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ЗмістSettlements and dwellings.
The power supply system.
2. World outlook representations
3. Calendar holidays and ceremonies
4. Family ceremonialism.
V. TRADITIONAL CULTURE OF THE UKRAINIAN PEOPLE
1. The basic employment and material culture,
Ukrainians are ethnos with ancient advanced agricultural culture. This employment has caused a traditional life and material culture, and also system of the basic holidays and ceremonies (which were calendar-agricultural); outlook and cultural values of our people.
Favorable climatic conditions, the fertile lands objectively promoted that in all historical-ethnographic zones of Ukraine (except Carpathians) plough agriculture became the basic branch of an economy, it was supplemented with truck farming and gardening. Animal breeding (animal husbandry) was connected with agriculture. Together with the basic making economy branches, ancient auxiliary employment - fishing and hunting - remained.
The traditional Ukrainian country economy was mainly natural. Family provided itself with all basic foodstuff. Many subjects of use also were made in domestic conditions. More difficult crafts turn to professional works (though handicraftsmen also conducted homestead land).
In a public life of the Ukrainian village till the end of XIX century as at Russian and Byelorussians, despite capitalism development, many patriarchal relations remained. A considerable place neighbour's community - "gromada" occupied. A lot of traditional collective forms of work were widespread.
Usually they passed voluntary in holidays without payment for the performed work. Neighbours, relatives, godfathers were participants of it. Thus., various field works (ploughed, sowed, reaped a crop, prepared hay) and homeworks (dug wells, built houses and other economic constructions; spun flax, a wool, prepared a foodstuff) were carried out. After the work had been performed a table was covered and the holiday started.
A self-management institute appeared in development of a rural community. First of all it was "general meeting" - general meeting of representatives from all households (similar institutes were at Russians and Byelorussians, they remained since times of the Kiev Rus). General meeting selected the head of village. If they hadn’t managed with their duties, they were re-elected ahead of time. At all stages of the existence the rural community carried out functions of protection and transfer of traditions. It supervised all aspects of life of peasants: watched preservation of morally-ethical and usually-rules of law. Though if to compare a rural community at Ukrainians and Russian, Russian had a stronger one. In Ukraine time-honoured relations had been essentially broken during national-liberation war of the middle of XVII century
^ There were three zones of rural settlements in Ukraine depending on natural -geographical, social and economic, historical conditions: northern, central and southern. For northern (Polesye, Volhynia) were typical multidomestic settlements of street type, in the central zone (the Ukrainian forest-steppe) till XVIII century free and irregular settlements had been extended., Street, radial, string and other kinds of the regular settlements created under projects arose with development of capitalist relations. In a southern zone which covers part of Slobozhanshina, Таvriya, coast of the Black and Azov seas, building was conducted mainly under projects of landowners or administration and had the quarter or nested form of a lay-out. Except многодворных settlements have been everywhere widespread also one-door - farm.
Country dwelling - the hut was pise-walled whitewashed from within and outside and consisted of two or three premises. The hut of poor was single-chamber. A floor did of clay, a roof covered with straw, a cane or a shingle. Process of building of a hut was the whole ritual, called to provide well-being of a family. The steadfast attention was given to a choice of a place of construction. The house could not be built at crossroads of roads, on places of burials. There was a custom to fill on a prospective site of a few grain. If next morning the small group had been disturbed, chose other place. Was desirable to begin building only on Tuesday or Thursday.
The interior of the Ukrainian dwelling, in the presence of local features in various historical-ethnographic areas, was same and is far not the casual. Centuries-old experience has caused rationality and an aesthetics of internal space. Each zone in the house had the appointment and corresponding conditions.
At an input in a hut, as a rule, at the left a mouth to the long party of the house the furnace - a lay-out basic element, settled down. It usually bleached and painted patterns (especially if in the house there was a marriageable daughter). Carrying out a number of the major practical functions, the furnace thus was the most mysterious and mysterious place in dwelling, the pagan centre of the Christian house. The set of customs has been connected with it . In an image of the family centre the furnace appeared in a courtship ceremony, when the girl a finger furnace whitewashing, as though asking protection at the darling. Leaving the native house, the bride carried away with itself some pieces of coal from the parent furnace. A slice oven обмазки put in a shirt which turned the newborn, protecting it from evil spirit. And after funeral the native kept for the furnace not to grieve on died (or not to be afraid of it). On representations of peasants the furnace was a place of transition from the usual world in secret. Being installed in the new house, the mistress on п to a shovel "transferred" house, living under the furnace. And that it has not disappeared, owners closed the furnace , leaving from the house. Peasants believed, that through a chimney depart on the meetings of a witch, in the furnace they prepare magical potions. To the pregnant women baking bread, especially easter Easter cakes, it was forbidden to talk, differently the witch will steal the child. For protection of the lying-in woman against evil spirit ухват put by all means horns to the furnace.
