UKRAINE’S NATIONAL REPORT
ON THE IMPLEMENTATION
OF THE BOLOGNA PROCESS
December 14, 2006
Main achievements since Bergen
1. Describe the important developments relating to the Bologna Process, including legislative reforms, since Bergen.
Educational sector including higher education is considered to be a strategic sphere and the priority significance in the development of people and state of Ukraine.
Beginning since Bergen the important steps in realising the Bologna provisions have been implemented in the higher education system of Ukraine as well as Action Plan of their implementation till 2010 has been prepared.
By the order of the Government of Ukraine there was created an interdepartmental commission on implementing Bologna Process provisions (Bologna Follow-up Interdepartmental Commission) attached to the Ministry of Education and Science.
In 2006 there was created the National Team of Bologna Promoters in Ukraine, to which specialists from the leading universities of Ukraine were included. They participate in training seminars on actual problems of higher education in European Education Area and respectively they organize training seminars in Ukraine in the following basic directions:
Three Cycle System;
Framework for qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).
All-Ukrainian Council of Students, created under the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, became a candidate for the members of the National Union of Students in Europe (ESIB).
During the academic year 2006/ 2007 in all higher education institutions (HEIs) of the III-IV levels of accreditation there was implemented credit transfer system ECTS. The corresponding package of innovation normative ECTS documents and recommendations have been elaborated, organizational measures on implementation of the Diploma Supplement of the European Standard are carried out.
In 2006 there were held two seminars initiated by Magna Charta Council on the problems of convergence of higher education on the way to the European Education Area.
The system of informing and motivating the subjects of higher education institutions’ activity on the problems of integration of Ukraine’s system of higher education into European one has been extended. For that purpose, contacts with EU working groups has been developed.
2. Describe any changes since Bergen in the structure of public authorities responsible for higher education, the main agencies/bodies in higher education and their roles.
whether higher education institutions (HEIs) report to /are overseen by different ministries
how funds are allocated to HEIs
areas for which HEIs are autonomous and self governing.
There was prepared the draft Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “Certain issues on Education Institutions management”, which provides transference of all Higher Education Institutions under jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. At present HEIs are subordinated to 27 ministries and departments.
3. Describe any changes since Bergen to the institutional structure.
the number of public/private HEIs
are there different types of institutions delivering higher education (i.e. academic/professional, university/non-university etc.)
the number/percentage of students admitted in academic session 2006-2007 to each type of institution
the extent to which different types institutions are covered by the same regulations.
Institutional structure of Ukraine is represented by 232 state and 113 private institutions of higher education.
There is the following classification of educational institutions in the education system of Ukraine: technical high schools, vocational schools, colleges, universities, academies, institutes.
The percentage of students, admitted in the 2006-2007 academic year to each of the types of institutions, is:
– technical high schools – 12.4%; – vocational schools – 3.3%;
– colleges – 8.9%; – universities– 55.9%;
– academies – 12.5%; – institutes – 7.0%.
Different types of institutions are governed by the same rules and laws, except for the matters of financing of the state and private educational institutions.
Higher education institutions admit students in accordance with the "Terms of admittance to the higher education institutions of Ukraine", adopted by the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. The Admission board of a higher education institution functions according to the “Regulations on the Admission board of the higher education institution”, adopted by the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine.
4. Describe the structure which oversees the implementation of the Bologna Process in your country.
the membership and role of any national Bologna group (for example policy committee, promoters’ group)
the membership and role of students, staff trade unions, business and social partners in any national Bologna Group.
Within the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine there was formed the Ministerial Bologna Follow-Up working group (according to the regulations of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine No 93-p of 24.05.2006) and an Inter-departmental working group on implementation of the Bologna Process provisions (by the order of the Ministry of education and science Nr 164 of 7.03.2006) in accordance with the regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
In 2006 there was created the National Team of Bologna Promoters in Ukraine, to which specialists from the leading universities of Ukraine were included. They organize training seminars in the following action lines:
Quality Assurance (QA)
three cycle system of education;
- framework for qualifications of the European Higher Education Area.
