Ученым Советом Донецкого национального медицинского университета им. М. Горького как учебное пособие icon

Ученым Советом Донецкого национального медицинского университета им. М. Горького как учебное пособие




НазваУченым Советом Донецкого национального медицинского университета им. М. Горького как учебное пособие
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Theme: METHOD OF HYGIENIC ASSESSTMENT OF TEMPERATURE-HUMIDITY CONDITIONS OF ROOM AND MOBILITY OF AIR.

Topicality of theme. The organism of man is exposed to influence of different factors of environment, from which an important role belongs to such factors as temperature, humidity, mobility of air. The sharp changes of the indicated factors can be favour the development in the organism unfavorable processes violating a health and reducing a efficiency. Cycling of these factors influence essentially on the change of terms of heat loss. A high temperature and humidity at low mobility of air hamper the return of heat by evaporation and convection. At the temperature of air, near to the temperature of body, a return is warm by convection and radiation is almost halted because of diminishment of difference between the temperature of skin and environment. The higher relative humidity, the evaporation from the surface of skin more difficulty.

The rate of movement of air has also greate influence on the heat exchange of organism. It is expressed in the increase of heat loss by convection and acceleration of return warm by evaporation. Perfection of human’s thermoregulatative mechanisms allows to adapt to different environmental condition and affect deviation of the indicated factors during the shortest term . The long-term Intensity of thermoregulation causes violation of thermal equilibrium of organism, that can cause harm to the health.

The decision of question of optimization of the temperature-humidity conditions and mobility of air in the room is possible on condition of determination and hygienic assessment of indexes. It is necessary to master the method of study of indexes of the temperature-humidity conditions and mobility of air for this purpose that determines Topicality of theme.

^ General purpuse: To know how to determine and assest indices which characterized temperature-humidity conditions and air mobility in premises. Workout recommendations of their optimization.

Goals:

^ Goals of initial level:

To know how to

1. Determine factors, influencing on a temperature, humidity and air speed of movement in the room. 2. Cchoose points for measuring of air temperature, determine the indexes of temperature condition, give them hygienic assestment.

3. Determine the indexes of humidity of air, give hygienic assestment of relative humidity.

4. Determine the rate of movement of air, ventilation rate and give them hygienic assessment. Build a windrose.

5. Assestment the indexes of the temperature-humidity conditions, rates of movement of air and their influence on an organism. To develop recommendations on their normalization.

1. Take temperature of air and determine the indexes of humidity by a calculation method (department of physics). 2. Assest the processes of thermoregulation of organism at thermal and cold influence (department of physiology).

For verification of level of mastering of initial knowledges-abilities you decide next tasks for self-training and self-control.


Task 1.

It is necessary to take temperature of air in the room of dormitory. Choose a device for determination of temperature.

  1. Hygrograph.

  2. Anemometer.

  3. Barograph.

  4. Hygrometer.

  5. Thermometer.


Task 2.

A man works at the temperature of air 35 0С and moderate humidity. Indicate the primary way of return of heat by an organism.

  1. By convection.

  2. By the radiation.

  3. By evaporation.

  4. Conduction.

  5. By breathing.



Task 3.


At the study of terms of labour workings are set, that temperature of air in a workshop 35 0С, relative humidity 75 %, rate of movement of air 0,65 m/s. What changes of processes of thermoregulation are most credible in these terms?

  1. Heat loss by evaporation will be increased.

  2. Heat loss by the radiation will be increased.

  3. Heat loss by convection will be increased.

  4. Heat loss by conduction will be increased.

  5. The processes of thermoregulation will provide thermal balance.



Task 4.

In the production apartment temperature of air 27 0С, relative humidity 75 %, rate of movement of air - 0,1 m/s. What most substantial way of return warm by an organism in these terms?

  1. By convection.

  2. By the radiation.

  3. By evaporation.

  4. By conduction.

  5. By breathing.

Task 5.

Temperature of air is 20 0С, relative humidity 40 %, rate of movement of air 0,25 m/s in the dwelling apartment. What changes of processes of heat exchange between an organism and environment are most credible in these terms?

  1. The processes of heat exchange will provide thermal balance.

  2. Heat loss by evaporation will be increased.

  3. Heat loss by convection will be increased.

  4. Heat loss by evaporation will be decreased.

  5. Heat loss by convection will be decreased.


Standards of initial level control tasks answers: task 1 - 5, task 2 - 3, task 3 - 1, 3.decide the other tasks independently.