On a diagonal from the furnace there was a Red corner - the Christian centre of the house. Here the icons decorated necessarily hung, the icon lamp was lighted, sacred books were stored, The consecrated water and candles. For Christmas and Easter here put ritual meal. The red corner was considered as the most honourable мес: the house where put expensive visitor, rendering to it respect. Пс in the images sat young on a wedding feast. Here hundred "grandfather" -a sheaf decorated with tapes, a well-being and prosperity symbol, memory of ancestors. In the Red corner the benches standing along walls converged, here again under icons there was a table - a symbol.: unities, a family fortress and well-being behind which all family gathered. Usually a table did not decorate, only on holidays a cloth. Certainly, and this detail of furniture appeared in поверьях and ceremonies. The newborn enclosed round a table, accepting it in a family three times. Behind a table celebrated wedding. And here, in the Red corner, put a coffin with the dead man, making last ceremony of farewell. It was impossible to put keys on a table are could lead to quarrel, and sit down - threatened with illness.
The board flooring adjoined to the furnace along a back wall ("floor" or «полаты»), serving by a berth (in more prosperous families here put a bed). The corner opposite to the furnace was considered "female"-zdes settled down «мисник» (a case for ware) and all necessary utensils.
The court yard in Ukraine has necessarily been fenced.
^ . The Ukrainian national clothes - the bright and original cultural phenomenon, it developed and improved throughout centuries. In a national suit the generality of an origin and historical destiny of east Slavs, interference of cultures of other people were reflected. Keeping signs of various epoch, the suit is a source of studying of ethnic history of the population, its social-class structure, aesthetic views.
The lady's wear consisted of the embroidered shirt-shirt and not sewed zone clothes: дерги, запаски, - плахты. Since XIX century began to carry the sewed skirts - of "skirt". In cool weather carried sleeveless jackets. The shirt, as a rule, has been decorated by the embroidered or woven ornament which was settling down on a collar, a hem, on sleeves - places where access to a body is as much as possible opened. That is, the ornament carried out not only aesthetic, but also обереговую function, protecting the proprietress from evil ghosts, illnesses and other. The female shirt in general was considered as the most mysterious element of clothes, For example, believed, that the embroidered hem it is possible to stop a witch. Midwives accepted the child in a shirt. By the embroidered top part of a shirt of the bride after ritual washing by turns were wiped newly married. By the basic outer clothing of women it has been twisted or a roll from white cloth.
Girls braided hair in plaits, stacked them round a head and decorated tapes, colours, live or from a wax paper. Women necessarily carried various caps («оchipki»), headdresses ("sketches"), later - scarfs. Occurrence of the married woman in public without a headdress was considered indecent (from here expression). The Ukrainian girls and women traditionally carried many ornaments. Custom to decorate a neck existed since the most ancient times. The plentiful material for a beads ("chain") was given by the surrounding nature - grains, stones of berries, vegetable boxes were used. A beads from multi-coloured glass, amber, pearls was very much appreciated, and corals were considered as the biggest value («the kind chain», Quantity of threads of a beads and the size, beads were a prosperity indicator in a family, and also testified to the good relation of the husband to the wife. The most prestigious was considered to have 24-25 threads, with the large beads decorated also silver. To corals magic properties (in particular, they ostensibly protected from cold) were attributed, thread rupture foretold to the mistress misfortune. The special place among cervical ornaments belongs дукачам - to various jewels on the basis of coins or their fakes. For them, as a rule, were used Austrian дукаты or the Russian silver roubles. Дукач with the metal bow decorated with stones or enamel, took the central place in all complex of breast ornaments. The godfather gave дукач to the small goddaughter when to it 1 year was executed, and carefully stored a gift, putting on it, frequently, only on holidays.
At women products from beads, various ear rings and rings used the big popularity.
Boots carried black or red. Shoes ("shoe") were celebratory footwear in warm weather, and every day carried footwear from сыромятной skin and bast shoes
The man's suit consisted of a shirt (with the narrow standing, often embroidered collar with a lace), filled in wide or narrow trousers, sleeveless jackets and belts. The belt in general was an obligatory element of clothes, carrying out the diversified functions (strengthenings of clothes, Protection of muscles of a stomach at heavy work). On belts carried subjects of the daily use, they served as a bright ornament of clothes and a prosperity indicator. But the belt was perceived as well as оберег, a talisman. Only small children could not carry a belt, for the adult person to leave on street, not having surrounded, meant to compromise itself, foretold true misfortune. The belt appeared in many magic ceremonies. Not without reason the bride should surround the promised with the embroidered belt is should increase man's force. The red belt preserved the person against a trouble. The bought cattle entered into a court yard through a master's belt that it did not leave from a court yard.
Hair on a head cut «under a pot» («under макитру»). Young and average years of the man had a shave, leaving only moustaches. In XV-XVII centuries shaved also a head, leaving оселедець. Beards carried only the elderly. As a headdress straw hats («брыли»), during-other time felt or astrakhan, caps of the cylindrical form with a flat or spheric bottom served in the summer. The Cossack clothes consisted from zhupan, Circassians, bright wide trousers, belts, caps-Kabardians, burki-vilchura of the sheep wool. On feet poor peasants dressed postoly - strapped pieces of skin, prosperous carried boots.