5. Describe the arrangements for involving students and staff trade union/representative bodies in the governance of HEIs.
precise references (preferably with web links) to any legislation (or equivalent) in place to ensure students and staff are represented on HEI governing bodies
the role of students in the governance of HEIs
the role of staff trade union/representative bodies in the governance of HEIs.
Regulations on HEIs and amendments to the Law of Ukraine “On education” provide for:
- creation of the student self-governing bodies on the university and faculty levels;
- students’ representation in Academic Councils of the Universities
Abovementioned documents provide authorities for student self-governing bodies:
- participation in decision making on organization of studies,
- participation in solving the question of educational services quality control,
- participation in solving the question of organization of life and recreation activities, facilitating employability,
Student trade unions deal with the issues of scholarship provision, supporting socially disadvantaged students, improving accommodation conditions in hostels.
In case of student’s expulsion from the university not caused by failing the studying programme, a rector has to get consent of the student trade union.
6. Describe the measures in place to ensure the co-operation of business and social partners within the Bologna Process.
The draft Law of Ukraine “On involving employers to the staff training and retraining, educational and scientific processes” and draft resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers “On the order of employment of the higher education institution graduates’” have been developed.
Stage of implementation of the first and second cycle
7. Describe the progress made towards introducing the first and second cycle.
the percentage of the total number of students below doctoral level enrolled in the two cycle degree system in 2006/07.
100% of the students of higher education institutions of the III-IV levels of accreditation are involved into the two cycle system of training, which corresponds to the Bologna principles, except for study programmes in medicine and veterinary.
Stage of implementation of the third cycle
8. Describe the progress made towards implementing doctoral studies as the third Bologna cycle.
the percentage of 3rd cycle students following structured doctoral programmes
the normal length of full-time doctoral studies
the elements that are included in doctoral study programmes, e.g. do they include taught courses or independent research only
the supervisory and assessment procedures for doctoral studies
are doctoral studies included in your country’s qualifications framework and are they linked to learning outcomes
are interdisciplinary training and the development of transferable skills integrated in doctoral studies
are credit points used in measuring workload in doctoral studies?
The mechanisms of implementing doctoral studies as the third Bologna cycle are being developed:
the percentage of the 3rd cycle students following structured doctoral programmes in comparison with 2nd cycle graduates is 2,2%
the normal length of full-time doctoral studies is 3 years
doctoral study programmes include both taught courses and independent research
the supervisory and assessment procedures for doctoral studies are being developed
the work on coordination of the principles of including doctoral studies into the national qualifications framework is carried out
interdisciplinary training and the development of transferable skills are integrated in doctoral studies. Gradually the principles of continuity and succession of training courses are realized at the second and the third cycles
credit points are planned to be used in measuring workload in doctoral studies.
Access to the next cycle
9. Describe the arrangements for access between the first and second cycles and second and third cycles.
the percentage of first cycle qualifications that give access to the second cycle
if appropriate, the percentage of first cycle qualifications that give access to the third cycle
the percentage of first cycle qualifications that give access to both the second and third cycles
the percentage of second cycle qualifications that give access to the third cycle
specify any first cycle qualifications that do not give access to the second cycle
specify any second cycle qualifications that do not give access to the third cycle.
specify any examples where bridging courses are necessary to transfer between cycles in the same subject area
any measures planned to remove obstacles between cycles
All qualifications of the first cycle give access to several courses of the second cycle, and all the following ones give access to at least one course of the third cycle practically without any bridging courses.
Implementation of national qualifications framework
10. Describe the stage of implementation of the national qualifications framework to align with the overarching Framework for Qualifications of the EHEA.
the stage of development of your national qualifications framework (for example: has your national QF been included in legislation or agreed between all relevant stakeholders; has a working group been established; have national outcomes-based descriptors of the main types of qualifications been prepared; has a timetable for implementation been agreed?)
the extent to which your national qualifications framework is in line with the Framework for Qualifications of the EHEA
the role of stakeholders in the development of your national qualifications framework.
The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine has taken the following measures directed at the formation and implementation of the national qualifications framework. This process is planned to be completed gradually till 2010 with realising the commitments adopted in Bergen in 2005. The basis for these actions is harmonization of the national qualifications framework with the overarching Framework for Qualifications of the EHEA.
