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ЗмістSpecific purposes Purposes of initial level of knowledge
Tasks for control of initial level of knowledge
The educational tasks
Test with maximum breath delay
The task for the control of final level of knowledge
Short methodical instructions
Technological map of the study mechanisms and changes of respiration phases
Mechanisms and changes of respiration phases. regulation of respiration.
Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine
M. Gorky Donetsk National Medical University
MECHANISMS AND CHANGES OF RESPIRATION PHASES. REGULATION OF RESPIRATION.
Methodical instructions for students
MECHANISMS AND CHANGES OF RESPIRATION PHASES. REGULATION OF RESPIRATION.
Actuality of subject: Importance of studying the topic “Mechanisms and changes of respiration phases. Regulation of respiration” consists in understanding of interaction and correlation of organs, structures and physiological systems, taking place in the processes of gas exchange on different stages and levels. Change of excitability of the respiratory center can manifest in external respiration disorder. The knowledge of mechanisms of respiration regulation is necessary for a therapeutist to understanding the genesis of some states and diseases.
Common purpose: To be able to interpret the mechanisms of respiration regulation for understanding their role in forming the integrity activity of organism and for further use of this knowledge in the clinic of internal diseases.
To be able to:
You must decide some tasks in order to reveal your initial level of knowledge-skill:
Man died of fighting poisoning agent which selective damaged only brain structures which took part in respiration regulation. After dyeing by histological paint such brain damaged structures acquired brightly-blue colour. Which brain structures were stolen?
1) Fundus of IV ventricle.
3) Vestibular nuclei.
4) Black substance.
Task # 2. During autopsia of a cadaver who had died following a sudden stop of breathing. The hemorrhage in bottom of IV ventricle of medulla oblongata was revealed. Which formation on the bottom of IV ventricle was damaged?
Task # 3. A sportsman had involuntary deep breathing before the start. What caused the change of breathing?
If you decide previous tasks then you must decide following tasks independently.
Task # 4. Electrical activity of neurons increased before inspiration and in beginning of breathing in. Where were these neurons located?
Task # 5. The respiratory center structure was damaged during an experiment on an animal. It led to changes of normal breathing in to the resting change. Which part of the brain was damaged?
Task # 6. A 27 year old mountaineer was on the great height (5000 m). During sleep his breathing rhythm changed: after several deep enhalation the breathing was stopped and then he started breathing deeply again. What caused the breathing change in mountaineer?
Basic theoretical questions.
Textbook of medical physiology/Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall – 2001, 474- 493 Lectures .
Methodical recommendation for students.
Task # 1. An experimental animal spinal cord was cut higher IV cervical segment. What changes breathing occurred after spinal cord cutting on this level?
Task # 2. The influence of different factors on respiratory center was studied on the dog. Which factors of blood more stimulate the medulla oblongata receptors?
Task # 3. The mountaineer during ascent on mountain on altitude of 3 km felt headache, weakness, vertigo, heart rate decrease. What caused this state?
Task#4. At patient with diabetes mellitus during development of comatose condition very deep, rare and noisy respiration revealed. What type of disorder of pulmonary ventilation such breathing belong to?
If you decide previous tests then you must decide following tests independently.
Task # 5. A 15 years old boy jumped into river and he hit hard head the against bottom of river. The damage of cervical part of the vertebral column and phrenic nerves on both sides was arisen in that boy. How did it affect breathing?
Task # 6. The level of O2, CO2 and pH of blood was changed in a 25 year old young man after physical loading. Which factor was a stronger stimulus for the carotid sinus chemoreceptors?
Task # 7. Workers, who made cement, had an intensive cough reflex. What receptors were stimulated during this situation?
Task #8. At 80 year old after craniocerebral injury the convulsations appeared, short stop of respiration alternated with solitary inspiration. What type of respiration arose at patient?
Approximate basic of work.
Laboratory work # 1.
The study of defense respiratory reflex arising from the irritation nose of mucous membrane lay, of the upper respiratory tracts by ammonia. Normal pneumogram is writing down. A patient closes his eyes and you brings 5% solution of ammonia to his nose. Changes in pneumogram, reflex reaction and time of stop breathing are notes.
Laboratory work # 2.
Stange’s test with maximum breath delay after inspiration. After quite inspiration patient must close the nose and keep this state more longer as possible. Fix time of delay and notes result of experiment. Next test must repeat after 5 minutes only.
Genche’s test with maximum breath delay after expiration. After quite expiration patient must close the nose and keep this state more longer as possible. Fix time of delay and notes result of experiment. Next test must repeat after 5 minutes only.
Test with maximum breath delay after a deep inspiration after hyperventilation. For several seconds patient make hyperventilation: he must breath deeply and frequently. After deep inspiration patient must close the nose and keep this state more longer as possible. Fix time of delay and notes result of experiment.
Laboratory work # 3.
Spirographia in a state of rest and after physical loading. Make record of spirogram in rest and after short physical loading (20 squatting). After 20 squatting you must start recording of spirogram and determine the amount of O2 consumed, respiratory rate, minute ventilation volume of the lungs in the rest state and immediately after loading.
Task. During experiment the patient was long time in environment with low atmospheric pressure O2. What factors take part in adaptation of human organism to this condition?
А. Increasing in erythropoiesis.
В. Increasing in hemoglobin maintenance.
С. Increasing in pulmonary ventilation.
D. Deviation of dissociation cure of oxyhemoglobin to the right.
E. Firmness of nervous cells to hypoxia.
After organization part , in the beginning of study, after actualisation of topic pay attention to necessity to be able to interpret the mechanisms of nervous and humoral regulation of respiration in normal and pathological state.
After this the teacher ascertains initial level of knowledge-skill which received before.
After decision of teaching tasks students independent interpret the scheme of respiration regulation. After this you must explain physiologic importance of respiration regulation. During this students use table-train, graph - logical structure of topic (addition 1).
After this students decide teaching tasks which they receive from teacher.
Students with teacher modulate situation tasks on these topics. Teacher corrects mistake students’ actions.
Students carry out laboratory works independent. For consolidate the topic students see education film
After this students decide control tasks. Sum up of study and announcement marks.
^ . REGULATION OF RESPIRATION.
Addition 1. Graf logical structure of topic "^ ”.
Regulation of the breathing
Neuronal structure and organization
Regulation of rate and depth respiration
Methods of examination
Interpret of organism physiological state for further use this knowledge in clinic
Pathological types of breathing
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