During the autumn-winter period and men and women carried opanchi (long road clothes with a hood, decorated with colour cords), kobenyaki (a prototype of a raincoat from the dense rough cloth, rushing over all clothes), casings. Casings often covered with cloth. All these kinds of clothes are known since times of the Kiev Russia.
Its decorative effect which was reached by rich embroideries, applications, various expensive ornaments was characteristic line of traditional Ukrainian clothes. In it local features of Ukraine were reflected. On an embroidery on a shirt, how it has been cut out, on a headdress (especially it concerns women), it was possible to tell precisely, from what region of Ukraine there has arrived the person. On a suit it was possible to judge and about property and a social status. Representatives of various social groups (handicraftsmen, feudal lords, Cossack the foreman, the ordinary Cossacks, peasants, petty bourgeoises, dealers, etc.) differed features of clothes.
^ The power supply system consists of a generality of certain signs of is traditional-household culture of ethnos: a set of foodstuff, ways of their processing and preparation, a mode of a daily food, assortment of ceremonial dishes, The customs connected with preparation and the use of meal. On the power supply system of Ukrainians, as well as other people, climatic and prirodno-geographical conditions and economic activities directions influence.
The set of a foodstuff is connected with traditional economic activities: пашенное agriculture, animal industries, truck farming. A food basis the vegetative and flour food (made a borsch, porridges, вареники, various юшки, noodles, etc.) . The considerable place in a food allowance was occupied with fish, including salty. Meat food of a fur-tree basically on holidays. Pork and lard were the most popular. The cattle was pricked by time or two in a year, on the big holidays: for Christmas and Easter. Of a flour with poppy and honey addition baked numerous bagels. Bread in Ukraine had symbolical functions in many ceremonies: wedding, maternity, etc. the Food strongly differed at different levels of population. The valid, careful relation to a foodstuff is characteristic. Before a dinner and a supper necessarily Ukrainian peasant said a short pray. Behind a table did not joke, did not swear. It is necessary to notice, that from all complex of material culture a food is the most conservative. It concerns also systems, a diet and the most widespread and favourite dishes
Within a year believing people have been obliged to observe posts the-periods when it was limited or in general the use in food of meat or dairy products, fishes, eggs was forbidden. It contacted requirements of Christian religion (posts were observed before religious holidays - Christmas. Easter, Спасом and so forth), but, certainly, had deeper roots. Not casually, longest and heavy posts coincided with the periods of the least physical pressure during the osenne-winter period. In the summer, during field works, posts were short and not so canonised. Besides, there were indulgences for children sick, pregnant women. And the set of the products resolved to the use, was various enough and allowed to prepare a considerable quantity of fast dishes. Considering methods of dietetic therapy popular today (vegetarianism, starvation and so forth), it is necessary to recognise, that ancestors quite understood rational consumption of food.
And, of course, the meal has been closely connected with a spiritual life of people. Practically to each holiday - both religious, and remained since pagan times, - there corresponded the set of dishes. Are indispensable
There were twelve dishes on a Christmas table with obligatory uzvar (compote from dried fruits) and cutya (porridge from cereal grains), pancakes on a pancake week, eggs and Easter cakes for Easter, honey and apples on were rescued etc. There was a large quantity of ceremonies and поверий, connected with meal. For example, on christening it was accepted to cook a millet cereal in a pot. Then the sketch of sale of a pot was played, and the one who brought the greatest quantity of money for christening, had the right to break a pot. Visitors considered it as honour to try ceremonial meal and to take for memory a crock. It became that the child grew healthy and happy.
The spiritual culture of Ukrainians has developed under influence first of all two factors: the basic employment of the population (first of all, agriculture), and religious beliefs. The majority of Ukrainians was orthodox Christians. In the Western and Right-bank Ukraine the population part belonged to Greco-catholic faith which has resulted Brest church унии in 1596
At household level the religion of broad masses represented about connection of Christian ideas with pagan beliefs and representations. In consciousness of the Ukrainian peasant the belief in the uniform God got on with various поверьями about devils, упырях, house mermaids and other "evil spirit", evangelical precepts with beliefs in magic etc. Images of Christian gods. The national life included the church prayful formulas close to magic spells, and into roles of magic subjects исполъзовались some subjects of a church cult. Folklore on нился names of the Christ, the Virgin, sacred.
Let's dwell upon national representations about mermaids and witches - exclusively interesting theme in ukrainian culture. Not Casually these images have entered into fiction (to recollect at least «the forest song» L.Ukrainki or «May night» and «Evenings on farm Dikanki» N.V.Gogol enough).
There existed basic versions of mermaids - field and water, differing by appearance. Water mermaids are extraordinary beautiful, with the long dismissed hair. They like to drive round dances under the moon. Wood mermaids prefer to be amused, shaking on tops of trees or arranging noisy fights. They are very similar to people, but they do not have back. Mermaids considered as evil spirit which needed to be was afraid and cajole since they could send a hailstones, a storm, to trample wheat etc. Those who was not good luck fallen by it into hands, mermaids could drown, tickle to death, force to carry out the whims. The most active mermaids were in Troitsk week, especially on Thursday. To protect itself from them, people did not work all the week long, carried with itself a wormwood, put on windows a nettle, etc.