In particular, the following actions are carried out:
on the governmental level there has been developed and adopted the list of bachelor training programmes where the existing European experience is taken into account. At present the formation of the national bachelor qualifications framework is initiated, which is carried out according to these programs and will be presented to the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG) to align with the overarching Framework for Qualifications of the EHEA.
In 2006/2007 academic year the students of all universities of the III-IV levels of accreditation are involved into the two cycle system of training, which corresponds to Bologna principles.
As far as the programmes of the second cycle are concerned, the problem of diversification of the programmes according to the academic and professional criteria is studied. At present, in Ukraine there exist the post-bachelor programme of Master of Science and the so called “Specialist” programme, which is oriented mostly to practical activity.
In the course of discussion of such programs by higher education institutions and employers the following two variants are proposed:
to leave only the Master training programme at the II cycle (then, however, the problem of employment of bachelors and a lot of those, who will have an access to the Master programmes, will be accentuated).
to elaborate two variants of the Master programmes – of Master of academic and professional profiles. For instance, for the technical specialities – Master of Science, Master of Engineering. The latter is oriented mostly to practical activity. Some integrated Master training programmes are planned to be created on the basis of full secondary education.
Such programmes have already been proposed for training specialists in some of the fields of education. It concerns Medicine and Veterinary. Extension is possible also for the Philosophy and Art.
The proposals concerning the adaptation of the national qualifications framework to the overarching Framework for Qualifications of the EHEA has been discussed by all relevant stakeholders at the national level, and the terms of its implementation have been coordinated (2010).
11. What measures are being taken to increase the employability of graduates with bachelor qualifications?
Please include where possible:
the percentage of first cycle graduates who found employment after graduating in 2005/06
the percentage of first cycle graduates who continued into the second or third cycles in 2005/06
the extent to which this is expected to change in 2006/2007.
the percentage of first cycle graduates who found employment after graduating in 2005/06 is 13,9%
the percentage of first cycle graduates who continued into the second or third cycles in 2005/06 is 81,8%
in 2006/07 the employability of graduates with bachelor qualifications is expected to increase.
National implementation of the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA
12. To what extent is your national system of QA already in line with the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA?
the stage of implementation of the national QA system in line with the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA
any action that has been taken to ensure that the national QA system is in line with the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA
any deadlines set for taking action to ensure that the national QA system is in line with the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA
any action planned to ensure that the national QA system is in line with the standards and guidelines for QA in the EHEA.
Different actions on adaptation of the national quality assurance system to the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA have been held in Ukraine.
For the purpose of cooperation and studying the ENQA (European Network for Quality Assurance) activity there was created a special department in the State Accreditation Commission.
The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine has worked out plans and determined terms for the improvement and coordination of the national QA system according to the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA.
In April 2007 the Ministry of Education and Science is going to hold a seminar on the problems of Quality Assurance (QA) with the assistance of the ENQA representatives in Yalta. The goal of holding out this seminar is the further creation of methodology on QA system for Higher Education in line with the ENQA requirements, studying the best practices of this organization and the participating countries of the Bologna process as well, presentation of own experience and its proper evaluation, and certification of our QA agencies.. Such an experience will be useful for the development of the normative legislative base concerning this problem (that is amendments to laws, regulations, etc.)
At present, in Ukraine the system of monitoring and ranking of HEIs, which uses international parameters in evaluation, is being formed. At the same time, there is also a national system of monitoring and ranking of HEIs, which was created with the purpose of making managerial decisions.
Stage of development of external QA system
13. Describe the QA system operating in your country.
the stage of implementation of your external QA system
the scope of your external QA system: does it operate at a national level; does it cover all higher education
which of the following elements are included in your external QA system:
publication of results
whether procedures have been established for the peer review of the national agency(ies) according to the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA.
The National QA system is realized through the licensing and accreditation systems.
The external quality assurance system covers all HEIs of Ukraine and is spread over the existing branches of foreign education institutions in Ukraine.
The existing QA system includes the following:
internal assessment (self-analysis of the education institution with further document preparation for licensing or during the accreditation);
external review (expert assessment of the HEI activity).
