying of the teaching process. Such diseases and pathological conditions which are wide spread among schoolstudents and which frequency naturally grew from elementary grades to grown-ups (short-sightedness, infringement of bearing, neurasthenia, anemia, etc.) have been related to school illnesses.

F.F.Erisman in St.Petersburg has detected at inspection of learning seventh classes about 42,8 % shortsighted. Now the number shortsighted among learning senior classes makes 27,3 %. The general percent of shortsighted children on village is equal 11,5, city of 18 %. In the age of 18-25 years its densities reaches 28,7 %.

During inspection of learning comprehensive schools myopia has been detected in 15 % of girls and at 12 % of boys. At schools with the raised visual loading (mathematical, with teaching in foreign language) the number of pupils suffering myopia which reaches 25 %.

In country locality locomotor disturbances occur approximately in 13% and city locality 18% cases .Posture disoders and spinal curvature (‘ke:vetche) are resulted from furniture size and childrens’ height disparity. Furniture for schoolstudents should correspond anatomic and phisiological features one. School furniture should be simple by construction, light by weight, innocuous (i’nekjues) безобидный , resistance to disinfectant using and correspond their purpose. Most important school furniture charachteristic is correct body pose providing. Respiratory, digestive systems, acoustical and visual analyzers are considered as a correct position of a body if at it stable equilibrium is kept. During writing a pose for an organism is less fatiguing at which the gravity centre of a trunk, situating between 9 and 10 chest vertebral bodies, is directly above a plane formed by the areas of a support - sciatic tuberas and iliac bones. Thus, the line of weight crosses a bench behind the hip joint. At pose a head is a little bit inclined forward, eyes are on distance of length of a forearm and a brush with the extended fingers from a writing-book. The humeral belt keeps horizontal position, forearms and brushes of hands symmetrically settle down on a table, the trunk is removed on 3-5 sm (thickness of a brush of hands of a schoolboy) from table edge. In order to prevent pressure of the blood vessels located in popliteal подколенный area, not less than 2/3 and no more 3/4 lengths of a hip lay on sitting.

At a correct pose there is enough of the support areas (a seat, bench’s back, a floor and a footstep) that reduces a muscular pressure and an opportunity of premature exhaustion. It is Known following posture disorders: left or right side scoliosis - spinal curvature is in thoracic spinal part (the side of the curvature is determined by apex curvature side); kyphosis - anterior-posterior spinal curvature in neck spinal part; lordosis- it is in thoracolumbar or lumbosacral spinal curvature. Origins of these disorders ore determined by total health factors depends, but pathogenetic factor is not corresponding schoolfurniture seating . Posture disorders is the not inoffensive безобидный state. Please imagine the spine as a knitting needle at which internal organs are suspended. Any disturbances at this one leads to internal organ conditions suspending disorders and adults internal organs diseases are resulted from these hazard factors.

Myopia (short-sightedness) is rather a widespread chronic disease at which refracting ability of an eye or a frontal - back axis of an eye (axial short-sightedness) is lengthened . Among schoolstudents there is combined short-sightedness at which both length of an axis are increased, and refracting force more often. If to take into account, that among children sick of various diseases. More shortsighted preventive actions should promote decrease in short-sightedness. Development of short-sightedness directly depends on conditions of environment and can be connected to over fatigue at visual work, it is especial at insufficient light exposure of work places, wrong arrangement of furniture, preparation of home assignments in the conditions, which are not adequate to hygienic requirements.

As a protection of children’s sight is a wide complex of generally-medical, hygienic and ophthalmologic measures , providing creation of optimum conditions for development of visual system and promoting the prevention, early revealing and treatment of the eye pathology. The favorable light regime should promote preservation of the general and visual capacity for work during teaching process, to interfere with fast fatigue eyes and occurrence of the frustration of sight connected to it, in particular to short-sightedness.

Importance of a problem is defined also by that in process of growth and development of an organism there are growth of an eye and development of its refracting system, which come to the end by 9-10 years.

Short-sightedness is formed under influence of a complex of numerous adverse factors, composite combination of internal and external factors. Thus, in some cases determining influence is rendered with conditions of environment.

For clear vision of the subject it is necessary, so that rays from separate points of it would be focused on the retina. This function is carried out with refracting environments of an eye. In usual conditions refracting eye power of a child provides focusing of the rays acting from far located subjects. Close subjects thus are visible vaguely (veigli) because the rays from them are focused behind the retina. Clearly to see close subjects it is necessary to increase the refracting eye power. From here it becomes clear why simultaneously it is impossible to see far and close subjects clearly. The adaptation of an eye to clear vision of variously removed subjects refers as accommodation. The curve (ke:v) of a crystalline lens depends on interaction of forces, elasticity of its structures and the elasticity arising in the ciliary device and sclera to which the ciliary’s ligament is attached. The mechanical sclera tension in turn depends on intraocular pressure. As its usual fibers of a ligament are tense, the form of a crystalline lens less convex, than its properties of elastic elements. In regulation of a tension of the ciliary’s device conducting value belongs to a ciliary’s muscle. In it there are two types of fibres: meridian and circular. Meridian fibres are pulled from a place of transition of a cornea in sclera up to Zinn’s legament , Zinn’s legament and at their excitation the tension Zinn’s legament "is removed". The tension of the ligament actively decreases and at reduction of circular fibres. So, under influence of elastic power of the crystalline lens its curve is increased. At the maximal curve of a crystalline lens the point of the nearest maximum of vision of an eye is on distance 7 sm. The ciliary muscle is innervated by parasympathetic fibers of oculomotorius nerve at which excitation of eyes starts to see close-located subjects clearly. In connection with that for vision of the subjects which are taking place nearby the ciliary muscle should be in the reduced condition, so that, for example, at long reading an eye start to get tired.

The general principles of preventive maintenance.


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