Unlike mermaids, a witch - the representatives of the terrestrial world. People believed, that witches by the nature happen two kinds. The seventh daughter under the account in a family could be born a witch. Scientific witches comprehended a science of magic meaningly, by means of magical ceremonies and tests. Outwardly such women are very effective, frequently widows (a vivid example-Gogol Солоха). Was considered, that witches do not eat some meat, adore вареники with cottage cheese (therefore can steal a stuffing from strangers вареников). The Bald mountain near Kiev where witches were flied astride помеле, to a poker or вальке for washing was a traditional place of gathering of witches in Ukraine. According to traditional representations, witches could fill with illness, damage on livestock and people, but were thus capable to start talking a pain, отпоить grasses. Having toppled over through the knife thrust in the earth and having said the necessary spells, witches turned to the most different beings or subjects (a ball of threads, a cloth piece, бесхвостую сороку). In each village, as a rule, there were women who suspected of communications with evil spirit, therefore there was a huge arsenal of means for their revealing. So that to find out that who steals milk from cows, it was necessary on the Holy Week before Easter to make special aspen табуреточку and to take it with itself in church. If during service to rise on it and to look around at a witch over a head will be подойник.
The major components of a spiritual life of the people - holidays and ceremonies. They reflect not only an ethnic originality, but also an aesthetics, moral values, mentality, history. To number
Institutes. Generated by religious representations and agrarian way of a life, calendar holidays and ceremonies belonged. It is the most ancient ceremonialism, the roots it goes back to primitive, pagan beliefs, much later the church has apprehended already developed system of agricultural holidays and has given it Christian colouring. Holidays and ceremonies of a calendar cycle regulated all spheres of a life of the Ukrainian peasant - industrial, public, family, and their main purpose - to affect productivity.
In an agrarian calendar of Ukrainians there was no sharp differentiation between seasons, And the ceremonialism of a winter cycle gradually passed in spring, spring - in summer etc. Each cycle bore the semantic loading (soil preparation, sowing, planting - in the spring gathering and preservation of a crop in the autumn). The calendar cycle is sated by set of rituals and signs which also connect times І
Winter holidays began on November, 21st with «Введення». On this day judged what will be I follow year: fruitful or not, droughty or rainy etc.
Among winter holidays of Ukrainians the Holiday with culmination points - the Christmas, the Christening New year is especially allocated,
Christmas - the winter holiday originating in дале which past. It is a solstice holiday, the shortest day Ів to year when the Sun as though dies also the person magic actions should it help. With acceptance of Christianity a holiday with Jesus Christ birth, but in national memory has kept deep sense.
Christmas Christmas-tide began in the Sacred evening (on January, 6th н.с. In the house cleanliness, prosperity and happiness atmosphere should reign. In the Red corner, observing variety corrected, placed the decorated sheaf and «кубельце» - a nest from odorous hay in which put ceremonial кутьей. All family waited for occurrence in the sky of the star symbolising a birth (was considered, that the one who the first will see a star, will be happy within a year). The table was plentiful, немньше twelve dishes, but fast since the post still proceeded. Святочная the meal should unite all members including died, on помин which put a candle. Children by "supper" close - to Godfathers, grandmothers and grandfathers, having defended service in church, started rich food. In national perception святочные days were original
«Time breach», "doomsday" which updating followed. At this time there came evil spirit revelry, in a Christmas-tide it was possible to learn the future by means of guessings. Girls left on street and asked a name of the first comer, trying to guess a name of the promised. Overheard conversations under neighbour's windows, trying by the told words to learn, whether will marry next year. At midnight guessed on the fused wax or lead - send them to water and on the fallen asleep figures judged the future. About it could tell and a shade on a wall from a lump of the burnt down paper. Dangerous enough the guessing at midnight with two mirrors and a candle between them was considered. Peering into an infinite chain of mirrors, it was possible to see the promised, and it is possible and to court a trouble. Tried to learn character of the groom on behaviour of a cock before which put ware with water and with grain and a pocket mirror. If the cock approaches to grain - to be to the groom the good owner, if to a pocket mirror - the boaster, to water the-drunkard.
On January, 7th began kolyadky. The whole crowds of youth with specially made Christmas star (from the carved painted tree or решета, decorated with a colour foil and a paper) went on village. Frequently it was the present representation - with ряжеными, singers, musicians, dancers Колядующие went on houses, singing special songs. In poetic texts owners and their children were sung, to them wished good luck and health, a prosperity in an economy, a crop. Actually these texts made sense paternosters - was considered, that the wishes stated in a Christmas-tide will necessarily come true. Owners have been obliged to present generously колядующих with products.
The collected supplies bore on January, 8th on Great Вечорницы youth walks with dances and a cheerful feast where young men and girls quite often found to themselves promiseds.