The corresponding system of public information on accreditation results is in the process of development.
In addition to the accreditation system, the internal QA assessment of the HEI is realised by means of rector tests and the State Examination Boards system.
In Ukraine there operates also the State Independent Inspection.
Students and public take part in the QA assessment.
The public Accreditation Commissions were created at regional education boards in all regions.
Thus, on the national level there operates the QA system, which is applied to the whole higher education and includes all elements of higher education QA: external and internal assessment and publication of results.
The procedures for the peer review of the national quality assurance agency(ies) according to the Standards and Guidelines for QA in the EHEA are being established.
Level of student participation
14. Describe the level of student participation in your national QA system.
whether students are included in the following aspects of QA:
the governance of national agencies for QA
as full members or observers in external review teams
as part of the decision making process for external reviews
in the consultation process during external reviews (eg arrangements for external reviewers to consult with students)
in internal evaluations.
Students are included in the following aspects of QA:
Since 2007 the representative of students self-government bodies will be included in the governance of national agencies for QA
as full members or observers in external review teams
as the respondents in the sociological polls on external evaluation
in internal evaluations.
Level of international participation
15. Describe the level of international participation in your national QA system.
whether there is international participation in the following aspects of QA
the governance of national agencies for QA
the external evaluation of national QA agencies
teams for external review, either as members or observers
membership of ENQA
membership of any other international network.
With the purpose of collaboration, studying the experience of the European Network for Quality Assurance there was created a special department at the Licensing, Accreditation and Nostrification Board of the Ministry of Education and Science.
Some of the universities in Ukraine address directly the international accreditation agencies. At present there are approximately nine such higher education institutions.
Stage of implementation of Diploma Supplement
16. Describe the stage of implementation of the Diploma Supplement in your country.
the percentage of students graduating in 2007 who will receive a Diploma Supplement
which of the following apply to Diploma Supplements issued in your country:
issued in a widely spoken European language
free of charge
correspond to the EU/CoE/UNESCO Diploma Supplement format.
There were developed recommendations and carried out organizational procedures on implementation of the Diploma Supplement, which will be issued to each student graduating in 2008/09 academic year in a widely spoken European language, free of charge, automatically, and corresponding to the EU/CoE/UNESCO Diploma Supplement format.
National implementation of the principles of the Lisbon Recognition Convention
17. Describe the stage of implementation of the main principles and later supplementary documents of the Lisbon Recognition Convention.
whether your country has ratified the convention (including depositing ratification instrument at either CoE or UNESCO)
whether all appropriate legislation complies with the legal framework of the Convention and the later Supplementary Documents
which of the following principles are applied in practice
applicants’ right to fair assessment
recognition if no substantial differences can be proven
demonstration of substantial differences, where recognition is not granted
provision of information about your country’s HE programmes and institutions
whether you have a fully operational ENIC
any action being taken to ratify or fully implement the Convention and the later Supplementary Documents.
The Lisbon Convention came into force in accordance with the Law of Ukraine “On Ratification of the Convention on Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications in the European Region” in 1999.
Recognition of the Higher Education Qualifications is regulated by the Laws of Ukraine “On Education”, “On Higher Education”, Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine decrees No. 1260 “On Education and Scientific Degrees Documents” and No. 1380 “On licensing of education services”, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine order No. 563 “On approving the Regulations on recognition of the foreign educational documents” that determine the legal and organizational basis of the recognition of the foreign educational documents. These normative documents establish a centralised procedure of recognition, which is in the competence of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. The National criteria of quality evaluation for foreign qualifications from different parts of the world are based on Provisions of the Lisbon Convention. Realisation of these functions in the Ministry is carried out by its department - Licensing, Accreditation and Nostrification Board.
All of the following principles are applied in practice:
applicants’ right to fair assessment
recognition if no substantial differences can be proven
demonstration of substantial differences, where recognition is not granted
provision of information about the country’s HE programmes and institutions
The Licensing, Accreditation and Nostrification Board establishes the national education informational network that corresponds to ENIC.