Information necessary for forming of initial level of knowledges-abilities can be found in the following textbooks:

  1. Физиология человека: Учебник под ред. В.М. Покровского, Г.Ф. Коротько. - М.: Медицина, 1998. - т. II. - С. 130-139.

Филимонов В.И. Нормальная физиология: Учебник. - Киев: Здоровье, 1995. - С. 276-283.

^ CONTENTS OF TEACHING

  1. Гігіена та єкологія. Підручник. / За редакцією В.Г.Бардова.- Вінниця: Нова Книга, 2006.- С. 71-93

  2. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Профілактична медицина. Загальна гігієна з основами екології. - Київ: Здоров'я, 1999. - С. 106-124.

  3. Даценко І.І., Денисюк О.Б., Долошицький С.Л. та ін. Загальна гігієна: Посібник для практичних занять. - Львів: Світ, 2001. - С. 6-31.

  4. Общая гигиена/ Под ред. Г.И. Румянцева, М.П. Воронцова. - М.: Медицина, 1990. - С. 79-85, 104-105

  5. Lectures on a theme.

  6. Count of logical structure (suppl. 1).

Additional literature:

  1. Габович Р.Д., Познанский С.С., Шахбазян Г.Х. Гигиена: Учебник. - Киев: Вища школа, 1983. - С. 36-40.

  2. Румянцев Г.И., Козлова Т.А., Вишневская Е.П. Руководство к лабораторным занятиям по общей гигиене. - Москва: Медицина, 1980. - С. 42-59.

Theoretical questions, which implementation of having a special purpose types of activity is possible on the basis of.

  1. Definition of the temperature-humidity conditions, the factors forming it.

  2. Influence on the organism of the temperature-humidity conditions. Physiological mechanisms providing thermal stability of organism.

  3. Indexes of temperature condition in the apartment, method of their determination and assesstment.

  4. Humidity of air in the apartment, the indexes characterizing it. Method of determination and assessment of relative humidity of air.

  5. Hygienic value of mobility of air, indexes, methods of their determination and assesstment. Types of ventilation, its hygienic value. Methods of assesstment of ventilation. Air cube and its ground.

  6. Windrose. Construction and practical use.

Reference basis of activity

After mastering of the listed questions get to know an algorithm (suppl. 2), study instructions on determination of rate of movement of air, concentrations of carbon dioxide in room air (suppl. 3,4). For verification of mastering of material you are suggested to decide next tasks.

Tasks of teaching type

Task 1.

Windows are oriented to the south in the designer bureau of project institute , temperature of air 27 0С, rate of movement of air 0,2 m/s, ventilation is natural. What factor influences on the rate of movement of air in the room?

  1. Change of humidity.

  2. Illumination.

  3. Insolation.

  4. Work of the ventilation system.

  5. Temperature of internal wall.

Task 2.

It is necessary to take temperature of air and its overfalls on a vertical line and horizontal line in the room of dormitory. Choose points for setting of stands with thermometers.

  1. Along an outward wall in 3th points.

  2. Along an outward wall in 2th points.

  3. Bias rooms in 3th points.

  4. In the center of room.

  5. In 4th points on the corners of room.

Task 3.

The cases of cold diseases became more frequent among the employees of establishment. The indexes of the temperature-humidity conditions were studied in connection. Results of researches: middle temperature of air 20 0С, overfalls on a vertical line 2 0С on 1 m of height, on a horizontal line 2 0С, daily allowance overfalls 6 0С, relative humidity 60 %. What from the listed indexes fall short of to the hygienic norms?

  1. Daily allowance overfalls.

  2. Overfalls on a vertical line.

  3. Overfalls on a horizontal line.

  4. Relative humidity.

  5. Middle temperature of air.

Task 4.

There was a necessity to assesst a microclimate in the nursery group of child's combine. What device is it possible to measure the rate of movement of air by?

  1. Katathermometer.

  2. Actinometer.

  3. Сup anemometer.

  4. Psychrometer.

  5. Propeller anemometer.

Task 5.

Temperature of air in an audience 20 0С, relative humidity 40 %, rate of movement of air 0,3 m/s. Assesstment a microclimate.