(On January, 13-14th) Ukrainians marked New Year's holidays as holidays Маланки and Василя. They did not coincide with church, therefore in their ceremonialism national motives have remained. These days detours of court yard with щедривками-calendar величальными songs with elements of theatrical action also practised. The mask of the Goat of a-original symbol of fertility and well-being was the traditional character of such games. Very expressive agrarian-magic sense had a ceremony «посыпания» when boys of 7-14 years, bypassing houses, symbolically sowed grain.
Аncestors marked new year in the spring, before the beginning of sowing works.
The Christmas-New Year's cycle came to the end with the Christening holiday on January, 19th (the Epiphany). The basic actions passed on the frozen reservoirs, where in advance вырубываяи a cross from ice (frequently it watered with beet kvass, paternal it got red colour). In the formed ice-hole the priest lowered a cross then water was considered as the sacred. Believers typed water and then long it stored, attributing such miracle properties. It was the checked up means for treatment of the most different diseases. Was considered also, that the one who will bathe in крещенской the ice-holes, will not be ill all year.
In honour of spring awakening of the nature Slavs celebrate the Pancake week. Unlike other calendar holidays. The pancake week practically was not submitted to Christian influence and remained simply cheerful national holiday with some pagan rituals: driving from hills, burning of a straw stuffed animal, preparation of pancakes and вареников.
Among spring holidays the most considerable and Easter was favourite. Ceremonies and rituals of an easter cycle bore religious Christian and calendar pagan loadings (Jesus Christ revival and nature awakening).
Easter was preceded by Pussy-willow week - the period actively ї preparations for a holiday. In church святили pets health and well-being should provide branches of a willow with which then quilted all members of a family, and then and. On Pussy-willow week prepared «писанки» - the eggs decorated with a multi-colour ornament (unlike «крашенок», painted in one colour). In general, red colour of egg on the Christian betrays a symbol of the blood spilt by the Christ for sins human. But custom to use крашеные eggs in various images perceiving them as a revival symbol, leaves in the remote past.
Process расписывания eggs was is strictly regulated the Woman-pisankarka should was to sit on the casing turned out by heart, for rubdown of eggs used rags from сношенньи shirts. All work was carried out in silence, with prays and in mood. The technology of creation pisanky consisted in consecutive immersing of egg in different dyes (from dark to light) and in ornament drawing by the kindled wax by means of a metal tubule. The necessary colour for an ornament remained under a wax layer. Plots and ornament kinds весьм were various, very strongly differing on regions of Ukraine.
Within Pussy-willow week baked ceremonial breads - Easter or Easter cakes. At their manufacturing also made numerous actions, submitting to ancient ceremonies. It was necessary to heat the furnace from logs which were postponed every Thursday during the Great post, подпаливать their slices of the consecrated willow. Putting Easter in the furnace, the mistress said prays-spells.
Much поверий it has been connected with Passionate (or Pure) Thursday. The burning passionate candle brought from church, did crosses on a ceiling - from evil spirit. Carefully stored четверговую the salt specially burnt in the furnace - from various diseases, including at pets. The custom to bathe children and patients was obligatory, pouring out then water on a crossroads of roads. It, undoubtedly, echoes of ancient cleaning ceremonies.
Having defended in church nightlong service and having consecrated in advance collected products, people sat down a celebratory table. Easter was preceded by the most strict post (in memory of sufferings of the Christ), therefore to an easter meal special significance was attached. The. The table, the more richly - a crop will be more plentiful. The important place on a table occupied, of course, Easter and pisanky.
In various regions of Ukraine there were the customs connected with coloured eggs. After church visiting, everyone washed from a bowl in which were coloured eggs and small coins. It provided health and beauty. Girls then stored egg with which washed. Писанки placed in the Red corner and stored till following Easter. In quality оберега for cattle писанку suspended in a shed, put in a nest квочки or about a beehive with bees, poured pounded крашеную a shell in a forage for a bird. Games with eggs, for example, their driving from a hill or a special tray, and also from a towel, lowered with стожка have been extended also. Children took a great interest in clatter - a beating of eggs. The one who has broken coloured egg the contender, took away it to itself as a prize.
Easter holidays included festivals: round dances (circulation on a circle as a symbol of movement of the Sun on the sky), driving on a swing and boards (lifting upwards - the magic action providing growth of all greens), douche by water (a cleaning ceremony). Peals as for Easter it was authorised to call to all were favourite entertainment.
Easter celebrations came to the end with "commemoration". As a rule, next Sunday after Easter people went to the first on a cemetery - had dinner on tombs, tied crosses towels. Sometimes on an easter table put a bowl with oats in which put so much coloured eggs, how many relatives in a family have died. There was also a custom to start up on the river a shell which should inform ancestors on Easter approach.
End spring and the beginning of the summer period at east Slavs is connected with a Trinity-rusalnoj ceremonialism in which basis the vegetation cult lays, magic of a spell of the future crop. On «The Green holidays», (so in the people the Christian holiday of the Trinity was called), the house and a court yard decorated green branches of a willow, a linden, a maple. A floor dimmed mint branches. The interesting ceremony concerns this holiday «birch weaving». The girl or the young girl decorated colours, greens and drove on village. This ceremony and special songs wished to implore at the nature for a rich crop.