Current legislation on recognition of foreign qualifications does not contradict to the regulations and principles of the Lisbon Convention. Ukraine signed 22 intergovernmental international agreements on mutual recognition of educational documents, scientific degrees and academic titles. 32 drafts of such agreements are in the process of adjustment.
Stage of implementation of ECTS
18. Describe the credit and accumulation system operating in your country.
the stage of implementation of ECTS in academic year 2006/2007
the percentage of first and second cycle programmes using ECTS in academic year 2006/2007
how any other credit or accumulation system in use relates to ECTS: is it compatible with ECTS; what is the ratio between national and ECTS credits.
In academic year 2006/2007 there was introduced ECTS for all training programmes of specialists of the I and II cycles, which allows the student transfer to be done and to accumulate credits. The national system correlates with the ECTS. The ratio of the national and the ECTS credits is 1:1.
19. Has your country produced a national plan to improve the quality of the process associated with the recognition of foreign qualifications? If so, give a brief description of the plan and attach a copy.
At present, in Ukraine there was developed a national plan on improvement and adaptation of the national quality assurance system for higher education in accordance with the standards and norms of the European Network for Quality Assurance (ENQA) in respect of:
internal quality assurance for higher education institutions;
external quality assurance for higher education;
quality assurance of the activity of the external quality assurance agencies (a copy of the full contents of the plan is enclosed).
Recognition of prior learning
20. Describe the measures in place to recognise prior learning, including non-formal and informal learning.
the stage of development of any procedures or national guidelines to recognise prior learning
a description of any procedures or national guidelines for assessing prior learning as a basis for access to HE
a description of any procedures or national guidelines for allocating credits as a basis of exemption from some programme requirements.
the national guidelines on recognition of prior learning is being developed
the national guidelines for assessing prior learning as a basis for access to HE has been developed
the student workload is evaluated in ECTS credits
the national guidelines for allocating ECTS credits has been developed and the ECTS credits were distributed in all programmes of the first and second cycles of training of specialists.
Also, the corresponding work on recognition of non-formal and informal learning in the system of Lifelong Learning is in progress.
21. Describe legislative and other measures taken by your country to create opportunities for flexible learning paths in higher education.
any flexibility in entry requirements
any flexible delivery methods
any modular structures of programmes.
modular courses of prior learning are transferred for the graduates from the education institutions of the I and II accreditation levels who enter the first cycle of education – bachelorate, and thus the duration of the course of study in this cycle becomes reduced;
in the first and second cycles the students have the right to choose a certain number of academic disciplines;
the procedure of adoption of the Master programmes list for universities is simplified. Universities can offer some students the individual curriculum.
Establishment and recognition of joint degrees
22. Describe the legislative position on joint degrees in your country.
the stage of implementation of any legislation to establish joint programmes
whether joint degrees are allowed and encouraged in legislation
whether joint degrees are allowed and encouraged in all three cycles
an indication of the percentage of HEIs that have established joint programmes and are awarding nationally recognised degrees jointly with HEIs of other countries
any action being taken to encourage or allow joint programmes.
In Ukraine there is formed a legislative base for the development and introduction of joint study programmes
Joint degrees are allowed and encouraged during exchange of experience within the framework of joint programmes (TEMPUS/TASIS projects support, etc.)
Joint degrees are allowed and encouraged in all three cycles
Higher education institutions that have established joint programmes and are awarding nationally recognised degrees jointly with HEIs of other countries, amount to 3 percents
C. Current issues in Higher Education
Higher education and research
23. Describe the relationship between higher education and research in your country - what percentage of research is carried out in HEIs; are any steps being taken to improve the synergy between HE and other research sectors.
Scientists from other research institutions are involved into teaching process in the higher education institutions.
Higher education institutions jointly with research institutions establish the departments’ branches, where Masters have their scientific probation period.
In Ukraine the regional and international student scientific conferences, where students make their scientific reports, take place annually.
24. What percentage of doctoral candidates take up research careers; are any measures being taken to increase the number of doctoral candidates taking up research careers?
In comparison with 2005, the number of candidates for doctoral degree, who take up research careers, has increased, and at present it amounts to 90%.
