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Зміст3. Characterization of the investigating objects
4. Analysis and discussion of the experimental data
Spectropolarymetry in singular structure biotissues images for diagnostic their pathological changes
S.B.Yermolenkoa, Yu.A.Ushenkoa , A.G.Pridiya, S.G.Guminetskib, A.Motrichb, I.Gruiac
aCorrelation optics department, Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubinsky Str., Chernivtsi, 58012, Ukraine;
bOptics and spectroscopy department, Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubinsky Str., Chernivtsi, 58012, Ukraine;
Abstract. There have been theoretically analyzed the ways of the formation of the polarization singularities of the biological tissues representations of various morphological structures. There have been also experimentally examined the coordinate distributions of a single and doubly degenerated polarization singularities of the physiologically normal and pathologically changed biological tissues. There have been determined the statistical criteria of diagnostics of the kidney tissue collagenous disease (the 3rd and the 4th statistical moments of the linear density singularity points). It was found out that the process of the pathological change of the kidney tissue morphology leads to the formation of the self-similar (fractal) distribution of the polarization singularities of its representation.
©2009 Optical Society of America
1. The technique of the polarization singularities coordinative distributions determining.
The optical circuit of measuring the biological tissue polarized structure is given on the fig. 1. The illuminating has been arranged by the collimated beam ( = 104m) of He-Ne laser ( = 0.6328 m, W = 5.0 mW). The polarization illuminator consisted of a quarter-waved plates 3; 5 and the polarizer 4 forms the illuminating beam with an arbitrary azimuth of or with the polarization ellipticity of .
Fig.1. Optical circuit for obtaining the polarizationimages of the biological tissues. The explanation is in the text.
The polarization representations of the biological tissue done with the help of micro objective 7 have been projected into the plane of a light-sensitive area (800x600) of CCD-camera 9, which provided the measuring range of structural elements of the biological tissue for the following scales 2 -2000 .
The histological sections of the biological tissue of various morphological structures were used as the investigating objects:
- Muscular tissue – MT (fig. 2(a, b)).
- Intestine wall tissue – IT (fig. 2(c, d)
The presence of an anisotropic component [1-6] with a birefringence index of its substance is similar to the chosen investigating objects. Visualized representations of such structures in the crossed polarizer and analyzer are given on the fig. 2(b, d).
The geometric thickness of the biological tissue of both types was 50– 60.
Such optical geometric parameters of the biological tissue specimen provided the conditions of a single scattering (an index of the attenuation of radiation by the layer of -thickness was not over 0.01). Herewith the phase shift value of such layers didn’t exceed one full period of .
Fig.2. Polarization images of the muscular tissue histological sections (a, b) and the large intestine wall (c, d). The fragments (a, c) correspond to the situation of the coaxial polarizer and analyzer; (b, d)- correspond to the crossed polarizer and analyzer.
The morphological structure of the architectonics of such biological tissues is various. The MT is formed by the “quasi-ordering” beams of the birefringent myosin bundles (fig. 2(b)). The IT tissue includes “island” insertions of an anisotropic collagen (fig. 2(d)).
Such selection of the patterns allows accomplishing the comparative analysis of the influence of orientation peculiarities of physically different biological tissues architectonics over the distribution structure of the singularity points of their images.
The coordinative distributions of the phase values of the biological tissue polarization images of both types are given on the fig. 3 (myocardium tissue) and fig. 4 (large intestine wall tissue).
Fig.3. The coordinative (a) and probability (b) distributions of the phase shifts of the muscular tissue polarized image.
Fig.4. The coordinative (a) and probability (b) distributions of the phase shifts of the large intestine wall polarized image.
It is vivid from the obtained data that the range of the phase shift changing for all representations is wide enough and is in the range of (fig. 3(a) and fig. 4(a)). Such a big values changing interval of could be connected with different thicknesses of optically anisotropic protein structures of the biological tissue (myosin and collagen). It is also seen from 2D-structure of parameter – the phase maps of both images “are formed” by the ensemble of local phase domains () of different shape and size. Statistically discrete character of a phase-raised ability of MT and LI specimen substance characterize the totalities of local extrema of histograms (fig. 3(b), fig. 4(b)).
The main differences in the phase maps of the examined biological tissue patterns are in the coordinative heterogeneity of the parameter distribution (fig. 3(a), fig. 4(a)) and also in a bigger density of the extrema of the phase shifts probability values in the field of for the representing IT tissue (fig. 4(b)) in comparison with the similar statistics of changing for MT representation (fig. 3(b)). Such result could be connected with а different optical geometric morphological structure of the mentioned tissues. The “island” insertions of optically anisotropic collagen of IT biological tissue form separate large-scaled phase domains of (200-300). MT phase map is formed by sufficiently ordered areas and the corresponding directions of the myosin fibers placing. Statistically bigger MT phase-raised ability (fig. 3(b)) might be connected with higher concentration of the myosin fibrils in MT layer plane in comparison with the local collagen formations in IT tissue (fig. 4(b)).
The received data concerning the phase structure of the polarization heterogeneous representations of the biological tissue was put into the fundamentals of studying accordingly to (10) and (12) coordinative distributions of a single (fig. 5(a), fig. 6(a)) and doubly (fig. 5(b), fig. 6(b)) degenerated singularity points.
Fig.5. The coordinative distributions of a single (a) and doubly (b) degenerated polarization singularities of the muscular tissue image.
Fig.6. The coordinative distributions of a single-way (a) and double-way (b) degenerated polarization singularities of the large intestine wall image.
The analysis of the information received showed that the biological tissue images of а different morphological structure have the sufficiently “developed” nets of the polarization singularities. Probability of the formation of a doubly degenerated polarization singularities (fig. 5(b), fig. 6(b)) is far less than a single degenerating (fig. 5(a), fig. 6(a)). Such peculiarity could be connected with the fact that the realization of the conditions (10) is more probable in comparison with the conditions (12). Besides, the optically isotropic sections of the biological tissue do not change the polarization condition of the illuminating laser beam (in our case ).
The coordinative structure of the polarization singularities of MT representation (fig. 5(a, b)) corresponds in general to the directions of the optically anisotropic myosin bundles placing (fig. 2(a,b)). For IT tissue image (fig. 2(c, d)) more equiprobable distribution of the polarization singularities (fig. 6(a, b)) has been marked. The densities of singularly polarized points of the examined biological tissue specimen representations also differ.
The discovered coordinative and quantitative differences of the net structure in the polarization singularities of the biological tissue images were put into the fundamentals of an early (pre-clinical) diagnostics of the physiological condition of the kidney tissue.
|S. B. Yermolenkoa, Yu. A. Ushenkoa, A. G. Pridiy|
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