  1. Microclimate favourable.

  2. Microclimate unfavorable.

  3. Humidity is increased.

  4. The rate of movement of air is low.

  5. The temperature of air falls short of to the norm.

Task 6.

Temperature of air is 20 0С in the room of dormitory, relative humidity 40 %, rate of movement of air 0,2 m/s. Assesst the explored indexes.

  1. All indexes within the limits of norm.

  2. The temperature of air is rationed within the limits of 25-28 0С.

  3. The temperature of air is assumed within the limits of 22-26 0С.

  4. Relative humidity is low.

  5. The rate of movement of air is assumed within the limits of 0,5 m/s.



Task 7.

It is necessary to define relative humidity for assesstment of the temperature-humidity conditions in an educational room . What device is it necessary to use in this case?

  1. Psychrometer.

  2. Anemometer.

  3. Katathermometer.

  4. Actinometer.

  5. Luxmeter.



Task 8.

The system of forced ventilation give 100 m3 fresh air for 1 hour in the room measuring 4 м on 5 м, in high 2,5 m . Determine multiple ventilation in the apartment.

A. 0,5 B. 1,0 C. 1,5 D. 2,0 E. 3,0

Task 9

There are 20 students of a 11 class in the class room. Sizes of room: area 50 м2, height 3 м. Specify necessary minimum ventilation rate in a class room:

A. 0,5 B. 1,5 C. 2,0 D. 4,0 E. 4,9

Task 10

There are 10 students of a 10 class in a laboratory room. Sizes of room: area 40 м2, height 3,1 м. Specify necessary minimum ventilation rate in a class room:

And. 0,5 B. 1,5 C. 2,0 D. 3,0 E. 5,0


Key: 1 - 4, 2 - 3, 3 - 1. Solve other tasks independently.

Concise methodical reccomendations for study

Theme is planned for 6 hours (2 lessons).

The initial level test control and its correction is carried out at the beginning of each lesson. Students determine the indices of the temperature and humidity regime at the first lesson, assess the given results and work-out recommendations to their improvement.

Students master the method of speed of air movement dimension by the method of anemometry and catathermometry ,determine the carbon dioxide concentration in air by the Prokhorov method, assess efficiency of ventilation, ventilation rate using situational tasks at the second lesson. Students plot windrose, assess the given results and work out proper recommendations.

The final test check and work out the totals of lesson is carried out on a finishing stage .


^ Technological card of the practical lesson




Stages

Time, minutes.

Educational devices

Place of conducting










Teaching aids

Equipment of employment




1.

Checking and correction base line level(orally)

15

Control questions




Labotary departments

2.

Independent work:

70

educational tables, norms

Devices: thermometers, the psychrometer, tables, Syringe, catathermometer, reagents, anemometers, situation task, thermograph




3

Analysis and correction results of the independent work

30

educational tables







4

Test control

15

test tasks







5.

Generalization of work and assesstment

5












Suppl. 1

Graph of logical structure of the theme:

"Method of hygienic assessment of the temperature-humidity regime of room and air movement".

Temperature-humidity regime and air movement



Factors determining the state of the temperature-humidity regime and air movement



External


Description of premises


Influence on an organism



Indices



Temperature regime

Relative humidity of air

Air movement





Middle air temperature

differential by a vertical section

and by a horizontal secction

Daily differential


Air-wall differential


Direction


Speed







Devices


anemometers






thermometer


thermograph


psychrometer

hygrograph

catathermometer







Determination methods


anemometry



thermometry

thermography

psychrometry

hygrography


katathermometry









Assessment of indices and making out recommendations


Suppl. 2


^ TACTICAL ALGORITHM

studies and assessment of premises temperature-humidity regime, air movement and ventilation in premises


Study of the temperature-humidity regime and air movement



Measuring of temperature in 3th points diagonally at hight 0,5 m, 1,0 m, 1,5 m



Measuring of outward wall temperature




Determination of temperature differential

by vertical section, by horizontal section, air-wall



Determination of air humidity (absolute, maximal, relative)



Determination of air momentum by catathermometer, by anemometer, calculation of ventilation multiple



Determination of СО2 maintenance in air of room at the begin and at end of lesson



Given results assessment




Recommendations making out


Suppl. 3


Recommended values of indexes of the temperature- humidity regime and mobility of air in the apartments


№ п/п

Name of indexes

Recommended values

A.