68998 people having a scientific degree of doctor of sciences work at higher education institutions, which make 95% of the total amount of researchers with a scientific degree in Ukraine.
25. Describe any measures being taken in your country to widen access to quality higher education.
any financial or other measures to widen access in higher education amongst socially disadvantaged groups
any measures in place to monitor the impact of policies to widen access to higher education, including results if possible
any further measures planned, following evaluation of the widening access measures already in place.
in Ukraine in the academic year 2006/07 the state order for bachelors’ training in all fields of education has increased by 3%
pre-university training faculties have been set up at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), where the young people from depressed regions have the opportunity to get prepared for the entrance to HEIs.
26. Describe any measures to help students complete their studies without obstacles related to their social or economic background.
any guidance or counselling services and any other measures to improve retention
any measures in place to monitor the impact of polices to improve retention, including results if possible
any further measures planned, following evaluation of the retention measures already in place.
In case of obstacles to the access to higher education for socially disadvantaged persons, the state provides the following measures:
scholarships are increased at the final year of study as well as accommodation conditions in hostels are improving
approaches concerning the establishment of higher education institutions for the low income layers of population are being considered
the task to provide handicapped students with the conditions for study is set up. In Ukraine there is the university “Ukraine”, where such students generally get their education
organization of distance learning at student’s place of residence
creation of university departments in regions, where consultation and lessons are conducted in places of students residence
27. Describe any measures being taken to remove obstacles to student mobility and promote the full use of mobility programmes.
any measures to increase inward student mobility
any measures to increase outward student mobility
the transfer of students from one higher education institution to another one at the expense of the transfer and accumulation of ECTS credits was simplified. The bachelor of any university can continue his studies at the second cycle at another university
bilateral agreements on the student exchange contribute to a greater extent to the international academic mobility
The important indicator of the international academic mobility is the number of a body of foreign students in Ukraine and the Ukrainian students abroad. In 2005/2006 academic year 35,000 foreigners got higher education in Ukraine, and nearly 20,000 young Ukrainians had a chance to study and make their research abroad, which included the short term study, full time study, the research work, probation period, language courses, etc.
28. Are portable loans and grants available in your country? If not, describe any measures being taken to increase the portability of grants and loans.
In Ukraine there are no loans and grants available to students for study trips abroad. The current legislation of the state does not provide it. However at present the draft of the President’s Decree on granting President’s scholarships to the talented students and young researchers for study and probation in the leading foreign universities and research centres has been prepared. The Decree provides for 50 annual scholarships.
29. Describe any measures being taken to remove obstacles to staff mobility and promote the full use of mobility programmes.
any measures to increase inward staff mobility
any measures to increase outward staff mobility.
For the increase of the internal staff mobility contribute:
- teachers' exchange between different higher education institutions;
- opportunity of holding more than one position by the teachers of different higher education institutions;
- cancellation of the rector’s right to prohibit holding more than one position by the same teacher.
For the increase of the external staff mobility contribute:
- probation of the Ukrainian higher education institution teachers in the leading European universities
- signing of the interuniversity bilateral agreements on staff exchange;
- creation of the joint training programmes for specialists with leading European universities;
- carrying out the joint scientific programmes with leading universities of the European Higher Education Area, participating countries of the Bologna Process.
30. Describe any measures being taken in your country to promote the attractiveness of the EHEA.
Holding regional international conferences, seminars, symposia on the problems of the Bologna Process implementation into Ukraine’s higher education. In Ukraine more than 20 such actions are held annually
There were introduced curricula of the leading European Universities
It is encouraged to hold courses in European Studies in the Ukrainian Universities
“Europe’s Day” action was held in Ukraine’s secondary schools
31. Give an indication of the main challenges ahead for your country.
development of principles, mechanisms and procedures of the introduction of doctoral study as Bologna cycle III according to the structured doctoral programmes with a standard period of full-time doctoral study
enhancement of the employability of bachelors - graduates of the first cycle.
creation of the quality assurance system for higher education, which would correspond to the European standards and norms;
provision the student and teaching staff mobility in the international education area;
extension of the social partnership practice of higher education institutions with employers, citizens and public associations, involving them into the process of elaboration and making decisions on problems of higher education.