The Old Slavic holiday of a summer solstice is especially allocated - Bathed or Ivan ShChupala (on June, 24th). This holiday has not apprehended Christian lines, and remained in the archaic pagan form. Moreover, the church tried to struggle with tradition of carrying out Bathed, declaring its sinful, devilish and. But despite all interdictions, Ivan Kupala remained one of the most widespread and favourite national holidays. It united in itself(himself) elements солярного a cult (the Sun cult), agrarian magic, cleaning and erotic ceremonies. On Bathed lighted a wheel and started up it from mountain, unmarried and unmarried young men and girls jumped through a fire, drove round dances, spun wreaths and started up them on a watercourse. These games were of great importance. Was considered for honour «to be cleared by fire» - three times to jump through a fire. If the young man has jumped above everything, it foretold to his family a good harvest and if will get a foot to fire, will hook on fire wood - накличет If the young man with the girl successfully together will jump over a fire-was obligatory will get married and will live a century in love and the consent. Carefully watched behaviour of wreaths on water. Girls spun, as a rule. Two wreaths - for itself and the promised. On wreaths the lighted candles were put also started up on a current. The gone out candle predicted a trouble. If wreaths floated nearby - this year young will get married.
Separately - it is not fated to be together.
These days some freedom of behaviour was resolved, but it concerned only not married. Married women, collected curative grasses which, on поверью, possessed magic properties. Married men gathered on some person and went to search for flowers of a fern which ostensibly help to find treasures and treasures and can draw money. Believed, that on the night of Ivan Kupala there are representatives of "evil spirit": devils, leshie.
The holiday of end of harvesting - rich with songs and archaic rituals was apogee of agrarian-business year Ukrainian peasant. For example, echoes of ancient sacrifices - manufacturing which fastened from last bunches of not compressed ears and left in the field; weaving a wreath (it decorated colours, tapes and kept till the spring, grain from this wreath began sowing). Holidays of Katrine (on November, 24th) and Andrey (on November, 30th) had youth character. Girls and young men guessed these days, arranged cheerful walks with dances, games, draws, humour.
The family ceremonialism consists of wedding, maternity and funeral ceremonies. In a cycle of family ceremonies actions were weaved, symbols, attributes which have arisen during various epoch and should provide happiness, riches, well-being of a family and to protect its members from malicious forces.
Maternity ceremonies. The birth of the child was basic event since was family de-facto recognition. The childless family traditionally was considered as the defective. Women tried to hide pregnancy from malicious eyes (for example, old maidens), tried to define on signs a sex of a child. Boys were especially desirable. In advance the question on the midwife on which the success of sorts in many respects depended was solved. Usually the midwife called, when childbirth already began, and that came with the bread, the consecrated water and curative grasses - "potion". It made variety of the magic actions useful to the lying-in woman in the house - wide open ploughed up windows, opened locks, untied all knots. All it was made for simplification of sorts. Skilled
The midwife rendered also the practical help. If necessary it did massage, compresses, grindings. The moment of occurrence of the kid on light too was accompanied by ceremonies since right now tried to define its character, the future occupation. Therefore an umbilical cord at boys cut on an axe, at girls - on a spindle or a crest for spinning. Cases when an umbilical cord cut on the book are known - wanted, that the child was competent. An umbilical cord and послед usually diligently dug in in the earth, but sometimes slices of the dried up umbilical cord or "shirt" in which the child was born, used as оберег or true means from barreness. Then the first font which had both hygienic, and magic value followed. In water added honey, flowers or milk for girls that those were beautiful; a root of special plants for the boy - that were strong. The kid dried at the burning furnace, attaching a new member of a family to a home. The son turned in a shirt of the father, the daughter - in parent clothes. Weight of the most unusual subjects used in quality оберегов which put in a cradle, placed in a coal slice, some grains, salt, bread, scissors, etc.
The moment of chosen a name provided to the kid happiness and well-being was very important. It was accepted to give names under the calendar (within 8 days to and 8 days after a birth). Cases when to illegitimate children gave dissonant names are known. Ancient ceremonies of a choice of a name have been completely replaced by a church christening in which the huge role was played by God parents of the child - godfathers. Them usually chose among near relations (the godmother necessarily should have children). They accepted the kid from hands of the priest, brought it in the house and put on the turned out sheepskin - a health and well-being symbol, then necessarily presented the newborn. The institute кумовства in Ukraine has been very extended. God parents were esteemed on a level with native and have been obliged to care of godsons in every possible way. They played an honourable role weddings, participated in education of orphans, but their spiritual relationship was considered as the main thing.
Soon after sorts (for 3-7-9 day) arranged "native land" - original cleaning ritual as the lying-in woman was considered as the dirty. Three days it is impossible With to come into a room where there passed the childbirth, before clarification the woman could not доить cows, knead квашню, touch icons. In it echoes of very ancient pagan beliefs are heard. During the same period young mother was with
It is vulnerable for a malefice and damage. Therefore by means of the midwife it organised reception of visitors. The basic ceremonial elements родин were ritual обмывание hands of mother and the midwife, and also eating specially made «бабиной porridges» (from millet, гречки). Mother, and the grandma the come visitors should present the child with a cloth and coins. The father accepted insignificant participation in this ceremony. Later - there were "meetings" neighbours-coming in an individual order and relatives also brought gifts.