Level of temperatures,

°C

1.

Class room

18-20

2.

Inhabitans rooms

18-20

B.

Gradient of temperatures

°C

1.

On a horizontal level

2

2.

On a vertical level(at each 1 meter of height)

2,5

3.

Daily gradient (at centre Heating)

3

4.

Gradient of temperature between internal surface of external wall and air by distance 10 cm

5

C.

Relative humidity of air

30-60 %

D.

Speed of movement of air in a room

0,2-0,5 m/s

Е.

Ventilation rate

2-5,5 time per hour



* - for the public and administratively-domestic rooms with the permanent sojourn of people permissible temperature no more 28°С, and for districts with the calculation temperature of external air of 25°С and higher - no more 33°С.

** - for the public and administratively-domestic apartments with the sojourn of people in an outerwear the possible temperature 14°С.

Suppl. 4

Form of record of results of determination of indices of temperature condition (°С)


Height of measuring of indexes (м)

Points of measuring of indexes bias

Gradient on a horizontal level




at a window

in the center of room

near internal wall




1,5













1,0













0,5













Gradient on a vertical line















The middle temperature of air in the room is the arithmetic average of all nine values of temperature given at measuring.

Gradients of temperatures:

on a horizontal level is difference of temperatures of air, measured at a window and near internal wall on every height;

on a vertical level is difference of temperatures of air in every point on height of 1,5 and 0,5 м.

Dayly gradient of temperatures is the difference of minimum and maximal temperature during day.

Gradient of the temperatures «air-wall» is difference between the temperature of air in the distance 20 cm from the outward wall of room and temperature of the same wall on height of 1,0 - 1,5 м.

№ п/п

Index name

Method of determination

1.

Absolute humidity ( R)

Calculation on the Shprung formula: R= f - 0,5*(t - t1)* В/755

2.

Maximal humidity (F)

Tabular

3.

Relative humidity (W)

Tabular by psychrometer or calculation (W=R/F*100%)

4.

Deficit of saturation

Calculation (F - R)

5.

Physiological gradient of saturation

Calculation (F (37° with) - R)

6.

Dew point

Tabular

Denotations:

f is maximal air humidity (mm. Hg. bar) at the temperature of wet thermometer of psychrometer (the number is determined by special table),

t is temperature of dry thermometer(°С),

t1 is temperature of wet thermometer(°С),

B is barometric pressure (mm. Hg. bar)

Suppl. 6

^ Direction to determination of air velocity in a closed room

Determination of air velocity with the use of ball catathermometer is carried out as follows: the reservoir of catathermometer is put into water with the temperature 60-70 0С; thus painted spirit solution rises up to 2/3 upper reservoir, whereupon catathermometer is taken out and wiped dry; time, for which an alcohol will go down from 40 0С to 33 0 C, is noticed.

Cooling ability of air settles accounts:

Н = [F/3 * (Т1 - Т)]/ A, where

F is catathermometer factor( indicated on a device, means amount of millicalorie heats, which is lost from a 1 cm 2 reservoir surface of this device);

Т1 - Т is difference of temperatures of the chosen interval, degree;

A is time in seconds, during which catathermometer cools down from

40 0С to 33 0С.

Air velocity settles accounts on a formula:



where V is speed of air movement in m/s,

^ H is cooling ability of air in mcal/s,

Q is difference between the middle temperature of body (36,5 0С) and taken temperature of air in the room.

Determination of mobility of air is possible on the special table on a value .

Table for determination of air movement speed on a ball catathermometer

H / Q

V

H / Q

V

H / Q

V

0,33

0,048

0,50

0,44

0,67

1,27

0,34

0,062

0,51

0,48

0,68

1,31

0,35

0,077

0,52

0,52

0,69

1,35

0,36

0,09

0,53

0,57

0,70

1,39

0,37

0,11

0,54

0,62

0,71

1,43

0,38

0,12

0,55

0,68

0,72

1,48

0,39

0,14

0,56

0,73

0,73

1,52

0,40

0,16

0,57

0,80

0,74

1,57

0,41

0,18

0,58

0,88

0,75

1,60

0,42

0,20

0,59

0,97

0,76

1,65

0,43

0,22

0,60

1,00

0,77

1,70

0,44

0,25

0,61

1,03

0,78

1,75

0,45

0,27

0,62

1,07

0,79

1,79

0,46

0,30

0,63

1,11

0,80

1,84

0,47

0,33

0,64

1,15

0,81

1,89

0,48

0,36

0,65

1,19

0,82

1,94

0,49

0,40

0,66

1,22

0,83

1,98

Suppl. 7

Determination of the СО2 concentration in air.