Came to an end rodilno-krestinnyj a ceremonial cycle with celebrating of first anniversary of a birth of the child. In a family circle with participation of the neighbour and godfathers the father and the midwife cut the kid. In the beginning on a head the crosswise figure was cut out, then gave a crew cut. The boy thus set on an axe, the girl - on a spindle. The midwife for it awarded, it also presented the child. All present necessarily gave something to the kid «on his teath». The cut hair hid or buried in order to avoid damage. Further in the country environment it was not accepted to mark birthdays.
^ Wedding was one of the major events during lives, and traditional "wedding" ritual by the-remarkable phenomenon of the national culture including a difficult complex of various elements. Ukrainians had an original system of before-marriage relations, shown in the form of acquaintance, courting, courtship and so forth Usually the youth communicated within the village or street, but the choice of the promised outside of a residing place was not excluded also. Traditionally holidays with dances and games, teamwork were places of meetings. More often the youth gathered on "night-school student" where adults were not supposed. For carrying out вечорниц usually removed a hut (more often at widows, солдаток), brought meal, arranged dances. Finally the choice of the promised was the basic function of such sit-round gathering.
In earlier time the choice named entirely depended on will of parents, as. However, and all questions connected with a marriage.
Actually wedding ritual consisted of the whole cycle of the ceremonies necessary for giving for marriage of a validity. Church consecration of marriage became current gradually, within all XIX century, but everywhere was combined with traditional customs and ceremonies,when invited began the groom Heads from close relatives, taking ceremonial bread, went to parents of the bride for reception of the preliminary consent to marriage. Frequently it occurred in the late evening for secret preservation. (Traditional dialogue was carried on with a mention of the hunter and a marten, a merchant and the goods, bible characters). If the consent has been received, the bride tied to matchmakers рушники through a shoulder, and to the groom submitted on a dish a scarf quite often made by it, then invited for a table. In default the girl returned to heads the brought bread, and to the groom could submit ("water-melon") pumpkin.
After successful сватанья occurred «оглядини» - shows of the bride, and also a prosperity of the house and an economy of the groom (sometimes to show riches, parents of the groom went.на cunning-took from neighbours of a horse, bags to grain and so forth). Then there came "engagements" - a fastening of the contract on marriage after which refusal was considered inadmissible and involved, besides a public censure, also the notable fine.
Then the period of preparation for wedding began, which usually played in the autumn from the Cover (October) to филипповского a post (on November, 14th) or in the winter since the Christening (on January, 19th) to the Pancake week.
Prewedding actions began with departure of the groom and the bride on «invitening». Invited usually all relatives and neighbours. The bride with her friend came into the house and, saying a traditional phrase: «Asked mum and the daddy on bread – salt and I ask on wedding», - put on a table a ceremonial small loaf - "cone".
Farewell of the groom and the bride to freedom, the certificate of their branch from single group of youth was obligatory ceremonial action. Especial lyricism «Evening of girls» on the eve of the wedding, symbolising transition of the girl in the new status differed. Girl-friends spun wreaths and облепливали the test a branch of a pine, a cherry, a sweet cherry, baked and decorated a guelder-rose, colours, tapes. Already in the end of wedding the young broke off branches and distributed friends. At evening at the groom made other attribute - the wedding sabre also brightly decorated. On wedding these subjects symbolically united. Evening «посадом» separately in houses of the groom and the bride when parents blest the young came to the end.
Church wedding spent sometimes in one day with wedding, sometimes in advance, but it was not the main action of marriage. If wedding was for some reason or other postponed, the custom did not allow венчанным to live together. On wedding the young went separately, having received parental blessing. It is interesting, that the Christian ceremony all the same got magic character in the people. The bride could put for a bosom a poppy - from an itch, and in a pocket - a metal subject (a key, scissors, a knife) from a malefice. In seams of clothes with the same purpose stuck needles, pins, in footwear could put mountain ash berries, and on a neck to hang up amber. After wedding of the young met at the house of the bride. They bowed to her parents three times, and those brought it bread-salt. During same time usually brought a dowry to the house of the groom (a chest in which the girl since childhood collected clothes, рушники, ornaments and where nobody had the rights to look). In all wedding movement young accompanied «a celebratory train» - retinue from boyars of the groom and дружек at the bride. On a way of the groom some times organised «перейми», demanding the repayment for the bride. In the most wedding action the big role was played by God parents. Throughout all wedding variety of the ceremonies bearing idea of fertility and a prosperity was made: обсыпание young grain and a small change, переступание through a casing. The sorcerer was considered as the guest of honour, which called to protect young from damage. It scattered slices of the added some salt bread on a hut, having spat three times on the east, examined corners, filled in them a rye, a grass and ashes (against damage and for health young).
The plentiful feast, in which process was obligatory
There was a ceremony of donation of relatives young, loaf division. The most dramatic moment was расплетение plaits and a covering of a head young очипком. It symbolised transition of the girl in a married condition. Henceforth it had no right to go with an uncovered head, it was perceived as the big sin. On ancient national representations простоволосая the married woman could predict illnesses and a poor harvest.
The bride took away in the house of the groom where ceremonial connection was made - young tied up hands a towel or a belt. There were many symbols of connection - two loaves, "wedding" and a sabre, two tied up spoons.
Wedding came to an end with a ceremony of marriage night which included disguise young, its deducing to visitors, virginity demonstration. Ritual joining of the daughter-in-law to relatives of the husband was symbolised by furnace kindling, dinner preparation, an entertainment of the mother-in-law. The second day of wedding was marked also ряженьем - difficult drama actions in which the game entertaining moments and magic actions have merged. All changed clothes, representing animals, the gipsy, poor etc. With songs and dancings went, to parents young on pancakes. There was a curious custom to represent «the false bride». Visitors were met by the friend dressed in a tatter, with крапивным a wreath on a head, smeared with soot and proved to mother of the bride, that it and is her daughter, there was no yet a present young.
Wedding came to the end породнением two families - «блогодарством». Then within a month there were the various mutual visits which were definitively making out creation of a new family.
Funeral ceremonies the Ceremonies connected with death of the person, include funeral and поминальные. The death of the person was perceived both as a huge grief and as necessity. The ambiguous relation to death has caused formation of difficult system of the funeral ceremonies main the core the cult of ancestors was which. All actions accompanying burial died, have been directed on maintenance of transition of soul of the dead on "next world" and protection live from harmful influence of spirit died, after all was considered, that the spirit under certain conditions can return. After funeral arranged commemoration.
About death approach aspired to learn in advance and, whenever possible, to be prepared for it. Older persons prepared mortal clothes, a material for a coffin, gave orders rather
Funeral, commemoration and other. There was a set will accept, foretelling to the person death. Walls and beams in the house creaked, the icon broke suddenly from a wall, the dog howled on the house, on a roof the eagle owl sat down, the swallow or a sparrow have flown in a hut, the star has fallen from the sky - all it were bad omens. Trusted in value of dreams - to death building of the new house, a peal, the dropped out tooth etc. dreamt
Near dying the native tried to be permanently to facilitate to it leaving from a life. For this purpose opened doors, windows, made in a wall of the house of an aperture. After death approach curtained mirrors and poured out • all water which was available in the house. The dead man washed, and the subjects used for this purpose, carefully earthed - that have not damaged the live. Then died got up, usually in new clothes, footwear put on seldom. At burial of unmarried girls or young men used some elements of wedding ceremonialism. So, the girl dressed in wedding clothes, on a hand moulded a ring from wax, tied wedding рушник, untwined hair. To the young man adhered to a belt a red scarf. There was a custom to choose to died steam from among the live. The elite "prince" or "princess" played a role of the groom or the bride, and then - inconsolable widowers.
The coffin was usually made gratuitously by neighbours or relatives. The characteristic name said that this last dwelling was perceived at all Christianly. About same speaks also custom to put in a coffin accompanying subjects. Except bread and salt to the died pregnant women could put свивальник, to children - a toy, smoking - a tube. Sometimes for a bosom put three small loafs. It was accepted to put also the nails cut off still during lifetime of the dead and hair.
Buried usually in three days after death, willows funeral all village participated, as a rule. Variety of rituals was here too observed. A coffin took out «feet forward», sometimes specially three times touching about a threshold. Gate could tie a towel or a red belt, and in a shed scattered oats that the cattle has not followed the owner. After removal a hut put out, a floor washed or strewed grain. An open coffin usually bore on hands or carried on a cart, then, having driven in, lowered on рушниках in a tomb. Each present should throw an earth handful. In Ukraine it was accepted «to print a tomb» - to strew the first earth on a coffin crosswisely. The meal with the use of ritual dishes in particular, кутьи was obligatory поминальная. Behind a table in
Red corner to the dead left a place, putting for it bread and a spoon. The same commemoration was arranged in the day, nine and forty days, then in a year. With the fortieth day traditional representation about definitive flying away of soul has been connected. Further поминальные ceremonies were combined with religious holidays.
There were certain rules for burial died a violent death, некрещенных children, suicides, sorcerers and witches. Their souls were considered as the most dangerous and harmful. Such dead men buried behind a cemetery fencing, priests refused to read the burial service over them. These tombs filled up with branches, stones, dust. Those whom considered as sorcerers, buried usually the person downwards, making over a body difficult manipulations (drove in into a breast aspen кол, pricked a body шилом, eyes a poppy fell asleep). Thus tried to neutralise a malicious soul as much as possible.
The national culture has played a special role in the Ukrainian history. Thanks to it in the conditions of a long absence of national statehood (especially in XVIII century) the continuity of the Ukrainian cultural tradition has been kept. Very many of the mentioned customs and ceremonies Ukrainians have saved up about one today. The industrial society, an urbanization level traditional national and regional features of culture. And in these conditions especially important carefully to keep, study and popularise the knowledge saved up by much generations, traditions. After all without the past there is no future.
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