Principle of method is based on reacting of coloured phenolphthalein solution of sodium carbonate Na2CO3 (alkaline medium) with the carbonic acid wich air containe. Solution is discoloured thus, because,all sodium carbonate turn into bicarbonate and the alkaline medium of solution passes to sour.

For СО2 in a syringe with a 20 ml working solution of the sodium carbonate Na2CO3 the explored air is collected, whereupon 1 minute is shaken. If solution remained rose, air from a syringe push and collect a new portion of air and again shake 1 minute. Thus, we continue to add new portions of air to discoloration of solution. If solution was discoloured less than for 1 minute, experience is repeated with less of the explored air. In mid air we determine concentration of carbon dioxide on a table.


Dependence of the maintenance СО2 in air (%) on the volume of air, discolouring 20 ml 0,005% solution of sodium hydrocarbonate.

Volume of air, ml

СО2 amount

Volume of air, ml

СО2 amount

Volume of air, ml

СО2 amount

85

0,317

200

0,186

330

0,116

90

0,310

210

0,174

340

0,112

95

0,298

220

0,168

350

0,108

100

0,286

230

0,162

360

0,102

110

0,270

240

0,156

370

0,098

120

0,259

250

0,150

380

0,093

130

0,235

260

0,144

390

0,089

140

0,228

270

0,138

400

0,085

150

0,216

280

0,134

410

0,081

160

0,209

290

0,130

420

0,076

170

0,201

300

0,128

430

0,073

180

0,195

310

0,123

440

0,068

190

0,190

320

0,120

450

0,063



Suppl. 8

Indices of cleanness of room air


Charecteristic of air purity

СО2 percentage

Pure

under 0,07

Tolerable

0,07 - 0,1

Moderately polluted

0,1 - 0,15

Sharp polluted

More then 0,15

Atmospheric air

0,04


Suppl. 9

Indices characterizing ventilation in room





Index

Definition

Calculation

1.

Necessary volume of ventilation

Amount of fresh air, which is necessery for fan in a room per 1 person during 1 hour, for СО2 amount should be in standart limits

V = N * k, or V = N * 22,6 p - q

2.

Real volume of ventilation

Amount of fresh air, which really fan to a room

V1 = a * b * c

3.

Necessary ventilation rate

A number which shows how many times during 1 hour necessery to replace air of room, for СО2 amount should be in standart limits

K = V / V0 or

K = N * k

V0

4.

Real ventilation rate

Number which shows, how many times during 1 hour air of room really is changed or removed from a room

К1 = V1

V0

or К1 = а* b

V0


Table of symbols:

N - number of people being in a room,

k - air cube (volume of air per one person provided of rational room ventilation, which is equal 37,0 м3)

22,6 - the amount СО2, excreted by 1 person during 1 hour (l),

p - the maximum tolerance СО2 amount in a room(1 l/m3 or 0,1 %)

q – constant СО2 content in atmospheric air (0,4 l/m3 or 0,04 %)

a -area of the ventilating hole (m2)

b -speed of air movement in ventilating hole (m/s)

c -time,during which air fans in a room (second)

V0 - room volume (m3)

V - necessary volume of ventilation (m3)

V1- real volume of ventilation (m3)

Suppl. 10


Ploting of windrose


Task.

There is the following distributing of winds repetition by rhumbs in a settlement: N- 40, NE - 54, E - 24, SE - 28, S - 28, SW - 33, W - 46, SW - 92, calm - 20. Plot a windrose, determine prevailing direction of wind in the locality. Determine the windward and leewards sides.

It is necessery to draw lines of rhumbs for windrose ploting. Measure off distances from point of their crossing which should correspond to frequency of winds repetition (according to a scale, taking into account the amount of days in a year, when proper direction of wind was marked). Distances which are marked should be united by lines.A calm on the windrose is plotted as circle which origin due to uniting constant distance by all rhumbs.


NW N NE










W E




SW S SE


In this settlement prevailing direction of winds is north-west. The north-west part of settlement is considered as windward side, south-east – leeward side.

Theme: METHOD OF HYHIENIC ASSESSTMENT OF COMPLEX INFLUENCING OF MICROCLIMATE ON HUMAN ORGANISM.


^ Topicality of theme. Man needs constant body temperature for providing normal functioning of organism and uppermost «thermoregulatory nucleus», at which optimum enzymes of oxidizing-restoration reactions function and, as a result, optimum speed of exchange processes is made. Human organism exchanges heat with an environment. The thermal balance of an organism is set by condition of adequate relation of processes of physical thermoregulation (heat losss to external medium by convection, conduction, radiation, sweat evaporation) and chemical thermoregulation (heat-production in human organism).

Health state and age of man, his psychological state, hardness of the physical load change requirements to indices of microclimate. It is necessery reduced air temperature for patients with pathology of gland thyroid. Meanwhile higher temperature necessery to set for patients with burns, infant as well as for patients in naked state. Intensive physical load should fulfil in an adequate microclimate which is characterized by low temperature for providing optimal condition for excess heat loss.

On this basis it is possible to define the purpose of the study.

^ General purpose: To know how to assess influence of microclimate on human organism using objective and subjective methods.


Goals:

Goals of initial level:

To know how to




1. Define the objective indices of the thermal state of organism.

2. Define the subjective methods of determining of thermal state of organism.

3. Assess the microclimate in a room.

4. Assess complex influence of microclimate on an organism.

1.Take temperature of body and skin, arterial pressure, pulse rate, breathing frequency (department of physiology).

2.Determine ways of heat loss of organism of man at the change of indices of microclimate (temperature, humidity, rate of movement of air. Temperatures of surrounding surfaces).

Oriented bases for activities

After mastering the above problems acquaint yourself with algorithms which will allow you to muster professional skills in a more. To check knowledge of the given material do the following tasks.

^ Teaching type tasks:

Task 1.

Air temperature at a sauna and in Russian bathhouse is 95 °С. Air relative humidity in a sauna is 35%, and in a bath-house - 85%. Choose, where (at a sauna or bathhouse) and why a man is more tolerant to air high temperature as:

A. At a sauna, because excess of heat loss by convection more intensive.

B. At a bathhouse, because excess of heat loss by convection more intensive.

C.At a sauna, because excess of heat loss by evaporation more intensive.

D.At a bath-house, because excess of heat loss by evaporation more intensive.

E.At a bath-house, because excess of heat loss by the radiation more intensive.

Task 2.

It is necessary to assess the human`s thermoregulation state, choosing necessery parameters of microclimate which are used for assesstment of heat loss by radiation as:

A. Air temperature and relative humidity.

B. Air humidity and atmospheric pressure.

C. Direction and speed of air movement.

D. Atmospheric pressure by the sea level.

E. Temperature of surrounding surfaces.

Task 3.

It is necessary to assess the state of the human`s thermoregulation state, choosing necessery parameters of microclimate which are used for assesstment of heat loss by sweat evaporation as:

A. Air temperature ,humidity, velocity.

B. Air humidity, atmospheric pressure .

C. Air temperature, rate of movement.

D. Air temperature , atmospheric pressure.

E. Temperature of air and surfaces.

Task 4.

It is necessary to assess the state of the human`s thermoregulation state, choosing necessery parameters of microclimate which are used for assesstment of heat loss by convection as:

A. Air humidity, atmospheric pressure.

B. Air temperature,humidity, velocity.

C. Air temperature and air velocity.

D. Air temperature, atmospheric pressure.

E. Temperature of air and surfaces.

Key: 1 - C, 2 - E. Solve the other tasks independently.

Information necessary for forming of initial level of knowledges-abilities can be found in the following textbooks:

1. Нормальна фізіологія /за ред. проф. В.І. Філімонова. - Київ: Здоров'я, 1994. - С. 422-428.

2. Посібник з нормальної фізіології / за ред. проф. В.Г. Шевченка, проф. Д.Г. Налівайко. - Київ: Здоров'я, 1995. - С. 199-222, 264-284, 316-328.

3. Фізіологія людини / Під ред. чл.-кор. АМН СССР Г.І. Косицкого. - М.: Медицина, 1985. - С. 396-402.
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